The purpose of this study is to examine state-of-the-art in hybrid-electric propulsion system modeling and suggest new methodologies for sizing such advanced concepts. Many entities are involved in the modelling and design of hybrid electric aircraft; however, the highly multidisciplinary nature of the problem means that most tools focus heavily on one discipline and over simplify others to keep the analysis reasonable in scope. Correctly sizing a hybrid-electric system requires knowledge of aircraft and engine performance along with a working knowledge of electrical and energy storage systems. The difficulty is compounded by the multi-timescale dynamic nature of the problem. Furthermore, the choice of energy management in a hybrid electric system presents multiple degrees of freedom, which means the aircraft sizing problem now becomes not just a root-finding exercise, but also a constrained optimization problem.
The hybrid electric vehicle sizing problem can be sub-divided into three areas: modelling methods/fidelity, energy management and optimization technique. The literature is reviewed to find desirable characteristics and features of each area. Subsequently, a new process for sizing a new hybrid electric aircraft is proposed by synthesizing techniques from model predictive control and detailed conceptual design modelling. Elements from model predictive control and concurrent optimization are combined to formulate a new structure for the optimization of the sizing and energy management of future aircraft.
While the example optimization formulation provided is specific to a hybrid electric concept, the proposed structure is general enough to be adapted to any vehicle concept which contains multiple degrees of control freedom that can be optimized continuously throughout a mission.
The proposed technique is novel in its application of model predictive control to the conceptual design phase.
Perullo, C. and Mavris, D. (2014), "A review of hybrid-electric energy management and its inclusion in vehicle sizing", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 86 No. 6, pp. 550-557. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-04-2014-0041Download as .RIS
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