Cross-cultural factorial validity of the academic motivation scale

Osei Akoto Edward (School of Business, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia, Arkansas, USA)

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN: 1352-7606

Publication date: 28 January 2014



The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the academic motivation scale (AMS), including mean structures and reliabilities across two culturally diverse samples. Thus, the study assesses the fit of the seven-factor conceptualization of AMS to a non-Western context.


Survey questionnaire was used to elicit responses from undergraduate business students from universities in the USA (267) and Ghana (262). The data were analyzed using the multi-group CFA technique in LISREL 8.7, to assess measurement equivalency and the fit of the AMS to the non-Western context.


After baseline models were established, a hierarchy of successively restrictive models were specified and estimated. Support was found for factorial, metric, and scalar invariance across the two samples, but different levels of psychometric soundness exist.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of the low reliabilities in the non-Western context, the AMS has the potential to measure the same traits in the same way across diverse groups.

Practical implications

Researchers, educators, and policy makers interested in this field of study may be confident in employing the AMS to investigate students' motives, including cross-cultural motivational studies. Organizations may also use the AMS as a pre-employment tool to understand college graduates motivational profile for better person-organization match.


The AMS has been developed and validated in the Western context, but its validity in non-Western contexts remains unexplored. This study provides a cross-cultural comparative test of the seven-factor conceptualization.



Osei Akoto, E. (2014), "Cross-cultural factorial validity of the academic motivation scale", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 104-125.

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