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Simultaneous arm morphing quadcopter and autonomous flight system design

Oguz Kose (Department of Aircraft Technology, Erzincan Binali Yildirim University, Erzincan, Turkey)
Tugrul Oktay (Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, and)
Enes Özen (Department of UAV Technology, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep, Turkey)

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 0002-2667

Article publication date: 22 September 2023

Issue publication date: 13 November 2023




The purpose of this paper is to obtain values that stabilize the lateral and longitudinal flight of the quadrotor for which the morphing amount and the best Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) coefficients are determined by using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) optimization algorithm.


Quadrotor consists of body and arms; there are propellers at the ends of the arms to take off and rotors that rotate them. By reducing the angle between mechanism 1 and the rotors with the horizontal plane, the angle between mechanism 2 and the arms, the rotors rise and different configurations are obtained. Conventional multi-rotor aircraft has a fixed fuselage and does not need a tail rotor to change course as helicopters do. The translational and rotational movements are provided by the rotation of the rotors of the aircraft at different speeds by creating moments about the geometric center in 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) space. These commands sent from the ground are provided by the flight control board in the aircraft. The longitudinal and lateral flight stability and properties of different configurations evaluated by dynamic analysis and simulations in 6 DOF spaces are investigated. An algorithm and PID controller are being developed using SPSA to achieve in-flight position and attitude control of an active deformable aircraft. The results are compared with the results of the literature review and the results of the previous article.


With SPSA, the best PID coefficients were obtained in case of morphing.

Research limitations/implications

The effects of quadrotor arm height and hub angle changes affect flight stability. With the SPSA optimization method presented in this study, the attitude is quickly stabilized.

Practical implications

With the optimization method, the most suitable PID coefficients and angle values for the lateral and longitudinal flight stability of the quadrotor are obtained.

Social implications

The transition rate and PID coefficients are determined by using the optimization method, which is advantageous in terms of cost and practicality.


With the proposed method, the aircraft can change shape to adapt to different environments, and the parameters required for more stable flight for each situation will be calculated, and this will be obtained more quickly and safely with the SPSA optimization method.



Research funding: This work has been supported by Erciyes University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit under grant number FBA-2022–12375.


Kose, O., Oktay, T. and Özen, E. (2023), "Simultaneous arm morphing quadcopter and autonomous flight system design", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 95 No. 10, pp. 1624-1632.



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