Why the new orange juice consumption model favors global trade and growth in orange production

Valeria Allegra (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
Carla Zarbà (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
Giovanni La Via (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Catania, Italy)
Alfonso Silvio Zarbà (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Article publication date: 15 July 2019

Issue publication date: 1 August 2019

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze international orange trade as different types of orange juice seem to obtain the favor of newer food consumption patterns as opposed to fresh oranges. In addition, the authors will outline market tendencies that could be useful to stakeholders interested in any way in the sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This document uses the Lafay index (LFI) in order to evaluate the intra-sectoral trade specialization; however, the social network analysis (SNA) approach is used to connect the international trade relations and to refine, classify and prioritize the countries having a central role in the orange juice world trade network. For both indexes, UNCOMTRADE has been used.

Findings

The findings show that the growing orange juice trade is the leading global growth factor as opposed to the sale of fresh oranges. It appears that major trade revenues come from orange juice concentrate (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ)). Business takes place mostly in Europe.

Originality/value

This study shows for the first time that the current orange juice export competitiveness is crucial to the long-term survival of the orange sector. This study valuably contributes to the less known literature regarding FCOJ and Not From Concentrate orange juice trade relevance.

Keywords

Citation

Allegra, V., Zarbà, C., La Via, G. and Zarbà, A.S. (2019), "Why the new orange juice consumption model favors global trade and growth in orange production", British Food Journal, Vol. 121 No. 9, pp. 1954-1968. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2019-0316

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Valeria Allegra, Carla Zarbà, Giovanni La Via and Alfonso Silvio Zarbà

License

Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


1. Introduction

The fruit juice sector is currently showing a positive and dynamic growth owing to a change in lifestyle and the fact that consumers are becoming more and more aware about potential health benefit of the use of fruit beverages (Gil-Izquierdo et al., 2002; Licciardello et al., 2018); hence, the consumer tendency to prefer new and healthy products. There is a variety of functional benefits showing that fruit juices are part of the so-called new-age beverages. A similar observation has been made in the fruit drinks sector (Heng et al., 2018); it is possible that the need to save time together with healthy diet choices has encouraged consumers to use ready-made orange juice (Marano-Marcolini and Torres-Ruiz, 2017). This social and cultural phenomenon intensified in the 1990s including the orange sector. Both production and use of orange juice have grown at the same time in the following years. Increasing population growth and per person usage eased the transition from fresh oranges to orange juice and/or orange-based beverages (Liu et al., 2012; Scuderi and D’Amico, 2015). The contribution of transformed oranges to the market has significantly influenced world orange production in recent years (USDA, 2016). The world fresh orange production has increased by 10m tonnes in the last 20 years to a total of 70m tonnes, with an increasing tendency for the future. Based on FAOSTAT data, this tendency appears to be defined by the orange culture land extending in areas generally not dedicated for it, such as China, Egypt, India, Indonesia and Turkey, while the production in countries with a long orange cultivation tradition, such as Italy, Mexico, South Africa and Spain, the production has not varied and has slightly increased. A much more evident decrease has occurred in major producers such as Brazil and Florida and to a lesser degree in important producing countries such as Morocco, Greece and Argentina. Figure 1(a, b and c) shows the evolutionary trend production of orange fruit by geographical area. The processing sector in this ever-changing dynamic has a major role in the production of orange juices (Dhamodharan et al., 2016). The orange juices analyzed in this document are “Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice” (FCOJ) “Not From Concentrate” (NFC) and “straight-from-the-grove.” FCOJ and NFC are two competing types of raw material (semi-finished) used in the production of fruit beverages. The trading features are experiencing the rising success of FCOJ and the decline of NFC in international markets (Figure 2). Vital factors are the progressive widening of consumer markets, according to free trade barriers since WTO, and the deep changes in the distribution sector and in consumption patterns. However, many orange juice business issues are still open; few have been tackled by academics literature; to our knowledge, only recently a study has been made assessing the relationship between commerce and the juice chain orange in Brazil (Santos et al., 2013). This document evaluates the latest in FCOJ and NFC in the international trade structure showing the trade specialization areas and the main competing countries regarding import/export trade relations and their impact on the orange sector. The hope is to divulge what is known about the most recent economics and trade scenario from which we can deduce useful information for anyone interested in the world orange sector progress about semi-finished orange juice products.

2. Methodology

This document’s methodology has been structured to analyze trends and performance of orange juices international trade in two steps. The first step targets the trade flow trends referred to the main countries involved (compared benefits) impacting their specialist production role. Second, a network pattern has been developed regarding orange juices world trade determining the connection among all countries involved. As for the first step, we have used Gerard Lafay’s index (LFI), which is highly reliable when considering import and export two-way flows. This is because the world’s bilateral flows of orange juices are increasing; therefore, we chose not to restrict the analysis only to exports (Balogh and Jámbor, 2017). When analyzing import and export trends individually, already giving valuable commercial trends does not adequately assess the comparative benefits of a specific country, Lafay’s index solves this (Boffa et al., 2009). The Lafay index compares the normalized balance of a country’s net exports with the normalized balance of the aggregate net exports of the countries (15 countries with over 10,000 tons and 10 countries with less than 10,000 tons). In particular, in the expression shown below, the index i indicates a specific country; the variables x and m represent the monetary value of the exports and imports, respectively, of the products from sector j; while Σj is the sum of the imports and exports for all countries.

Following is the formula:

IS j = [ x j i m j i x j i + m j i j x j i j m j i j x j i + j m j i ] × [ x j i m j i j x j i + j m j i ] × 100.

The Lafay index takes −, 0 and + values. The results of the index are as follows: a positive value indicates that the country is relatively specialized; a negative value indicates that the country is not specialized; 0 indicates that the country’s exports are equal to its imports. In the second phase of this study, we have referred to the social network analysis (SNA). This is a reason for resistance, a commercial system is not only strictly contractual but is based on loyalty and a good reputation shared between partner countries (Aichele and Heiland, 2018) aimed at minimizing potential exposures to economic, cultural and social activities of individual countries. Due to the fact that producers and traders interactions favor superior quality products (Frostling-Henningsson et al., 2014) and exchanges between partnering countries allow technological innovation and knowledge transfer (Ahmedi et al., 2017; Aller et al., 2015), this system is patterned in a network where countries (already emerged or emerging producers) by nodes and exchange flows by links (Bhattacharya et al., 2008; Pappalardo, Allegra and Pecorino, 2014). In this network, the ties represent trade relations evaluating the intensity, frequency, symmetry and reciprocity degree (Pappalardo, Allegra and Zarbà, 2014). Therefore, the position of the node and its role are crucial as compared to the rest of the system (other countries). Since the network nodes group up in similarity based on an exchange pattern (Wu and Hasan, 2013), the link structure (structural equivalence) sets the position among nodes and the interaction of the roles (Scuderi and Sturiale, 2014). The structure of a graph is represented by a matrix called square matrix whose elements are the countries placed on both lines and columns; lines and columns are connected by the export amount in the same number of rows and columns. In order to build the matrix, we have established size classes in Excel sheets, namely with numbers between 0 and 7 for the two types of orange juice which means:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
10–00 101–1,000 1,001–2,500 2,501–5,000 5,001–10,000 10,001–50,000 50,001–100,000 >100,000

When processing we referred to the UNICET software which is able to show all findings in a graph form. The program in a jpeg format determines the nodes and links layout. A number of variously connected commercial partners (centrality degree) accompany every node (Scott, 2013). Extremely close countries (closeness) have a higher potential to interact with partner countries with reduced geodetic distance among pairs of countries. Countries featuring multiple hubs show an appealing disposition for near or distant countries (farness). HS200911 and HS200919 matrices were run processed through the UCINET software to show the graphical representation of the networks; this produced the corresponding country values for the density and cohesion (out farness) and degree of centrality (out closeness). We used statistics UN Comtrade to ascertain the quantities of the exports and imports of orange fruit crops and orange juice in the world (Allegra et al., 2012). UN Comtrade uses a six-digit code harmonized system (HS) of names and numbers. For NFC orange juice, it is “HS200911 Orange Juice-Frozen” and for FCOJ it is “HS200919 Orange Juice Other.”

3. Results

Tables I and II show the evolutionary trends of fresh orange and semi-finished orange juice exports. In the period 1997–2016, the share of world production of fresh oranges in international trade has increased from 6 to 10 percent, that is, from 3.8m tons in the period 1997–2000 to 7.0m tons in the period 2013–2016. In the same period, around the world, the volume of exports of frozen concentrated juice (HS200919) increased (+200 percent) from 1.4to 4.2m tons, while the volume of exports of refrigerated juice (HS200911) decreased (−45 percent) from 2.2to 1.2m tons. Some technological characteristics of orange juices restrain industrial development initiatives in the non-concentrate refrigerated (Corrêa De Souza et al., 2004), because a shelf life maintains the product’s original characteristics, both nutritional and sensory, within a rather limited time span, together with the cost of supporting the market and the logistics costs. America’s area has been determining the highest traffic currents of orange juices, with around 89 percent of world exports of non-concentrated orange juices (HS200911) and with 87 percent of concentrated HS200919.

Smaller quantities, very different from those of the Americas, represent the Mediterranean basin. Although in the 20 years in question, both categories of juices have increased in absolute value, the share of participation in global exports has increased for HS200911 from 2 to 9 percent, while it decreased from 11 to 6 percent for HS200919. The smaller distance Mediterranean basin with the large market of juices in the world, countries of Europe, favors the business of non-concentrated juices HS200911. Afro-Asian countries participate in orange juice exports in a very limited extent. On the other hand, chilled juice is a lesser beneficiary in the comparison between juices due to the greater difficulties in transfers (storage times, higher transport costs), especially if the transfers are intercontinental (Carter et al., 2016). The Lafay index (LFI) highlights the levels of specialization of countries, and we have divided these between positive areas and negative areas in Tables III and IV, to the semi-finished orange juice categories HS200911 and HS200919 regarding the time lapse between 2009 and 2016. Changes in the specialization trade index seem to indicate a shift in the contribution in the aforementioned semi-finished orange juice categories toward foreign consumption, far from the mature specialization and toward the developing specialization. Do these orange juice specialization changes involve countries backed up by a strong orange growing tradition or developing ones? Has the production prowess affected evolution?

As for HS200911, countries with a historic orange production exceeding 10,000 tonnes such as Brazil, Italy and Mexico are in positive area whereas South Africa is a losing position; in the negative area are also countries with a strong agricultural tradition such as the USA, which is worsening, and Greece, India and Indonesia which are getting better. Countries with a production inferior to the 10,000 tonnes, LFI reports Israel, Costa Rica, Uruguay and Paraguay are in the positive area, and countries which are in the negative area but stable are Australia, New Zealand and Thailand. As for HS200919, LFI shows in the lower end distribution the largest number of countries exceeding 10 thousand tonnes are the USA, Indonesia, India, Morocco, Greece, Algeria and Italy; some of which, at the end of the period in consideration, are steering positive (Egypt, Mexico, Spain and Turkey). In countries having production inferior to the 10,000 tonnes, the mature specialization level is present in Israel, Costa Rica, Thailand and Cyprus, and are still pending in Portugal, New Zealand, Paraguay, Uruguay, Australia, Malaysia. With regard to the from-concentrate orange juices category, the index results tell us of the existence of comparative advantage of this product. The producers of from-concentrate orange juices were more open to making incremental innovations that allowed them to implement higher levels of technology and increase their productivity. This worked in favor of longer shelf life, contained market and transport costs and, above all, the food industry’s higher use of their products. In fact, from-concentrate orange juice category is used as a raw material in the production of various beverages and other preparations that use semi-finished orange juice as a base. Another important function that has supported the growth and/or development trends in the orange juice sector was found in these countries’ socioeconomic relationships to the extent necessary for the effects that can arise from the competitive advantages inherent in countries. In this context, SNA is used as a tool for the identification of the relational structure among countries. A commercial flow network distribution comes to surface indicating interlinkages among different countries regarding HS200919 and HS200911 types. Since only time measures the dynamism of relations (countries) and the variation the product amount (link), SNA has been developed averaging in the 2013/2016 period as to level market circumstances. With regard to the commercial relations among juice exporters, Tables V and VI list the countries in order of the relative number of connections among partner countries; the strength of the node corresponds with the average value of exports (export degree) and the measurement of centrality, which is distinguished by the out farness and out closeness. The relevance of the connectivity grade shows the degree of importance of the country as well as the node dimension that represents the SNA network model of the average exports for both not-from-concentrate refrigerated orange juices and from-concentrate orange juices. These countries have been characterized by a different “medium strength” (density) of the connection. In particular, the result of the density of the connection is 11.20 percent for not-from-concentrate refrigerated orange juices, while it is 20.10 percent for from-concentrate orange juices. However, regarding the connection, which is the centralization index (out-degree) of the two-network configuration, its results were greatest for not-from-concentrate refrigerated orange juices, 22.24 percent, compared to from-concentrate orange juices, 18.03 percent. Regarding the proximity, which represents the length of the relative path (i.e. the centrality of each network), the results highlight a smaller geodetic distance for from-concentrate orange juices; therefore, for this goods category, there is a centrality measure that helps improve the connection between countries. The topological position of these countries presents differences between HS200919 and HS200911 networks, with a high aggregation degree of some of these countries. Of the last ones, the majority are European countries showing degree and closeness centrality, some of which act as intermediaries with non-central countries (betweenness centrality). The topological structure of the countries is determined by commercial exchanges in 25 orange producing countries and other non-producing orange countries. Essentially, the placement of the 15 largest producers of orange juices in the network shows that, in respect to not-from-concentrate refrigerated orange juices (Figure 3), centrality is represented with greater intensity, mainly in Brazil, Spain, the USA and Italy. For from-concentrate orange juices (Figure 4), the centrality is represented with greater intensity, mainly in South Africa, Spain, Italy and the USA. In reality, completely apart, we find South Africa that is a hub in a part of the world as shown by the direction and the number of links with countries that are an only contact (happens, as expected, on HS200919). Among the countries with less supply of orange juices (up to 10,000 tons), Israel is the country with the greatest strength in terms of geographical specialization in both HS categories. As for the countries that do not produce orange juice, the Netherlands has a central positioning with high intensity for both HS categories. The intensity of the centrality for Germany and France is very important. This confirms that Europe absorbs most of the world’s imports of orange juices. Even more important is that countries in the European market value the specialization and competitiveness of the orange juices produced by countries that dominate international trade in this product.

4. Discussion

Growth and/or development of orange juice, FCOJ above all, has mainly involved Americans countries, less those from the Mediterranean basin, slightly those Afro-Asiatic traditionally not interested in the production sector in question. Americas feed the largest share of international juice traffic currents. In Europe, the highest business even with the orange juices of Greece, Italy and Spain. These countries were helped by the European Union with funding programs to improve the structural characteristics of the fresh oranges production units and of the juices transformation processes industry. In particular, there have been regulatory interventions with reference to the efficiency of the production processes of the orange (improvements in technical means) and models of product specialization (processes industry technology innovation and differentiation in the types of orange juice realized). Then sustainable competitive advantage through a positioning qualitative the production volume (shifting supply) and the product differentiation (shifting demand). With reference to the market of so-called bottlers, we report an interesting legislative initiative of the Italian Parliament (law No. 161 of October 30, 2014) aimed at increasing the percentage of orange juice contained in beverages from 12 to 20 percent (from March 6, 2018; European Commission Notification Number 2014/0316 / I – C50A). Consumers will consume more drinks with high fruit juice (Yang et al., 2017). This makes it possible to make the most of the different characteristics of the juice and the consumption methods that are the main factors responsible for the evolution of the orange juice sector (Sabbe et al., 2013). The world market for orange juices is very dynamic; this is due to the countries specialization models. In times of the Lafay index quantitative distribution, specialization pattern shows high levels of mobility. This may include the producing countries according to the category of juices we are referring. Mature or incomplete specialization levels of production fall onto the industry, which means low, medium or high technological production standards. Therefore, we can have developing countries that have already caught up or exceeded developed countries standards and operate with the latest facilities. The market of one of the two types of orange juice characterizes the country’s specialization. This is in line with world demand guidelines, leaning toward HS200919 as opposed to HS200911. Immature export countries rely on import oranges, sometimes to a greater extent than the ones operating domestically or abroad as for not-from-concentrate, aiming to increasing quality and quantity offer wise. HS200919 mature specialization status is believed to be consolidating in the market through time, starting when this type of product was mainly local and currently is keeping up in neighboring countries. Minor semi-finished industrial use of the product is affected by the low storability in time of HS200911, along with logistic cost due to packaging volume, which is exactly the opposite of HS200919, namely the technological, economic and logistic aspects. Specialization models are also based on the assumption that countries are connected to a network of other competing countries involving a system of strategic relations that facilitates the development of new paradigms that are valid for orange juices economic and commercial success. Through these networks, the market is informed about trends and the suitability for the consumption of products in relation to the specific characteristics of the members of their group, even if these members are not producers of raw orange juices, but important importers. We need to underline in the SNA the position of non-producing countries since they actively participate in the exchange. The Netherlands is heavily invested in FCOJ owing to dense connections. This export trade flow is part of the temporary import flow within the European Union as per the EU guidelines benefiting from non-taxability (global outsourcers). In detail, in the importing country, the product is not processed before the final destination, that is to say, that the treatment or assembly (beverages or other) happens in other countries (international fragmentation) including outside the EU (tariff compensation operations). Temporary admission is complementary to WTO guidelines.

5. Conclusions

Profound changes have happened during the course of the last 20 years in the dynamics of the geographic and commodity breakdown of the orange juices destined to the final stage of the product by the industry. The recent international competing setup has obliged all orange producing countries domestic tweaks and international repositioning. In the present era of globalization, the WTO accords are always considered as an indispensable catalyst for the growth and development of the agri-food sector. Trade specialization is important because it affects the exportation of products. At the same time, market liberalization policies have opened new opportunities for placing semi-finished orange juices, given the developing food consumption and the widening of WTO. HS200911 specialization matures t requires of low technological renewal, while HS200919 incomplete specialization requires high technological innovation. Consequently, the mature specialized category resists the renewed specialization, while the incomplete specialization category increases the degree of specialization. The general scheme of specialization is not strictly obvious; however, it is important for producing countries to implement industrial policies to favor the specialization process, while, for the market phase, devising commercial policies (differentiates by category of orange juice) aimed at integrating those envisaged (undifferentiated by category of juices) by the WTO. Free trade tendencies regarding orange juices introduce the WTO tools as opposed to the protection policies in act for the fresh oranges. The protection policies are of different origins; leadership in the export of orange juice is present in the Americans area and as regards the export of fresh orange, the same applies to the Mediterranean basin. Indeed, the European Union mainly protects international trade in fresh oranges. It cannot fail to take into account the fact that, international trade of orange juices is networks developed that tend to favor the relationship between countries with high socioeconomic background in highly unequal contexts, but closeness, with more or less strong ties, in Business to Business markets, that is demand derived for the creation of value-added food products. International trade lobbying pushes adequately specialized countries toward investment (groves) and diversification of both product and process of the oranges (processing industry) destined to the industry, along with the production of the types of juices most requested by international markets. There are three possible final goals: the expansion of the process able cultivar variety and relative differentiation, plants optimization and raw material in the whole and also, last but not least, the effectiveness of the distribution frame as a founding feature to obtain brilliant performances in international markets. In addition, the study suggests that stakeholders issues such as technological dissemination, differentiation of manufactured, quality reliability at a different industry restraint adequate trade specialization.

Figures

Production trend of orange fruits from 1997 to 2016

Figure 1

Production trend of orange fruits from 1997 to 2016

Evolutionary path for orange juices exports by the world

Figure 2

Evolutionary path for orange juices exports by the world

The network graph of the structure HS200911 – NFC result, position in the world system

Figure 3

The network graph of the structure HS200911 – NFC result, position in the world system

The network graph of the structure HS200919 – FCOJ result, position in the world system

Figure 4

The network graph of the structure HS200919 – FCOJ result, position in the world system

Fresh oranges: exports (tonnes) of the world from 1997 to 2016 (four-year averages)

Geographical areas and main countries 1997–2000 2001–2004 2005–2008 2009–2012 2013–2016
Mediterranean basin
 Algeria 1 1 0 7
 Egypt 163,838 822,910 912,476
 Greece 294,756 300,787 221,972 352,899 366,176
 Italy 116,457 116,404 112,771 126,971 129,520
 Morocco 178,650 267,283 173,435 107,311
 Spain 1,380,424 1,483,001 1,320,755 1,486,149 1,723,149
 Turkey 82,544 160,520 194,294 299,452 339,233
Americans
 Argentina 78,713 101,418 175,016 127,618 72,656
 Brazil 83,927 84,536 42,200 29,941 24,481
 Mexico 21,329 15,199 19,736 21,378 45,838
 USA 515,691 578,038 515,609 658,748 669,215
Afro-Asiatic
 China 7,246 16,269 80,502 131,733 77,796
 India 19,105 35,254 31,597 20,840 23,816
 Indonesia 281 486 205 6 10
 South Africa 97,314 686,143 1,053,840 1,043,281 1,134,017
Mediterranean basin 1,874,181 2,239,361 2,280,914 3,261,816 3,577,873
Americans 699,659 779,192 752,561 837,684 812,190
Afro-Asiatic 123,945 738,152 1,166,144 1,195,860 1,235,639
Others 1,065,881 2,042,423 1,133,617 1,279,159 1,321,835
World 3,763,666 5,799,128 5,333,236 6,574,510 6,947,537

Source: UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

Orange juices: exports (tonnes) of the world from 1997 to 2016 (four-year averages)

HS200911 HS200919
Geographical areas and main countries 1997–2000 2001–2004 2005–2008 2009–2012 2013–2016 1997–2000 2001–2004 2005–2008 2009–2012 2013–2016
Mediterranean basin
 Algeria 13 34 86 345 1,439
 Egypt 164 1,630 9,966 205 1,782 796
 Greece 2,358 1,480 1,974 5,719 6,904 5,326 4,716 4,952 3,582 7,134
 Italy 22,857 48,821 52,651 49,643 52,967 8,912 8,428 9,139 8,035 6,696
 Morocco 1,092 332 416 568 2,477 529 2,274 2,673
 Spain 16,654 27,496 44,080 44,598 31,213 143,765 217,534 205,793 185,934 217,179
 Turkey 638 259 228 379 2,105 879 4,169 5,713 4,346 5,442
Americans
 Argentina 1,596 3,904 7,807 6,836 3,499 1,575 389 914 356 327
 Brazil 1,200,010 1,071,627 946,742 490,890 546,385 19,076 391,249 970,698 1,496,204 1,546,409
 Mexico 52,365 28,820 51,597 78,771 125,211 18,354 37,084 15,535 17,998 37,726
 USA 345,641 316,028 251,174 348,760 182,994 254,808 113,096 174,522 351,401 317,812
Afro-Asiatic
 China 1,271 2,451 2,047 1,729 2,824 709 728 6,317 14,910 1,745
 India 86 93 222 52 26 100 171 74 203
 Indonesia 48 135 28 97 14 107 158 175 531 1,041
 South Africa 2,619 8,329 4,676 16,431 5,313 615 4,300 9,202 33,210 37,224
Mediterranean basin 42,507 79,148 99,429 102,385 103,722 158,895 237,358 226,417 206,297 241,359
Americans 1,599,611 1,420,379 1,257,320 925,256 858,089 293,812 541,817 1,161,670 1,865,959 1,902,274
Afro-Asiatic 3,938 11,001 6,844 18,478 8,201 1,458 5,286 15,864 48,724 40,213
Others 587,993 290,596 167,053 196,056 180,156 926,033 1,599,469 2,080,192 2,171,873 2,001,417
World 2,234,049 1,801,124 1,530,646 1,242,175 1,150,168 1,380,198 2,383,930 3,484,143 4,292,853 4,185,263

Source: UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

Lafay index: not-concentrated refrigerated orange juices – NFC

Countries 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
HS200911
Countries exceeding 10,000 tonnes
 Positive area
  Argentina 0.30 0.11 0.19 0.25 0.11 −0.08 0.02 −0.04
  Brazil 27.76 22.31 18.35 25.14 26.38 21.32 27.67 28.93
  Egypt 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.15 0.54 1.03 0.06 0.07
  Italy 1.08 2.26 1.50 2.58 2.01 1.40 1.93 2.82
  Mexico 3.57 2.85 5.05 3.07 4.94 6.25 5.48 6.99
  South Africa 2.19 0.33 0.25 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.16 0.20
  Spain 1.09 0.34 0.43 0.73 1.38 −1.06 −0.13 −1.14
 Negative area
  Algeria −0.14 −0.24 −0.26 −0.38 −0.22 −0.53 −0.24 −0.26
  China −2.17 −3.99 −4.11 −3.29 −2.69 −6.42 −2.70 −3.21
  Greece −0.17 −0.46 −0.28 −0.13 −0.05 −0.41 0.15 0.16
  India −0.08 −0.04 −0.14 −0.23 −0.18 −0.30 −0.30 −0.35
  Indonesia −0.11 −0.17 −0.19 −0.23 −0.32 −0.97 −0.42 −0.77
  Morocco −0.02 −0.15 −0.10 −0.04 −0.11 −0.08 0.01 −0.10
  Turkey −0.16 −0.25 −0.26 −0.30 −0.28 −0.77 0.03 −0.19
  USA −33.15 −22.94 −20.50 −27.63 −31.83 −19.68 −31.73 −33.14
Countries inferior to the 10,000 tonnes
 Positive area
  Israel 4.01 9.05 12.37 10.60 7.42 16.03 9.39 8.43
  Costa Rica 5.52 2.10 7.08 8.13 11.31 6.53 7.51 5.51
  Malaysia 2.63 2.83 1.51 −0.97 −1.89 −2.54 −1.56 −3.00
  Uruguay 2.44 3.22 0.96 2.57 1.79 1.69 3.14 2.56
  Paraguay 1.33 0.66 1.18 2.70 1.89 1.83 1.63 1.59
  Cyprus 2.05 5.10 4.54 −1.55 1.78 1.59 2.71 0.62
  Portugal 0.07 −0.54 −0.30 −1.02 −0.22 −0.46 0.10 −0.31
 Negative area
  Thailand −1.18 −3.20 −3.28 −0.99 −1.15 1.32 −2.11 −0.03
  Australia −14.51 −16.63 −21.09 −15.62 −17.70 −21.49 −17.66 −12.40
  New Zealand −2.35 −2.58 −2.96 −3.85 −3.25 −4.51 −3.16 −2.98

Source: Our elaborations from UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

Lafay index: concentrated orange juices – FCOJ

Countries 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
HS200919
Countries exceeding 10,000 tonnes
 Positive area
  Argentina −0.06 −0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
  Brazil 14.20 14.14 13.40 78.95 15.27 12.82 20.82 31.65
  South Africa 0.09 0.51 0.24 1.98 0.31 0.33 0.44 0.52
 Negative area
  Algeria −0.19 −0.22 −0.22 −0.31 −0.70 −0.67 −0.39 −0.19
  China 0.10 0.13 0.07 0.06 −0.26 −0.44 −0.40 −0.48
  Egypt −0.02 −0.04 −0.07 0.18 −0.05 −0.06 −0.04 0.01
  Greece −0.45 −0.31 −0.33 −0.04 −0.26 -0.21 −0.11 −0.07
  India −0.07 −0.11 −0.08 −0.04 −0.05 −0.03 −0.04 −0.02
  Indonesia −0.12 −0.09 −0.10 −0.04 −0.06 −0.27 −0.06 −0.02
  Italy −2.13 −1.34 −1.17 −0.49 −1.20 −1.32 −0.91 −0.71
  Mexico −0.17 0.00 −0.07 0.68 −0.04 −0.10 0.09 0.65
  Morocco −0.02 −0.09 −0.07 0.11 −0.12 −0.11 −0.02 −0.04
  Spain −2.52 −2.61 −2.65 8.95 −0.90 −1.19 0.21 0.13
  Turkey −0.03 −0.04 −0.08 −0.01 −0.05 −0.10 −0.12 0.05
  USA −8.61 −9.91 −8.87 10.00 −11.89 −8.65 −19.49 −31.48
Countries inferior to the 10,000 tonnes
 Positive area
  Israel 4.86 13.17 11.61 57.70 9.05 4.62 4.21 3.86
  Costa Rica 13.53 7.82 6.65 11.54 5.67 7.01 4.92 8.43
  Thailand 1.51 3.68 3.65 30.92 5.20 9.44 12.50 11.39
  Cyprus 0.50 0.49 1.20 13.87 2.00 0.17 0.44 0.46
 Negative area
  Australia −1.69 −0.11 −3.06 6.13 1.70 1.86 0.08 0.10
  Malaysia −0.48 −4.89 −3.50 1.35 −0.58 −0.75 −1.36 −0.02
  Portugal −10.91 −14.33 −12.80 −14.59 −19.56 −17.93 −17.11 −19.78
  New Zealand −7.30 −5.77 −3.62 −6.44 −3.12 −4.04 −3.25 −3.44
  Uruguay −0.03 −0.10 −0.10 −0.44 −0.31 −0.27 −0.29 −0.48
  Paraguay 0.00 0.04 −0.02 −0.04 −0.07 −0.11 −0.14 −0.51

Source: Our elaborations from UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

Social network analysis: not-concentrated refrigerated orange juices – NFC (average from 2009 to 2016)

Countries Partners Export degree Out farness Out closeness Export average total
HS200911
Countries exceeding 10,000 tonnes
 Brazil 52 141 120,000 71,667 547,235
 USA 31 86 150,000 57,333 267,868
 Italy 28 60 166,000 51,807 49,945
 Spain 36 60 146,000 58,904 40,589
 Mexico 25 53 160,000 53,750 94,796
 South Africa 16 29 172,000 50,000 10,145
 Egypt 18 29 176,000 48,864 5,483
 Greece 13 21 217,000 39,631 4,963
 Turkey 8 15 183,000 46,995 5,379
 Argentina 9 15 215,000 40,000 5,313
 China 10 15 238,000 36,134 2,077
 Morocco 4 7 231,000 37,229 428
 Indonesia 1 1 365,000 23,562 78
 Algeria 0 0 7,482,000 1,149
 India 0 0 7,482,000 1,149
Countries inferior to the 10,000 tonnes
 Israel 18 31 183,000 46,995 10,819
 Costa Rica 14 25 180,000 47,778 4,732
 Malaysia 10 14 255,000 33,725 1,744
 Thailand 6 7 205,000 41,951 1,378
 Uruguay 4 7 210,000 40,952 1,440
 Paraguay 5 6 209,000 41,148 998
 Australia 5 5 237,000 36,287 381
 Cyprus 3 4 310,000 27,742 3,961
 Portugal 4 4 214,000 40,187 129
 New Zealand 1 1 322,000 26,708 36
Non-producer countries
 The Netherland 30 56 161,000 53,416 31,825
 France 18 27 189,000 45,503 5,076
 Germany 9 26 203,000 42,365 1,521
 Belgium 8 24 209,000 41,148 4,726
 Ireland 10 13 213,000 40,376 1,127
 UK 9 12 199,000 43,216 7,251
 Canada 5 10 207,000 41,546 12,679
 Poland 8 8 224,000 38,393 337
 UAE 5 5 239,000 35,983 204
 Singapore 5 5 280,000 30,714 201

Source: UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

Social network analysis: concentrated orange juices – FCOJ (average from 2009 to 2016)

Countries Partners Export degree Out farness Out closeness Export average total
HS200919
Countries exceeding 10,000 tonnes
 South Africa 40 77 117,000 64,957 31,408
 Spain 26 67 134,000 56,716 198,093
 Brazil 14 52 150,000 50,667 1,455,872
 USA 23 44 141,000 53,901 19,277
 Italy 24 42 136,000 55,882 6,853
 China 22 36 130,000 58,462 8,584
 Turkey 28 33 133,000 57,143 2,006
 Greece 18 30 142,000 53,521 3,568
 Egypt 20 23 138,000 55,072 964
 Indonesia 9 21 160,000 47,500 313,973
 Mexico 6 13 161,000 47,205 22,404
 Morocco 5 7 171,000 44,444 1,794
 Argentina 4 5 193,000 39,378 223
 Algeria 3 4 195,000 38,974 480
 India 0 0 5,852,000 1,299
Countries inferior to the 10,000 tonnes
 Israel 18 38 148,000 51,351 19,012
 Cyprus 23 28 131,000 58,015 3,961
 Thailand 18 23 142,000 53,521 2,170
 Australia 13 23 178,000 42,697 5,562
 Portugal 12 23 154,000 49,351 10,244
 Malaysia 9 13 183,000 41,530 1,954
 Tunisia 3 4 195,000 38,974 671
 Senegal 3 3 195,000 38,974 81
 Zimbabwe 2 3 191,000 39,791 512
 New Zealand 3 3 239,000 31,799 55
Non-producer countries
 The Netherland 46 110 108,000 70,370 453,236
 Germany 36 91 117,000 64,957 319,771
 Belgium 27 85 137,000 55,474 777,385
 France 33 59 123,000 61,789 47,046
 UK 15 30 145,000 52,414 14,423
 UAE 21 29 134,000 56,716 2,800
 Austria 12 22 191,000 39,791 5,418
 Switzerland 10 19 157,000 48,408 34,184
 Poland 10 18 157,000 48,408 9,930
 Singapore 10 13 194,000 39,175 2,040

Source: UNCOMTRADE (Database: Commodity list)

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Further reading

FAOSTAT (2018), “Database crops”, available at: www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC

Prell, C. (2012), Social Network Analysis: History, Theory and Methodology, SAGE, University of Maryland.

Sofia Pereira, C. and Soares, A. (2007), “Improving the quality of collaboration requirements for information management through social networks analysis”, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 86-103.

Sturiale, C. (Ed.) (2001), Analisi economica e strategie di valorizzazione dei succhi di arancia rossa, Department of Economics and Agricultural Estimative, University of Catania, Library Patuelli.

UNCOMTRADE (2019), “Database commodity list”, available at: https://comtrade.un.org/db/mr/rfCommoditiesList.aspx

Corresponding author

Alfonso Silvio Zarbà can be contacted at: zarba@unict.it