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Multi-objective structural optimization of a wind turbine blade using NSGA-II algorithm and FSI

Ramazan Özkan (Wind Engineering and Aerodynamic Research Lab., Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey and Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Kötekli, Turkey)
Mustafa Serdar Genç (Wind Engineering and Aerodynamic Research Lab., Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, Energy Conversion and Research and Application Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey and Application Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, and MSG Teknolojii Ltd. Şti., Kayseri, Turkey)

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 0002-2667

Article publication date: 13 July 2021

Issue publication date: 12 August 2021

179

Abstract

Purpose

Wind turbines are one of the best candidates to solve the problem of increasing energy demand in the world. The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective structural optimization study to a Phase II wind turbine blade produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to obtain a more efficient small-scale wind turbine.

Design/methodology/approach

To solve this structural optimization problem, a new Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was performed. In the optimization study, the objective function was on minimization of mass and cost of the blade, and design parameters were composite material type and spar cap layer number. Design constraints were deformation, strain, stress, natural frequency and failure criteria. ANSYS Composite PrepPost (ACP) module was used to model the composite materials of the blade. Moreover, fluid–structure interaction (FSI) model in ANSYS was used to carry out flow and structural analysis on the blade.

Findings

As a result, a new original blade was designed using the multi-objective structural optimization study which has been adapted for aerodynamic optimization, the NSGA-II algorithm and FSI. The mass of three selected optimized blades using carbon composite decreased as much as 6.6%, 11.9% and 14.3%, respectively, while their costs increased by 23.1%, 29.9% and 38.3%. This multi-objective structural optimization-based study indicates that the composite configuration of the blade could be altered to reach the desired weight and cost for production.

Originality/value

ACP module is a novel and advanced composite modeling technique. This study is a novel study to present the NSGA-II algorithm, which has been adapted for aerodynamic optimization, together with the FSI. Unlike other studies, complex composite layup, fiber directions and layer orientations were defined by using the ACP module, and the composite blade analyzed both aerodynamic pressure and structural design using ACP and FSI modules together.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Scientific Research Projects Unit of Erciyes University under the contract numbers: FDK-2019-8616 for funding.

Citation

Özkan, R. and Genç, M.S. (2021), "Multi-objective structural optimization of a wind turbine blade using NSGA-II algorithm and FSI", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 93 No. 6, pp. 1029-1042. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-02-2021-0055

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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