The purpose of this article is to reviews state-of-the-art developments in four-dimensional (4D) printing, discuss what it is, investigate new applications that have been discovered and suggest its future impact.
The article clarifies the definition of 4D printing and describes notable examples covering material science, equipment and applications.
This article highlights an emerging technology cycle where 4D printing research has gained traction within additive manufacturing. The use of stimuli-responsive materials can be programmed and printed to enable pre-determined reactions when subject to external stimuli.
This article reviews state-of-the-art developments in 4D printing, discusses what it is, investigates new applications that have been discovered and suggests its future impact.
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