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Design-airworthiness integration method for general aviation aircraft during early development stage

Maxim Tyan (Department of Aerospace Information Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
Jungwon Yoon (Hanwha Corporation Defense R&D Center, Daejeon, Republic of Korea)
Nhu Van Nguyen (Viettel Aerospace Institute, Viettel Group, Hanoi, Vietnam)
Jae-Woo Lee (Department of Aerospace Information Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
Sangho Kim (Department of Aerospace Information Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 0002-2667

Article publication date: 20 June 2019

Issue publication date: 15 August 2019




Major changes of an aircraft configuration are conducted during the early design stage. It is important to include the airworthiness regulations at this stage while there is extensive freedom for designing. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient design framework that integrates airworthiness guidelines and documentation at the early design stage.


A new design and optimization process is proposed that logically includes the airworthiness regulations as design parameters and constraints by constructing a certification database. The design framework comprises requirements analysis, preliminary sizing, conceptual design synthesis and loads analysis. A design certification relation table (DCRT) describes the legal regulations in terms of parameters and values suitable for use in design optimization.


The developed framework has been validated and demonstrated for the design of a Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 23 four-seater small aircraft. The validation results show an acceptable level of accuracy to be applied during the early design stage. The total mass minimization problem has been successfully solved while satisfying all the design requirements and certification constraints specified in the DCRT. Moreover, successful compliance with FAR 23 subpart C is demonstrated. The proposed method is a useful tool for design optimization and compliance verifications during the early stages of aircraft development.

Practical implications

The new certification database proposed in this research makes it simpler for engineers to access a large amount of legal documentation related to airworthiness regulations and provides a link between the regulation text and actual design parameters and their bounds.


The proposed design optimization framework integrates the certification database that is built of several types of legal documents such as regulations, advisory circulars and standards. The Engineering Requirements and Guide summarizes all the documents and design requirements into a single document. The DCRT is created as a summary table that indicates the design parameters affected by a given regulation(s), the design stage at which the parameter can be evaluated and its value bounds. The introduction of the certification database into the design optimization framework significantly reduces the engineer’s load related for airworthiness regulations.



This research was supported by Konkuk University Brain Pool 2018. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) [grant NRF- 2018R1D1A1B07046779] funded by the Korean government.


Tyan, M., Yoon, J., Nguyen, N.V., Lee, J.-W. and Kim, S. (2019), "Design-airworthiness integration method for general aviation aircraft during early development stage", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 91 No. 7, pp. 1067-1076.



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