To read this content please select one of the options below:

Gamification of assembly planning in virtual environment

Samir Garbaya (Laboratoire END-ICAP, U1179 INSERM, Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Paris, France)
Daniela M. Romano (Department of Information Studies, University College London, London, UK)
Gunjeet Hattar (Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Paris, France)

Assembly Automation

ISSN: 0144-5154

Article publication date: 7 August 2019

Issue publication date: 18 October 2019




The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the gamification of virtual assembly planning on the user performance, user experience and engagement.


A multi-touch table was used to manipulate virtual parts and gamification features were integrated into the virtual assembly environment. An experiment was conducted in two conditions: a gamified and a non-gamified virtual environment. Subjects had to assemble a virtual pump. The user performance was evaluated in terms of the number of errors, the feasibility of the generated assembly sequence and the user feedback.


The gamification reduced the number of errors and increased the score representing the number of right decisions. The results of the subjective and objective analysis showed that the number of errors decreased with engagement in the gamified assembly. The increase in the overall user experience reduced the number of errors. The subjective evaluation showed a significant difference between the gamified and the non-gamified assembly in terms of the level of engagement, the learning usability and the overall experience.

Research limitations/implications

The effective learning retention after training has not been tested, and longitudinal studies are necessary. The effect of the used gamification elements has been evaluated as a whole; further work could isolate the most beneficial features and add other elements that might be more beneficial for learning.


The research reported in this paper provides valuable insights into the gamification of virtual assembly using a low-cost multi-touch interface. The results are promising for training operators to assemble a product at the design stage.



The authors acknowledge the contribution of the Institute Carnot ARTS for providing the funds to conduct this research under the grant number 06-06042.


Garbaya, S., Romano, D.M. and Hattar, G. (2019), "Gamification of assembly planning in virtual environment", Assembly Automation, Vol. 39 No. 5, pp. 931-943.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles