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Using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) to explore US consumers' dining behaviors during COVID-19

Bingjie Liu-Lastres (Department of Tourism, Event, and Sport Management, Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA)
Han Wen (Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Article publication date: 17 May 2022

Issue publication date: 9 February 2023




The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' dining behaviors and explore their decision-making process when dining out during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Based on the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and the related literature, a conceptual model was developed and tested. This study conducted an online survey with 351 responses. In addition, a series of statistical analyses, including descriptive analyses and path analyses, were conducted to analyze the associations among key constructs in the proposed model.


The findings of this study confirmed the pragmatic utility of applying EPPM in a hospitality management context. The findings of this study also outline the different nature between the participants' enactment of self-protective measures and dining out activities. Lastly, while consumers are hesitant about dining out, the results showed that consumers' dining behaviors are directly related to their personality trait of sensation-seeking.

Research limitations/implications

This study was delimited to a cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Such information may provide insights into individuals' decision-making and behaviors related to dining in a COVID-19 context. In addition, this study only includes US samples, while future studies can extend this study by including samples from different countries and cultural backgrounds.


This study adopts an interdisciplinary approach, which derives from tourism and hospitality management and public health. As a result, the findings of this study not only identify the major influencers affecting consumers' dining behavior but also help contextualize a public health model and contribute to the tourism and hospitality management literature.



Funding: The study was funded by the COVID-19 Rapid Response Grant of IUPUI's Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research.


Liu-Lastres, B. and Wen, H. (2023), "Using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) to explore US consumers' dining behaviors during COVID-19", British Food Journal, Vol. 125 No. 3, pp. 921-936.



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