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Revisiting technology-organization-environment (T-O-E) theory for enriched applicability

Hart O. Awa (Department of Marketing, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria)
Ojiabo Ukoha (University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Maryland, USA)
Sunny R. Igwe (University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria)

The Bottom Line

ISSN: 0888-045X

Article publication date: 8 May 2017




This paper aims to propose and test a ten-factor framework of four contexts from technology-organization-environment (T-O-E) theory and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to provide insight(s) that complements and extends extant inquiries on technology adoption.


Survey data were collected from small service enterprises with strong operations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and the mode of sampling was purposive and snow ball, whereas analysis involved structural equation modeling.


The results show that factors in the technological, organizational and environmental contexts have direct statistically significant relationship with adoption; thus, adoption is more driven by T-O-E factors than by individual factors. For individual context, social factor equally was statistically supported, whereas hedonistic drive was not.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by its scope of data collection and phases; therefore, extended data are needed to apply the findings to other sectors/industries/countries and to factor in the implementation and post-adoption phases and business to business (B2B) adoption to forge a more holistic framework.


Implicit is that the findings encourage vendors and policy makers to recognize the strength of interpersonal and group relationships in addition to T-O-E contexts in developing investment decisions.


The paper contributes to the growing research on innovation adoption by using factors within the T-O-E and UTAUT frameworks to explain SMEs’ adoption of technologies.



Awa, H.O., Ukoha, O. and Igwe, S.R. (2017), "Revisiting technology-organization-environment (T-O-E) theory for enriched applicability", The Bottom Line, Vol. 30 No. 01, pp. 2-22.



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Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited

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