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A study on consumption of composite flour and bread in global perspective

Sait Engindeniz (Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey)
Zhansaya Bolatova (Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Article publication date: 19 September 2019

Issue publication date: 27 April 2021




The purpose of this paper is to determine composite flour and bread consumption, and to analyse economic efficiency by comparing Kazakhstan and Turkey.


The material of the study was analysed through cross-section, χ2 and T-test, data collected from the online questionnaires of 269 families from Kazakhstan (131 families) and Turkey (138 families). The families were classified into four categories on the basis of their income level and into three categories on the basis of their education level and age level.


According to the study results, Kazakhstan and Turkey families consume different types of flours and breads; the consumption of composite flour per capita has been 2 kg/month, but the bread consumption per capita has been 2 pieces/day. A χ2 analysis has shown that country, family size, age, sex, income and occupation had a significant effect on flour and bread consumption. It was detected that the price of composite flour products and bread is related to the income of a family. According to the survey data, in Kazakhstan and Turkey, the average monthly income of the families have been calculated as $675, and the average income per person have been calculated as $170. Families purchase of composite flour products and bread has been $6. There is an increase amount of flour and bread consumption (p<0.010) in the low-income level, but in families with high-income level, there is a decrease amount of consumption. The price of flour products and bread is associated with the income of a family; these products have seen as reasonable and practical products. The income level and age level affect the consumption of flour and bread. Although the education level and occupation of consumers are varied, flour and bread have been preferred by every age group of consumers as a conventional food, whether it is a healthy food or not. New trend of consumption healthy products as a composite flour and bread influences on consumers purchase.


Flour and bread constitute the main and strategically important food product worldwide. The food security of a country depends on the state of the grain economy and the broad availability of the population. Grain production is the largest branch of agricultural production, and it has an important economic and social significance. The flour and bread were the main economic and political problem thousands of years ago.



Engindeniz, S. and Bolatova, Z. (2021), "A study on consumption of composite flour and bread in global perspective", British Food Journal, Vol. 123 No. 5, pp. 1962-1973.



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