Thermodynamic properties of ketone with 2-methyl-1-butanol/2-ethyl-1-butanol at various temperatures

Chaduvula Vijaya Lakshmi (Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India)
Ch. Ravi Kiran (Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India)
M. Gowrisankar (Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India)
Shaik Babu (Department of Engineering Physics, College of Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, India)
D. Ramachandran (Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, India)

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN: 1985-9899

Article publication date: 21 December 2022

55

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to throw light on the interactions taking place between the different chemical compositions at various temperatures. P-methylacetophenone is a polar dissolvable, which is positively related by dipole–dipole co-operations and is exceptionally compelling a direct result of the shortfall of any critical primary impacts because of the absence of hydrogen bonds; hence, it might work an enormous dipole moment (μ = 3.62 D). Alcohols additionally assume a significant part in industries and research facilities as reagents and pull in incredible consideration as helpful solvents in the green innovation. They are utilized as pressure-driven liquids in drugs, beauty care products, aromas, paints removers, flavors, dye stuffs and as a germ-free specialist.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixtures were prepared by mass in airtight ground stopper bottles. The mass measurements were performed on a digital electronic balance (Mettler Toledo AB135, Switzerland) with an uncertainty of ±0.0001 g. The uncertainty in mole fraction was thus estimated to be less than ±0.0001. The densities of pure liquids and their mixtures were determined using a density meter (DDH-2911, Rudolph Research Analytical). The instrument was calibrated frequently using deionized doubly distilled water and dry air. The estimated uncertainty associated with density measurements is ±0.0003 g.cm−3. Viscosities of the pure liquids and their mixtures were determined by using Ostwald’s viscometer. The viscometer was calibrated at each required temperature using doubly distilled water. The viscometer was cleaned, dried and is filled with the sample liquid in a bulb having capacity of 10 ml. The viscometer was then kept in a transparent walled water bath with a thermal stability of ±0.01K for about 20 min to obtain thermal equilibrium. An electronic digital stop watch with an uncertainty of ±0.01 s was used for the flow time measurements for each sample at least four readings were taken and then the average of these was taken.

Findings

Negative values of excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility and positive values of deviation in viscosity including excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow at different temperatures (303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) may be attribution to the specific intermolecular interactions through the hetero-association interaction between the components of the mixtures, resulting in the formation of associated complexes through hydrogen bond interactions.

Originality/value

The excess molar volume (VE) values were analyzed with the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson theory, which demonstrated that the free volume contribution is the one of the factors influencing negative values of excess molar quantities. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate the experimental values of density, speed of sound and viscosity.

Keywords

Citation

Vijaya Lakshmi, C., Ravi Kiran, C., Gowrisankar, M., Babu, S. and Ramachandran, D. (2022), "Thermodynamic properties of ketone with 2-methyl-1-butanol/2-ethyl-1-butanol at various temperatures", Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/AGJSR-05-2022-0068

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Chaduvula Vijaya Lakshmi, Ch. Ravi Kiran, M. Gowrisankar, Shaik Babu and D. Ramachandran

License

Published in Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


1. Introduction

The thermodynamic and transport properties are significant not exclusively to comprehend the mixing conduct of liquid mixtures yet in addition to appraise the intermolecular associations between different parts present in the mixtures (Parveen, Yasmin, Gupta, & Shukla, 2010; Singh, Sethi, Katyal, & Rattan, 2004; Clara, Marigliano, Campos, & Solimo, 2010; Gonzalez, Calvar, Gomez, & Dominguez, 2007; Patil, Sunil Mirgane, & Balasaheb Arbad, 2014). In the synthetic industry, materials are normally taken care of in a liquid structure and, henceforth, the physical, substance and transport properties of liquids accept prime significance in research. The data on a part of the real properties related with the liquids and liquid blends like density, viscosity, refractive index, surface tension and speed of sound find wide application in solution theory and molecular dynamics (Karthikeyan & Palaniappan, 2005; Nayak, Aralaguppi, Toti, & Aminabhavi, 2003; Tsierkezos & Palaiologou, 2009). P-methylacetophenone is a polar dissolvable, which is positively related by dipole–dipole co-operations and is exceptionally compelling a direct result of the shortfall of any critical primary impacts because of the absence of hydrogen bonds; hence, it might work an enormous dipole moment (μ = 3.62 D). Alcohols additionally assume a significant part in industry and research facility as reagents and pull in incredible consideration as helpful solvents in the green innovation. They are utilized as pressure-driven liquids, in drugs, beauty care products, aromas, paints removers, flavors, dye stuffs and as a germ-free specialist.

In continuation of our research work (Srinivasulu, Babu, Gowrisankar, Venkateswararao, & Rathnam, 2022), the present work is focused on the study of intermolecular forces in binary liquid mixtures of like/unlike components and reported experimental and calculated values of density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity at various temperatures (Li, Fan, Wang, Zhang, & Lu, 2010).

2. Experimental

2.1 Materials

Information on the source, ultimate purity and analysis method of the chemicals are provided in Table 1 (list of chemicals with details of source, CAS number, purity and water content).

Table 2 lists the values for density, sound speed and dynamic viscosity (densities, dynamic viscosity and speeds of sound data of pure components at various temperatures and 0.1 MPa pressure). These values are a good agreement with the data available in the literature (Tangeda, Boodida, & Satyanarayana, 2006; Kermanpour, Jahani, & Iloukhani, 2009; Hovorka, Lankelma, & Smith, 1940; Wen-Lu, Liang-Tau, & I-Min, 1999; Chorążewski, Dzida, Zorębski, & Zorębski, 2013; Fukuchi, Oginawa, Tashima, Yonezawa, & Arai, 1983; Álvarez, Cancela, Maceiras, Navaza, & Táboas, 2006; Alavianmehr, Hemmati, & Ghodrati, 2017; Bhatia, Sangwa, Rani, & Kiran, 2013; Zorebski, Dzida, & Wysocka, 2011).

2.2 Apparatus

There have been several descriptions of the methodologies and measuring procedures (Venkateswara Rao, Gowrisankar, Venkatramana, Srinivasa Krishna, & Ravindhranath, 2016).

In airtight ground stopper bottles, binary mixes were created by the mass. With an inaccuracy of 0.0001 g, the mass measurements were carried out on a digital electronic balance (Mettler Toledo AB135, Switzerland). After preparation, care was taken to avoid the solution evaporating. The combinations’ necessary characteristics were established the same day they were created. As a result, the mole fraction uncertainty was calculated to be less than 0.0001. A density meter was used to calculate the densities of pure liquids and their mixes (DDH-2911, Rudolph Research Analytical).

Frequent calibrations of the instrument were performed using deionized, twice-distilled water and dry air. The instrument’s density sensor contains a high-precision platinum thermometer for precise temperature measurement. Density measurements are thought to have an error of 0.0003 g•cm−3. Using Ostwald’s viscometer, the viscosities of the pure liquids and their mixes were calculated. Using doubly distilled water, the viscometer was calibrated at each needed temperature. The viscometer was cleaned, dried and then a 10 ml bulb holding the sample liquid was added. To achieve thermal equilibrium, the viscometer was then left in a transparent-walled water bath with a thermal stability of 0.01 K for around 20 min. For the flow time measurements, an electronic digital stop watch with an accuracy of 0.01 s was employed. For each sample, at least four readings were collected, and the average of these readings was then calculated. A single crystal variable path interferometer (Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India) type F-81, running at a frequency of 2 MHz, was used to measure the speed of sound. By gauging the velocity of standard liquids such as carbon tetrachloride and AR grade benzene, the instrument was calibrated. By circulating water from a thermostat, a constant low temperature bath (made by M/S Sakti Scientific Instruments, India) was used to keep the temperature within 0.01 K for all property measurements. The uncertainties in density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity measurement liquid mixtures are ±2×10−5 g cm−3, ±0.8 m s−1 and ±1.12%, respectively. The uncertainty of the mole fraction was ±1 × 10−4.

3. Results and discussion

For all binary systems at different compositions, the experimental densities, sound speeds and viscosities are used to calculate the excess/deviation functions (VE, KsE, ∆η and ∆G*E), which have been previously published (Venkateswara rao et al., 2016). It has previously been described (Benson–Kiyohara methodology) (Benson and Kiyohara, 1979) how to calculate KsE.

The density, sound speed and dynamic viscosity for binary mixtures containing different mole fractions of the common component, as well as excess/deviation parameters (VE, KsE, ∆η and ∆G*E) at various temperatures, are shown in supplementary information Table S1. Figures S1 through S12 in the supplemental information display, respectively, the values of VE, KsE, ∆η and ∆G*E as functions of the molar fraction of the common component. Additional information in Figures S1 through S3, demonstrate that for all of the systems under investigation, the excess volumes are negative. This may indicate that volume contraction occurs when common components (alkyl substituted primary alcohols) are mixed with non-common components (other common components), possibly as a result of the complex intermolecular associations between dissimilar molecules and the steric hindrance of alkyl groups. Additionally, it was discovered that the extra volumes rose with temperature. Higher temperatures cause more hydrogen bonds to break in pure liquids and release more free dipoles of different molecules, which interact with one another and create hydrogen bonds between different molecules. As a result, surplus volume values in the systems mentioned above become more strongly negative as temperature rises.

The stability of rotamers and conformers of the mixed species, changes in the free volumes and interstitial accommodation of dissimilar molecules are all considered in the present analysis as explanations for the negative values of for all three binary systems.

Following are the steps that determine how much the volume contraction is,

2-methyl-1-butanol>2-ethyl-1-butanol>2-ethyl-1-hexanol

The above order suggests that favorable attractive interactions between polar groups increase from 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2-methyl-1-butanol with P-methylacetophenone in the binary mixtures. Hence, the above order was justified.

Supplementary information in Figures from 3 to 6 curves shows that the negative excess isentropic compressibility values for all the binary mixtures support complex formation (Fort and Moore, 1965). The order of values of excess isentropic compressibility is almost similar to that observed with respect to excess volumes.

The deviations in dynamic viscosity and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow are positive for all three binary systems, according to Supplementary Table S3 and Supplementary Figures S7 to S12, indicating that the attractive forces between pairs of unlike molecules are stronger than the forces between like molecules due to variations in the component molecules’ shapes and sizes or the interactions between dipoles. (Brocos, Pineiro, Bravo, & Amigo, 2003; Papaioannou, Bridakis, & Panayiotou, 1993; Papaioannou and Panayiotou, 1995; Henni, Hromek, Tontiwachwuthikul, & Chakma, 2003).

VE, κsE and η values are fitted to a Redlich–Kister (Redlich & Kister, 1948) polynomial equation,

(1)YE=x1(1x1)i=ojAi(12x1)
here YE represents VE, κsE and ∆η. The least-squares method has been used to calculate the values of the coefficients Ai. Using the formula, the standard deviations (YE) have been determined.
(2)σ(YE)=[Σ(YexpEYcalE)2/(mn)]1/2
where n is the number of parameters, and m is the total number of experimental points. Table 3 (coefficients of the Redlich–Kister equation and standard deviation (σ) values for liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol at T = (303.15–313.15) K) lists the coefficients, Ai and related standard deviation values (σ).

3.1 Partial molar properties

The interpretations of excess partial molar properties (V¯m,1E,V¯m,2E,K¯s,m,1EandK¯s,m,2E) and excess partial molar properties at infinite dilution (V¯m,1°E,V¯m,2°EK¯s,m,1°EandK¯s,m,2°E) of components have previously been described (Venkateswara rao et al., 2016).

Supplementary information in Tables S2 and S3 show that the values of excess partial molar properties at infinite dilution are negative for all the binary mixture which indicates the predominance of the hetero-molecular association complex through specific intermolecular interactions between dissimilar molecules dominates over the specific interactions through homo-intermolecular association between similar molecules in binary systems.

3.2 Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory

In the current study, the excess molar volume results for the present combinations were correlated using the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory (Flory, 1965; Prigogine, 1957; Van & Patterson, 1982; Patterson & Delmas, 1970). It is evident from Table 4 (PFP interaction parameter χ12 and calculated values of the three contributions from the PFP theory with experimental excess molar volumes at x1 = 0.5 at 303.15 K) that the free volume contribution is one of the factors for the sign and magnitude of excess volumes for binary mixtures. The specifics of the PFP theory and their equations were described elsewhere (Venkateswararao et al. In the supplemental material, the comparison of experimental Vvalues with those determined from PFP is depicted graphically in Figure S13). Jouyban and Acree recently proposed a model for connecting the density, sound speed and dynamic viscosity of liquid mixes at a wide range of temperatures (Jouyban, Khoubnasabjafari, Vaez-gharamaleki, Fekari, & Acree, 2005). Data modeling could make use of this model. The suggested formula is

(3)lnymT=f1lny1T+f2lny2T+f1f2Ji(f1f2)iT
where ymT, y1T and y2T are densities, speeds of sound or viscosities of the mixture and common component (1) and non-common components (2) at temperature T, respectively. f1 and f2 are the mole fraction of density, speed of sound and viscosity, and Ji is the model constant.

Supplementary information in Table S4 indicate the experimental and calculated data density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity of binary liquid mixtures at various temperatures. Figures 1–3 show curves of experimental and calculated values of density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity of binary liquid mixtures at 303.15 K. The correlating ability of the Jouyban–Acree model was tested by calculating the mean relative deviation (MRD) and individual relative deviations (IRD) between the experimental and calculated density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity as

(4)Meanrelativedeviation(MRD)=100N[|ρcalρexpt|ρexpt]
(5)Individualrelativedeviations(IRD)=100[|ρcalρexpt|ρexpt]

The N in Equation (4) is the number of data points in the data set.

The constant Ji calculated from the least square analysis along with the MRD and IRD is presented in Table 5. Studies by Jouyban and Acree have been carried out and analyzed to study experimental and calculations for the density, speed of sound and dynamic viscosity of binary liquid mixtures at various temperatures, a good agreement is observed.

4. Conclusions

For P-methylacetophenone binary mixes with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, the densities, sound speeds and viscosities were measured at temperatures of 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K with a 5-K interval. Thus, the obtained results were looked at and studied in terms of particular interactions between the constituent components. All of the systems had negative excess molar volume, positive excess isentropic compressibility and positive deviation in dynamic viscosity values. Positive values of deviation in dynamic viscosity, including excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow, and negative values of excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility and isentropic compressibility at different temperatures (303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) may be attributed to particular intermolecular interactions through hetero-association interaction between the components of the mixtures, which leads to the formation of associated complexes through hydrogen bond interactions. The PFP theory was also used to examine the VE values, and it was demonstrated that one of the factors causing negative values of excess molar amounts is the free volume contribution. To correlate the experimental results of density, sound speed and viscosity, the Jouyban–Acree model was employed.

Figures

Density with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Figure 1

Density with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Speed of sound with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Figure 2

Speed of sound with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Viscosity with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Figure 3

Viscosity with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone in the binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the Jouyban–Acree model

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Figure S1

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (○) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Figure S2

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (∇) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (♦) at 313.15 K

Figure S3

Curves of excess molar volume (VE) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol () at 313.15 K

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Figure S4

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (○) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Figure S5

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (∇) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (♦) at 313.15 K

Figure S6

Curves of excess isentropic compressibility with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol () at 313.15 K

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Figure S7

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (○) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Figure S8

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (∇) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (♦) at 313.15 K

Figure S9

Curves of deviation in viscosity (Δη) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol () at 313.15 K

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Figure S10

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (○) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Figure S11

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (□); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol (∆) at 308.15 K

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (∇) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (♦) at 313.15 K

Figure S12

Curves of excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG*E) with mole fraction for the binary mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (▼); 2-ethyl-1-butanol () and 2-methyl-1-butanol () at 313.15 K

Excess molar volumes with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the PFP theory using parameters

Figure S13

Excess molar volumes with mole fraction (x1) of P-methylacetophenone binary liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (■); 2-ethyl-1-butanol (●) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (▲) at 303.15 K and (---) calculated with the PFP theory using parameters

List of chemicals with details of source, CAS number, purity and water content

Name of the chemicalCAS numberSource**Water content (%)Mass fraction purityPurification method
P-methylacetophenone122-00-9Sigma Aldrich, India0.0450.995Fractional distillation
2-ethyl-1-hexanol104-76-7S.D. Fine Chemicals, India0.0420.992
2-ethyl-1-butanol97.95-0Sigma Aldrich, India0.0450.994
2-methyl-1-butanol137-32-6Sigma Aldrich, India0.0450.994

Note(s): ** Karl–Fischer method

Densities, viscosity and speeds of sound data of pure components at various temperatures and 0.1MPa pressure

ComponentDensity (ρ/x103 kg·m−3)Speed of sound (u/m·s−1)Viscosity (η/mPa·s)
(In K)ExperimentalLiteratureExperimentalLiteratureExperimentalLiterature
P-methylacetophenone
303.15 K1.00065 1454 1.5811.5919[b]
308.15 K0.996520.9963[b]14341438.0[a]1.536
313.15 K0.99239 1414 1.491
2-ethyl-1-butanol
303.15 K0.825420.8254[c]1161.6 4.8204.821[c]
0.82541[d]
0.82547[h]
308.15 K0.821540.8215[c]1148.8 3.9643.95[c]
0.82153[d] 3.965[e]
0.82159[h]
313.15 K0.817610.8176[c]1136.2 3.3303.331[c]
0.81760[d]
0.81766[h]
2-methyl-1-butanol
303.15 K0.812030.81202[d]1238.11237.29[l]3.8143.5956[f]
0.8109[f] 3.594[g]
0.8110[g] 3.813[i]
0.81203[i] 3.801[k]
0.81240[j]
308.15 K0.808210.80820[i]1221.51220.32[l]3.2593.258[i]
3.295[k]
313.15 K0.804390.80433[i]1204.81203.42[l]2.7042.777[i]
0.80460[j] 2.845[k]
0.80360[k]
2-ethyl-1-hexanol
303.15 K0.825290.82539[m]13021301[m]7.1467.144[m]
0.82528[n]
308.15 K0.821590.82168[m]12821283[m]6.0126.090[m]
0.82158[n]
313.15 K0.81788 1261 4.774

Note(s): The standard uncertainties are u (x1) = 1 × 10−4, u (ρ) ±2×10−5 g.cm−3, u (u) = ±0.8 m.s−1, u (η) = ±1.12%, u (T) = 0.01 K for density, speed of sound and viscosity, and u (P) = 1 kPa

Coefficients of Redlich–Kister equation and standard deviation (σ) values for liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol at T= (303.15–313.15) K

T/KA0A1A2σ
P-methylacetophenone + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol
VE/cm3·mol−1
303.15−0.4290.1160.0100.001
308.15−0.4360.119−0.0240.001
313.15−0.4420.121−0.0590.001
κsE/TPa−1
303.15−44.896.7050.1790.087
308.15−45.676.856−2.4980.087
313.15−46.447.009−5.1800.108
Δη/mPa· s
303.150.0530.0040.0090.001
308.150.0590.0040.0120.001
313.150.0650.0030.0140.001
P-methylacetophenone + 2-ethyl-1-butanol
VE/cm3·mol−1
303.15−0.4370.122−0.0410.001
308.15−0.4460.122−0.0800.001
313.15−0.4550.123−0.1190.002
κsE/TPa−1
303.15−45.878.025−4.9630.066
308.15−46.308.093−8.7440.089
313.15−46.928.178−12.150.134
Δη/mPa· s
303.150.0570.0040.0170.001
308.150.0630.0050.0270.001
313.150.0680.0050.0360.001
P-methylacetophenone + 2-methyl-1-butanol
VE/cm3·mol−1
303.15−0.4460.140−0.1030.002
308.15−0.4530.139−0.1500.001
313.15−0.4690.123−0.1820.001
κsE/TPa−1
303.15−47.238.594−9.9320.068
308.15−47.289.060−13.530.154
313.15−47.329.523−17.150.280
Δη/mPa· s
303.150.0600.0030.0330.001
308.150.0680.0050.0340.001
313.150.0760.0060.0360.001

PFP interaction parameter, χ12 and calculated values of the three contributions from the PFP theory with experimental excess molar volumes at x1 = 0.5 at 303.15 K

Binary mixturesχ12Calculated contributionsVE (x = 0.5) cm3.mol−1δ/cm3.mol1
(106)Interactional (10−8)Free volumeP* effectEXPPFP
P-methylacetophenone + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol0.5541.684−0.0104−0.1061−0.1072−0.10730.0001
P-methylacetophenone + 2-ethyl-1-butanol16.611.727−0.0391−0.3571−0.1094−0.1095–0.0001
P-methylacetophenone + 2-methyl-1-butanol8.0731.513−0.0372−0.1964−0.1115−0.1113−0.0002

Coefficients of the Jouyban–Acree model, mean relative deviation (MRD) and individual relative deviation (IRD) for liquid mixtures of P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol at various temperatures

J0J1J2MRDIRD
P-methylacetophenone + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol
Density
303.15 K−2.991−0.467−0.3420.0330.003
308.15 K−3.049−0.484−0.2770.0340.002
313.15 K−3.108−0.499−0.2220.0340.002
Speed of sound
303.15 K−10.01−4.269−1.8310.1400.013
308.15 K−10.73−4.337−1.2850.1480.013
313.15 K−11.58−4.522−0.8920.1640.015
Viscosity
303.15 K322.32166.92110.64−4.305−0.391
308.15 K273.67130.0183.29−3.571−0.238
313.15 K208.6686.8954.33−2.614−0.174
P-methylacetophenone +2-ethyl-1-butanol
Density
303.15 K11.26−0.9720.795−0.050−0.005
308.15 K11.47−0.9930.864−0.046−0.003
313.15 K11.69−1.0020.971−0.045−0.003
Speed of sound
303.15 K−18.40−2.605−0.5730.1030.009
308.15 K−18.53−2.5870.1340.1100.010
313.15 K−18.62−2.4550.6440.1130.010
Viscosity
303.15 K185.8274.8335.71−1.251−0.114
308.15 K141.3950.1722.95−0.896−0.081
313.15 K107.8634.2117.54−0.601−0.055
P-methylacetophenone +2-methyl-1-butanol
Density
303.15 K20.83−2.7242.602−0.127−0.012
308.15 K21.22−2.7722.759−0.125−0.011
313.15 K21.64−2.7972.881−0.128−0.012
Speed of sound
303.15 K−3.0551.8431.3310.0050.001
308.15 K−3.4661.8891.6880.0220.002
313.15 K−3.9391.8471.9480.0560.005
Viscosity
303.15 K121.5942.3120.95−1.039−0.094
308.15 K94.6029.9616.26−0.793−0.072
313.15 K66.6618.3811.57−0.530−0.048

Density (ρ), excess molar volumes (VE), speed of sound (u), excess isentropic compressibility (κsE), viscosity (η), deviation in viscosity (Δη) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (G*E) as a function of mole fraction, x1 of P-methylacetophenone of binary liquid mixtures at T= (303.15 to 313.15) K and 0.1MPa pressure

x1Density(ρ) 103 kg·m−3VE cm3··mol−1u m.s−1κsE/TPa−1Viscosity (η/mPa·s)Δη/mPa·sΔG*E/J··mol1
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.825290.00001302.00.0007.1460.0000.000
0.10050.84074−0.04631313.6−4.4896.5920.0051.785
0.19120.85505−0.07731324.5−7.6066.0900.0093.237
0.29060.87114−0.09851336.8−9.8995.5400.0114.624
0.39210.88802−0.10771349.9−11.124.9770.0135.776
0.49980.90648−0.10731364.7−11.254.3780.0136.634
0.60990.92596−0.09591380.9−10.293.7650.0137.012
0.70620.94354−0.07851396.3−8.6723.2280.0126.788
0.79050.95937−0.05891410.9−6.6402.7570.0106.016
0.89440.97948−0.03151431.2−3.8042.1750.0063.997
1.00001.000650.00001454.00.0001.5810.0000.000
308.15 K
0.00000.821590.00001282.00.0006.0120.0000.000
0.10050.83702−0.04931293.6−4.7575.5680.0061.549
0.19120.85128−0.07981304.3−7.8215.1660.0102.800
0.29060.86733−0.10151316.5−10.174.7230.0123.981
0.39210.88416−0.11021329.5−11.344.2710.0144.947
0.49980.90257−0.10881344.2−11.463.7900.0155.644
0.60990.92201−0.09791360.5−10.563.2960.0145.915
0.70620.93955−0.08101376.0−8.8872.8640.0135.676
0.79050.95534−0.06141390.8−6.9092.4850.0114.983
0.89440.97541−0.03401411.2−4.0182.0150.0063.250
1.00000.996520.00001434.00.0001.5360.0000.000
313.15 K
0.00000.817880.00001261.00.0004.7740.0000.000
0.10050.83328−0.05231272.7−5.0254.4510.0071.224
0.19120.84750−0.08241283.2−8.0364.1570.0112.200
0.29060.86351−0.10451295.4−10.443.8330.0133.104
0.39210.88030−0.11271308.4−11.553.5020.0153.828
0.49980.89865−0.11031323.1−11.673.1490.0164.325
0.60990.91805−0.10001339.6−10.832.7870.0154.476
0.70620.93555−0.08351355.2−9.1012.4700.0144.242
0.79050.95131−0.06391370.3−7.1772.1910.0123.677
0.89440.97134−0.03651391.0−4.2311.8450.0072.339
1.00000.992390.00001414.00.0001.4910.0000.000
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.825420.00001161.60.0004.8200.0000.000
0.09450.84355−0.04871181.0−4.8114.5200.0061.017
0.18250.86008−0.07871200.1−7.8214.2380.0091.857
0.28250.87850−0.09991223.3−10.113.9170.0122.671
0.38910.89774−0.11061250.0−11.393.5730.0143.345
0.48080.91396−0.11131274.7−11.573.2770.0143.734
0.59190.93322−0.10121307.0−10.832.9170.0143.921
0.69820.95128−0.08351340.8−9.2092.5710.0133.734
0.78210.96528−0.06491369.5−7.2842.2980.0113.263
0.88950.98289−0.03591409.3−4.1791.9460.0072.104
1.00001.000650.00001454.00.0001.5810.0000.000
308.15 K
0.00000.821540.00001148.80.0003.9640.0000.000
0.09450.83965−0.05191167.9−5.0793.7410.0070.799
0.18250.85615−0.08191186.5−8.0903.5310.0101.447
0.28250.87454−0.10261209.1−10.323.2910.0132.068
0.38910.89374−0.11331235.1−11.553.0340.0152.567
0.48080.90994−0.11401259.2−11.732.8120.0162.847
0.59190.92918−0.10391290.7−10.992.5430.0162.961
0.69820.94721−0.08671323.7−9.3702.2830.0142.790
0.78210.96120−0.06811351.8−7.5532.0770.0122.413
0.88950.97879−0.03911390.7−4.4471.8120.0081.537
1.00000.996520.00001434.00.0001.5360.0000.000
313.15 K
0.00000.817610.00001136.20.0003.3300.0000.000
0.09450.83571−0.05511154.9−5.3473.1640.0080.633
0.18250.85218−0.08521173.0−8.3583.0060.0111.131
0.28250.87054−0.10531195.0−10.542.8250.0151.604
0.38910.88971−0.11601220.3−11.772.6310.0161.972
0.48080.90590−0.11671243.8−11.952.4630.0172.177
0.59190.92511−0.10661274.6−11.222.2590.0172.248
0.69820.94314−0.08991306.6−9.5312.0620.0162.100
0.78210.95711−0.07141334.2−7.8211.9050.0141.802
0.88950.97470−0.04231372.1−4.7161.7040.0091.142
1.00000.992390.00001414.00.0001.4910.0000.000
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-methyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.812030.00001238.10.0003.8140.0000.000
0.08990.83294−0.05301254.9−5.0093.6200.0070.706
0.17980.85285−0.08301272.1−8.3763.4230.0101.315
0.27950.87392−0.10421291.9−10.613.2030.0131.872
0.37450.89308−0.11331311.3−11.622.9920.0152.279
0.47880.91314−0.11291333.6−11.862.7600.0152.560
0.58790.93316−0.10551357.9−11.222.5160.0152.646
0.68010.94932−0.09101379.0−9.9732.3090.0142.519
0.77490.96526−0.06981401.1−7.9582.0960.0122.163
0.87990.98219−0.04131425.9−4.8691.8580.0091.432
1.00001.000650.00001454.00.0001.5810.0000.000
308.15 K
0.00000.808210.00001221.50.0003.2590.0000.000
0.08990.82910−0.05621238.1−5.3473.1110.0070.574
0.17980.84896−0.08621254.8−8.4122.9610.0111.060
0.27950.86999−0.10741274.1−10.702.7920.0141.497
0.37450.88911−0.11551293.3−11.772.6300.0161.811
0.47880.90914−0.11511315.2−12.002.4510.0172.023
0.58790.92912−0.10771339.0−11.322.2630.0172.076
0.68010.94527−0.09371359.9−10.072.1030.0161.963
0.77490.96119−0.07301381.8−8.0901.9380.0141.675
0.87990.97811−0.04511406.3−5.0381.7530.0101.100
1.00000.996520.00001434.00.0001.5360.0000.000
313.15 K
0.00000.804390.00001204.80.0002.7040.0000.000
0.08990.82524−0.05761221.3−5.6862.6030.0080.433
0.17980.84508−0.09021237.3−8.4472.4990.0130.787
0.27950.86606−0.11041256.3−10.782.3810.0161.098
0.37450.88515−0.11971275.2−11.912.2680.0181.316
0.47880.90515−0.11941296.7−12.152.1430.0191.460
0.58790.92510−0.11081320.1−11.412.0100.0191.488
0.68010.94123−0.09861340.7−10.161.8970.0181.396
0.77490.95714−0.07881362.3−8.2221.7800.0161.186
0.87990.97403−0.05051386.7−5.2061.6470.0110.773
1.00000.992390.00001414.00.0001.4910.0000.000

Note(s): The standard uncertainties are u (x1) = 1 × 10−4, u (ρ) ±2×10−5 g.cm−3, u (u) = ±0.8 m.s−1, u (η) = ±1.12%, u (T) = 0.01 K for density, speed of sound and viscosity, and u (P) = 1 kPa

The values of V¯m,1°Vm,1*, V¯m,1°E, V¯m,2°, Vm,2* and V¯m,2°E of the components for P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol at T= (303.15–313.15) K

T/KV¯m,1°Vm,1*· V¯m,1°EV¯m,2°Vm,2*V¯m,2°E
(cm3·mol−1)
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2)
303.15133.78134.08−0.303157.26157.80−0.535
308.15134.30134.64−0.341157.93158.51−0.578
313.15134.82135.20−0.380158.61159.23−0.622
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15133.73134.08−0.356123.18123.78−0.601
308.15134.23134.64−0.404123.72124.37−0.648
313.15134.75135.20−0.451124.27124.97−0.696
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-methyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15133.67134.08−0.409107.86108.55−0.689
308.15134.18134.64−0.463108.32109.07−0.742
313.15134.67135.20−0.527108.81109.58−0.774

The values of K¯s,m,1°, Ks,m,1*, K¯s,m,1°E, K¯s,m,2°, Ks,m,2* and K¯s,m,2°E of the components for P-methylacetophenone with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol at T= (303.15–313.15) K

T/KK¯s,m,1°Ks,m,1*K¯s,m,1°E· K¯s,m,2°Ks,m,2*K¯s,m,2°E
TPa−1
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2)
303.15−45.986.338−52.32−73.6211.279−84.90
308.15−50.866.570−57.43−79.5311.739−91.27
313.15−55.786.814−62.60−85.4912.243−97.73
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15−53.136.338−59.47−67.9511.114−79.07
308.15−58.986.570−65.55−74.0011.471−85.47
313.15−64.686.814−71.50−79.9511.840−91.79
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-methyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15−60.056.338−66.39−68.658.721−77.37
308.15−64.376.570−70.94−73.879.044−82.92
313.15−68.806.814−75.62−79.029.385−88.41

Mole fraction of morpholine (x1), experimental and calculated values of densities, speeds of sound and viscosities using the Jouyban–Acree model for all binary mixtures at various temperatures

x1ExptCalExptCalExptCal
Density (ρ) *103 kg·m−3Speed of sound (u) m.s−1Viscosity (η)/mPa·s
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.825290.825291302.01302.07.1467.146
0.10050.840740.840711313.61313.56.5926.635
0.19120.855050.855021324.51324.36.0906.120
0.29060.871140.871121336.81336.75.5405.546
0.39210.888020.888021349.91349.84.9774.974
0.49980.906480.906481364.71364.64.3784.386
0.60990.925960.925931380.91380.73.7653.790
0.70620.943540.943481396.31396.03.2283.260
0.79050.959370.959291410.91410.62.7572.783
0.89440.979480.979411431.21430.72.1752.182
1.00001.000651.000651454.01454.01.5811.581
308.15K
0.00000.821590.821591282.01282.06.0126.012
0.10050.837020.836991293.61293.45.5685.596
0.19120.851280.851261304.31304.25.1665.185
0.29060.867330.867311316.51316.44.7234.729
0.39210.884160.884161329.51329.44.2714.270
0.49980.902570.902571344.21344.13.7903.795
0.60990.922010.921981360.51360.33.2963.313
0.70620.939550.939491376.01375.72.8642.886
0.79050.955340.955271390.81390.52.4852.504
0.89440.975410.975341411.21410.72.0152.023
1.00000.996520.996521434.01434.01.5361.536
313.15 K
0.00000.817880.817881261.01261.04.7744.774
0.10050.833280.833251272.71272.54.4514.466
0.19120.847500.847481283.21283.14.1574.168
0.29060.863510.863491295.41295.33.8333.837
0.39210.880300.880291308.41308.33.5023.502
0.49980.898650.898651323.11323.03.1493.152
0.60990.918050.918021339.61339.32.7872.797
0.70620.935550.935491355.21355.02.4702.483
0.79050.951310.951241370.31369.92.1912.203
0.89440.971340.971261391.01390.41.8451.852
1.00000.992390.992391414.01414.01.4911.491
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-ethyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.825420.825421161.61161.64.8204.820
0.09450.843550.843561181.01180.94.5204.524
0.18250.860080.860081200.11200.14.2384.240
0.28250.878500.878481223.31223.43.9173.915
0.38910.897740.897691250.01250.03.5733.572
0.48080.913960.913931274.71274.73.2773.279
0.59190.933220.933271307.01306.92.9172.924
0.69820.951280.951421340.81340.42.5712.581
0.78210.965280.965481369.51369.12.2982.306
0.88950.982890.983081409.31408.81.9461.949
1.00001.000651.000651454.01454.01.5811.581
308.15 K
0.00000.821540.821541148.81148.83.9643.964
0.09450.839650.839661167.91167.83.7413.743
0.18250.856150.856151186.51186.53.5313.532
0.28250.874540.874511209.11209.23.2913.290
0.38910.893740.893691235.11235.13.0343.033
0.48080.909940.909911259.21259.12.8122.813
0.59190.929180.929221290.71290.62.5432.547
0.69820.947210.947341323.71323.42.2832.289
0.78210.961200.961391351.81351.42.0772.083
0.88950.978790.978981390.71390.21.8121.815
1.00000.996520.996521434.01434.01.5361.536
313.15 K
0.00000.817610.817611136.21136.23.3303.330
0.09450.835710.835711154.91154.83.1643.165
0.18250.852180.852181173.01173.03.0063.006
0.28250.870540.870511195.01195.12.8252.824
0.38910.889710.889661220.31220.32.6312.630
0.48080.905900.905861243.81243.72.4632.464
0.59190.925110.925151274.61274.42.2592.261
0.69820.943140.943271306.61306.42.0622.066
0.78210.957110.957311334.21333.71.9051.909
0.88950.974700.974881372.11371.51.7041.705
1.00000.992390.992391414.01414.01.4911.491
P-methylacetophenone (1) + 2-methyl-1-butanol (2)
303.15 K
0.00000.812030.812031238.11238.13.8143.814
0.08990.832940.832981254.91254.93.6203.621
0.17980.852850.852861272.11272.13.4233.423
0.27950.873920.873831291.91291.93.2033.202
0.37450.893080.892931311.31311.42.9922.991
0.47880.913140.913051333.61333.72.7602.761
0.58790.933160.933241357.91357.92.5162.521
0.68010.949320.949631379.01378.92.3092.316
0.77490.965260.965811401.11401.02.0962.103
0.87990.982190.982781425.91425.81.8581.862
1.00001.000651.000651454.01454.01.5811.581
308.15 K
0.00000.808210.808211221.51221.53.2593.259
0.08990.829100.829131238.11238.03.1113.112
0.17980.848960.848971254.81254.82.9612.961
0.27950.869990.869901274.11274.22.7922.791
0.37450.889110.888961293.31293.32.6302.629
0.47880.909140.909041315.21315.22.4512.452
0.58790.929120.929201339.01339.02.2632.266
0.68010.945270.945581359.91359.82.1032.108
0.77490.961190.961741381.81381.71.9381.943
0.87990.978110.978691406.31406.11.7531.756
1.00000.996520.996521434.01434.01.5361.536
313.15 K
0.00000.804390.804391204.81204.82.7042.704
0.08990.825240.825281221.31220.92.6032.603
0.17980.845080.845091237.31237.52.4992.499
0.27950.866060.865981256.31256.42.3812.381
0.37450.885150.885001275.21275.22.2682.268
0.47880.905150.905051296.71296.62.1432.143
0.58790.925100.925181320.11320.12.0102.012
0.68010.941230.941541340.71340.61.8971.900
0.77490.957140.957691362.31362.21.7801.783
0.87990.974030.974611386.71386.41.6471.649
1.00000.992390.992391414.01414.01.4911.491

Note(s): The standard uncertainties are u (x1) = 1 × 10−4, u (ρ) ±2 × 10−5 g.cm−3, u (u) = ±0.8 m.s−1., u (η) = ±1.12%, u (T) = 0.01 K for density, speed of sound and viscosity, and u (P) = 1 kPa

Supplementary Figures
Supplementary Tables

References

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Further reading

Sharma, M., & Dubey, G.P. (2008). Physics and Chemistry of Liquids, 46, 610.

Corresponding author

Shaik Babu can be contacted at: drshaikbabu.physics@gmail.com

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