Non-financial employment commitment: some correlates and a cross-national comparison

Snir Raphael (School of Management and Economics, The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Tel-Aviv, Israel)

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN: 1352-7606

Publication date: 28 January 2014



To further explore the nature of non-monetary motivation for working, this study aims to present correlates of non-financial employment commitment (NFEC) and a cross-national comparison.


Data gathered from representative national samples of the adult population (i.e. employed and unemployed individuals) in 31 countries (n=43,440), among them Nordic (e.g. Sweden and Norway), Western-European (e.g. Spain and France), Anglo-Saxon (e.g. the USA and Britain), former Communist (e.g. Russia and Hungary), Asian (e.g. Japan and South Korea), Latin-American (Mexico and the Dominican Republic), and African (South Africa). The source of the data is the 2005 International Social Survey Programme module on work orientation.


NFEC proves positively correlated with intrinsic job characteristics, education level, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Administrators, managers, and professionals have higher NFEC than blue-collar workers, clerks, service workers, and sales workers. Respondents currently working for pay have higher NFEC than those currently not working for pay. Respondents trying to improve job skills during the previous 12 months have higher NFEC than those not trying to do so. NFEC is higher in member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development than in non-member countries. NFEC is also higher in countries where self-expression values are important than in countries where survival values are important.

Practical implications

By assessing NFEC decision makers may be assisted in their selection and advancement decisions.


This study conducts the most comprehensive cross-national comparison of NFEC to date, and its findings have high external validity. It is unlikely that the findings are biased by social desirability.



Snir, R. (2014), "Non-financial employment commitment: some correlates and a cross-national comparison", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 39-54.

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