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Entrepreneurial orientation elements in the Polish international new ventures

Izabela Kowalik (Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland)
Lidia Danik (Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland)
Tomasz Sikora (Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland)

Baltic Journal of Management

ISSN: 1746-5265

Article publication date: 3 April 2017




The purpose of this paper is to develop the international entrepreneurship theory, by examining the entrepreneurial characteristics of international new venture (INV) originating in Poland. Furthermore, it is assessed in the study whether these characteristics relate to the performance of INVs, considering the role of the age of the company.


The data were collected via a CATI survey of 105 Polish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), conforming to the early internationalization criteria, and 128 gradually internationalized SMEs. Student’s t-tests, correlation and, regression analysis were applied for group comparisons and relationship testing.


The Polish INVs are characterized by higher innovativeness and risk propensity than gradual exporters. Moreover, medium-strength correlations between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) elements and performance were found. The regression analysis proved that new product introduction, risk taking, and experience influence INV performance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample includes Polish SMEs from one sector. Moreover, most of the analyzed companies admitted being successful abroad, which may have influenced the study results.

Practical implications

Fast launching of new products and product development are important for quick expansion. A conciliatory approach to competitors is associated with better performance. Regarding the policy makers, the development of “breakthrough innovations” might not be as important as assisting the INVs in product launches.


An under-researched topic of EO of SMEs from a post-transformation market and its relationships with performance is explored. Moreover, the correlation of the company’s age and experience with success is studied.



The empirical research described in the manuscript was financed by the Statutory Research Fund of the Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics in 2014/2015.


Kowalik, I., Danik, L. and Sikora, T. (2017), "Entrepreneurial orientation elements in the Polish international new ventures", Baltic Journal of Management, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 194-213.



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