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Polymicrobial multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from street vended fresh fruit juices in Pakistan: A preliminary study

Muhammad Hussnain Siddique (Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Muhammad Usman Qamar (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Sumreen Hayat (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Bilal Aslam (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Habibullah Nadeem (Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Sabir Hussain (Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Muhammad Saqalein (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Javeria Saeed (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Saima Muzammil (Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Publication date: 4 June 2018

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and antibiograms of bacteria isolated from various fresh fruit juices at a local market in Faisalabad.

Design/methodology/approach

Fresh fruit juice samples (n=125) were randomly collected using aseptic technique. Each sample (10 mL) was serially diluted with 90 mL of sterile peptone water, from 1×10−1 to 1×10−5. Each dilution was then used to inoculate nutrient agar by surface spread plating. Aerobic colony counts (ACCs) were determined by colony counting. The isolates were sub-cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. Preliminary identification was achieved on the basis of colony morphology and culture characteristic, and confirmed by API® 20E, 20NE, and API® Staph testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, per CLSI 2015 guidelines.

Findings

The mean ACC ranged from 2.0×106 CFU/mL to 4.93×106 CFU/mL, with the highest ACC determined for orange juice. Overall, 153 polymicrobial were identified in 125 samples; 103 of these were Gram-negative rods (GNR) and 28 were Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Escherichia coli (n=38), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=32) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=24) were the predominant GNR; Staphylococcus aureus (n=28) was the predominant GPC. Antibiogram analysis revealed that all GNR were resistant to ampicillin. However, most E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftazidime (72.4 percent of isolates), and ceftriaxone and cefepime (68.9 percent), while most K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to cefepime (72 percent) and ceftriaxone (64 percent). All S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin, while most (64 percent) were resistant to piperacillin; the most effective drugs against bacteria were vancomycin and imipenem.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the local government regulatory food and public health authorities should take immediate emergency measures. Appropriate surveillance studies and periodic monitoring of food items should be regularly performed to safeguard public health.

Originality/value

The current study revealed the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in freshly prepared fruit juices sold by local street vendors.

Keywords

Citation

Siddique, M.H., Qamar, M.U., Hayat, S., Aslam, B., Nadeem, H., Hussain, S., Saqalein, M., Saeed, J. and Muzammil, S. (2018), "Polymicrobial multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from street vended fresh fruit juices in Pakistan: A preliminary study", British Food Journal, Vol. 120 No. 6, pp. 1358-1365. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-09-2017-0529

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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