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Americans’ cross-cultural schemata of Iranians: an online survey

Saied Reza Ameli (University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)
Ehsan Shahghasemi (University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran)

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management

ISSN: 2059-5794

Article publication date: 12 September 2017

Issue publication date: 30 January 2018




For about four decades, Iran and the USA have continued to be two most stubborn enemies and this has drawn much research on this subject. Yet, only a very small fraction of this body of research has been allocated to studying the perceptions that the people of the two countries have of each other. Using a mixed method survey, the purpose of this paper is to explore cross-cultural schemata US American people have of Iranians.


By way of an e-mail survey, the authors collected 1,752 responses from American citizens across 50 American states. The open ended responses were codified and categorized. Three out of six categories were further sub-categorized.


The outcomes showed that about 40 percent of Americans had negative cross-cultural schemata of Iranians with the media being the main source of negative cross-cultural schemata. Conversely, personal contact and communication with Iranians proved to be the source of positive cross-cultural schemata toward Iranians. Other results showed that US American exceptionalism and negative attitudes toward Iranians had a direct and positive relationship with having negative cross-cultural schemata of Iranians.


As the authors have explained in this paper, very few scholars have taken up the issue of cross-cultural schemata Iranian and American people have of each other. By doing this and several other works, the authors have tried to create a new research interest in academic circles.



Ameli, S.R. and Shahghasemi, E. (2018), "Americans’ cross-cultural schemata of Iranians: an online survey", Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 119-133.



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