Index

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle

ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0, eISBN: 978-1-83982-882-9

Publication date: 19 November 2020

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2020), "Index", Buxton, J., Margo, G. and Burger, L. (Ed.) The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 325-336. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-882-920200041

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:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Julia Buxton, Giavana Margo, Lona Burger for the editorial matter and selection and 2021 authors for their respective chapters.

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These works are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of these works (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


INDEX

Note: Page numbers followed by “n” indicate notes.

Abolition
, 266, 268

Abolitionist drug policy reform
, 268

carceral logics and PIC
, 264–266

disproportionality in UK
, 262–264

logical extension of harm reduction
, 266–268

war on drugs
, 259–262

Abstinence-based approach
, 221

Activism
, 5, 8, 34, 39, 41, 44, 242, 260

Addiction
, 88

Advocacy
, 4, 7–8, 45, 115, 143, 147, 178, 223–224, 228, 254, 263, 268, 274

Aftercare services
, 128

Ageing populations
, 60

Agency
, 23, 27–30, 35, 93, 248, 279

Alcohol
, 207

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
, 87

Alternative Development strategies (AD strategies)
, 148

Amphetamine
, 207–208, 231

Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)
, 13

Annual Report Questionnaire (ARQ)
, 250–251, 254

review process
, 254–255

Anonymous People, The (film)
, 41

Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1986)
, 10

Anti-drugs strategies
, 157

Anti-oppression movement
, 281

Anxiety disorders among women who use drugs
, 72

Assan, Happy (story)
, 191–194

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
, 131

ASWAC
, 75

Auto-ethnography
, 3, 39

Bangkok Rules
, 125, 138

Bill of Rights
, 224

Black and minority ethnic individuals (BAME individuals)
, 262–263

Blood-borne viruses (BBV)
, 50

Buprenorphine
, 80

Cairo Programme of Action
, 26

Cannabis
, 133, 153, 207, 231

Carceral logics
, 264–266

Carcerality
, 264–266

Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCL)
, 240

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)
, 70

Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica (CNMH)
, 170–171

Chemical-based substances
, 10

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA)
, 49

Civil society
, 257–258

Co-occurring disorders
, 69

Coca crops
, 169

Cocaine
, 10, 131, 208, 243

Cocaleras
, 169–170

lives in Putumayo
, 170–172

Coercion
, 10–12, 21

Colombia
, 6, 13, 104–106, 109, 156–157, 169–170, 179–181

Colombian coca fields

lives of Cocaleras in Putumayo
, 170–172

women cultivating coca
, 172–177

Commercial sex, new governance of
, 93–95

Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND)
, 9, 250

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)
, 256

Committee on Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
, 256

Community collaborative research board (CCRB)
, 53

Community Service Order Act (CSO Act)
, 125

Community service organisations (CSOs)
, 114–115, 220

Community/communities
, 2, 97, 156

achievements of community paralegal model
, 226–227

gap
, 219

mobilisation interventions
, 56

Comorbidity
, 69

Comunita Incontro Programme
, 138

Contextual assimilation
, 152

Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971)
, 9

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
, 4, 115

Couples-based HIV prevention interventions
, 55

Criminal justice system (CJS)
, 262, 265

discrimination across
, 118–120

Criminalisation
, 2, 5–6, 79–80, 94–95, 148, 200, (see also Decriminalisation)

criminalisation-based drug policy strategies
, 4

of drug use
, 52

of unauthorised cultivation
, 156

“Criminality”
, 6

Critical drug studies

gender in
, 33–35

as intervention
, 38–40

pleasure in
, 35–38

Critical drug theory
, 240–241

Cultivation
, 4, 9, 13, 106, 266–267

Darknets
, 13

Day Top Programme
, 138

Dealing
, 62

Decarceration
, 267

Decriminalisation
, 94, (see also Criminalisation)

decriminalisation-based policies
, 133–134

drug use
, 259

harm minimisation in
, 96–97

in promoting social justice for women at margins
, 97

sex work
, 259

Deflection
, 225

Demand-and-supply mechanism
, 133

Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE)
, 171

Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP)
, 170

Department of Defence (DOD)
, 11

Depenalisation-based policies
, 133–134

Depression
, 51, 68, 72

among women who use drugs
, 71–72

Deviance
, 32, 150, 271, 281

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
, 68

Discourse
, 271–272

Discrimination
, 263

across criminal justice system
, 118–120

Disproportionality in UK
, 262–264

Double-edged sword of neoliberal power
, 93

Drop-in centres (DICs)
, 194, 221

Drug

addiction
, 69

availability
, 60

control as policy fiasco
, 15–17, 20

cryptomarkets
, 154

drug-related offences
, 103, 125, 261, 264

money
, 108

mules
, 107, 109

offences
, 103

pleasures
, 33, 35–38, 40

possession
, 113

registries
, 76–79

rehabilitation programme
, 138

trafficking
, 7, 28, 104, 108, 159–160, 252

women as drug intermediaries
, 142–143

women as drug sellers/traffickers
, 142

women in drug supply
, 149–151

Drug markets
, 19

women in
, 149–151

Drug policy
, 2, 5, 15–16, 20, 261, (see also Gendering drug policy)

depenalisation-based and decriminalisation-based policies
, 133–134

indicators
, 8, 16

legalisation-based policies
, 133

penalisation-based policies
, 132–133

processes
, 153–154

reform
, 4–5, 7, 12, 41, 57

repressive approach of
, 115

Russia’s approach to
, 113

in Southeast Asia
, 132

Drug trafficking organisation (DTO)
, 159–161

Drug use
, 50–51, 199–200, 275

behaviours
, 114

in comparative harm reduction perspective
, 211–213

in festival settings
, 206–207

Drug users

critical drug theory
, 240–241

drug policy
, 239–240

engaging with policy
, 241–243

happy drug user
, 246–247

professional drug user
, 245–246

recovered/recovering drug users
, 243–244

registry
, 116

sick drug users
, 244–245

as stakeholders
, 239

typography of drug user participation
, 243

DSM-5
, 71–72

Early-onset users
, 62

East-Central Europe (ECE)
, 204

Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA)
, 75, 79

Eating disorders among women who use drugs
, 73

Economic

exclusion
, 148

orthodoxy
, 148

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
, 10

Ecstasy
, 131

Edgework
, 60–61

Embodiment
, 33, 35–36, 38, 276

Emotionality
, 277

privileging emotionality and difference as feminist act
, 277–280

Empowerment
, 5, 26, 56–57, 155, 181, 216, 252, 283

Enforcement of criminalisation
, 2

Equality
, 25

‘Ethics of care’
, 40

Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA)
, 75

European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)
, 115

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
, 59, 76, 203

European Union (EU)
, 77

Excarceration
, 266

Extrajudicial police practices
, 116–118

‘Female drug user’
, 270

Female participation

in organised crime
, 167–168

in Sinaloa DTO
, 162–163

in Yamaguchi-gumi organisation
, 161–162

Female prison populations
, 134–135

Female sex workers (FSWs)
, 56, 91–92

Femininities
, 3, 273

‘Feminisation of poverty’
, 148

Feminism
, 4, 282

Feminist

auto-ethnography
, 272

movement
, 274, 281

Festivals
, 204–213

Financial vulnerability
, 142, 148

Fiscal austerity
, 98

Framing women
, 23–24

Fraser’s political injustice paradigm
, 99

Free Legal Assistance Group (FLAG)
, 185

Freedom of choice
, 97

Fundación Ideas para la Paz (FIP)
, 177

Gender
, 23–24

analysis
, 24–25

in critical drug research
, 33–35

disparity
, 67

equity
, 25

gender-based discrimination
, 116

gender-based stigma
, 115–116

gender-responsive criminal justice
, 197

gender-responsive harm reduction approaches
, 197

norms
, 3

sensitivity
, 30

stratification
, 151

Gender non-conforming people (GNC+ people)
, 264

Gender-based drug policy outcomes
, 249

2016 UNGASS and aftermath
, 252–254

ARQ review process
, 254–255

civil society
, 257–258

leveraging SDGs
, 256–257

leveraging UN Human Rights mechanisms
, 255–256

women
, 250–252

Gender-based violence (GBV)
, 49–50, 69, 108, 126–127, 220

and drug use
, 50–51

and HIV
, 51

‘Gendered addiction’
, 71

Gendered comorbidity
, 70–71

Gendered experiences
, 67

Gendered mental health
, 68–69

Gendered vulnerability
, 67

Gendering drug policy
, (see also International drug policy)

engendering field of drugs
, 26–28

gender
, 23–24

gender analysis
, 24–25

gender backlash
, 31–32

policy making
, 29–30

women as exceptional and ‘abnormal’
, 28–29

Gilbertson, Fiona (story)
, 41–45

Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP)
, 12, 261

Governmentality
, 271–272

Grassroots community development
, 43

Hacking’s theory
, 272

1912 Hague International Opium Convention
, 17

Harm
, 1–2

minimisation
, 96–97

Harm reduction

logical extension of
, 266–268

measures
, 210–211

programmes
, 198

services
, 193–194

strategies
, 128

‘Health and wellbeing’
, 2

Health services for women who use drugs

criminalisation
, 79–80

data gaps
, 75–76

drug registries
, 76–79

harm reduction and linkage to healthcare
, 81–83

ignoring women’s needs in programme design
, 80–81

Health-oriented approaches for women who use drugs
, 127–128

‘Hegemonic masculinities’
, 150

Hidden’ populations

access to social justice and legal rights
, 224–225

achievements of community paralegal model
, 226–227

experience and lessons learnt during implementation of SRHS for WWUD
, 227

in HIV prevention
, 220–222

MEWA’s multi-agency approach to reaching
, 222–224

partnership with Mombasa County Attorney’s Office
, 225–226

UNODC
, 219

WWUD
, 220

HIV

in Russia
, 113

testing
, 82

Hong Kong University (HKU)
, 185

House I Live In, The (film)
, 41

Human rights
, 26, 115

and drugs
, 126–127

human rights-based legal framework
, 96–97

Human Rights Council (HRC)
, 255

Human Rights Watch
, 115

Humanitarian Legal Assistance Foundation (HLAF)
, 185

‘HUNT’
, 138

Identity
, 23, 27, 31, 36, 163, 217, 272, 282–283

IDU Care
, 187–188

Illegal drug markets
, 148–149

Illicit drug

crop cultivation
, 13

use impact on women in Zimbabwe
, 143–144

Illicit markets
, 21, 147, 152

Illicit trade
, 1

Impact of drug policy enforcement
, 1–2

Incarceration
, 6, 64, 79, 103–104, 108, 125, 149, 154, 225, 256

Inequality
, 19, 22–23, 110

Informal economies
, 20, 153

Injecting
, 21–22

Institutional racism
, 263

Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi (IGAC)
, 171

Integrated Human Development Programme
, 137

Integrated socio-economic approaches
, 132

Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction (INSPIRE)
, 55

International drug control
, 1, 15

International drug policy
, 5

CND
, 9–10

coercion and militarisation
, 10–12

drug control as policy fiasco
, 15–17

implementation impacts
, 20–22

legacy of history
, 17–19

record of drug control
, 12–15

unwinnable war
, 19–20

International Drug Policy Consortium (IDPC)
, 261

International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
, 9

Intersectional approach
, 170

Intersectionality
, 197

Intimate partner violence (IPV)
, 49, 51

JEWEL
, 56

Kenya
, 7, 219

prison and policy in
, 124

women in
, 123

Kenya Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Control Act (1994)
, 124

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS)
, 123

Kenya’s Drug Control Bill
, 126

Kenyan prison system

best practices implementation in Kenya
, 125–126

correctional services and incarceration of women
, 124–125

health-oriented approaches for women who use drugs
, 127–128

human rights and drugs
, 126–127

linkage and aftercare services
, 128–129

prison and policy in Kenya
, 124

psycho-education and support
, 128

social impact of drug use on women
, 123–124

Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC)
, 192

‘Kindling’
, 69

Kingpin’ strategy
, 150

Labour-Liberal Democrat
, 98

Las Empoderadas’
, 181

Late-onset users
, 62

Latin America, women’s incarceration in
, 104–106

Legal agricultural crops
, 156

Legalisation
, 94

LGBTQI community, challenges for
, 194

Lived and Living Experience Executive group (LLEEG)
, 242

Lived experience
, 3, 5, 8, 24, 38, 40–41, 154, 276, 281, 287

Livelihoods
, 6, 39, 148, 156–157, 173, 176, 222, 248

‘Looping effect’
, 276

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
, 206, 209

Mandela Rules
, 125

Marginalisation of women
, 147

Masculinities
, 3, 151–152

Médecins du Monde (MDM)
, 193

Medicalisation
, 275

Medically Assisted Therapy (MAT)
, 126, 128

Medically Assisted Therapy Programme (MATP)
, 221

Medicinal Cannabis Reform Scotland group (MCRS)
, 241, 244, 247

Member retention
, 164–166

Members of County Assembly (MCAs)
, 225

Mental disorders
, 67–68, 70

Mental health
, 67–68

Mental illness
, 67–69

Methadone
, 80

treatment
, 128

Methamphetamine
, 51, 131, 153

3, 4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)
, 153, 203, 206, 208–209, 243

Mexican organised crime
, 160

Militarisation
, 10–12

Money laundering
, 166–167

‘Moral sidestepping’
, 247

Mother’s story about drug use
, 231–237

Mushrooms
, 231

Music festivals
, 7, 204, 206, 209

Muslim Education and Welfare Association (MEWA)
, 220–221, 224, 226

multi-agency approach to reaching hidden populations
, 222–224

Nairobi Outreach Services Trust
, 221

Naloxone
, 198

‘Narco-diplomacy’
, 17

Narcofeminism
, 284–287

Narcotic Act (1994)
, 125

Narcotic and Psychotropic Substance Control Act
, 224–225

Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
, 219

Narcotics
, 1

drugs
, 10

Narcotics Act
, 134

Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
, 87

Narkodispansers
, 76

Narkouchet
, 76, 78

National AIDS and STI Control Program (NASCOP)
, 221

National Authority for the Campaign against Drug Abuse (NACADA)
, 124, 219

National Comprehensive Program for the Substitution of Illicit Crops
, 180

National Health Service (NHS)
, 88

National Police Agency
, 164

Needle syringe programmes (NSP)
, 81, 221

Neoliberal

economic strategies
, 98

governance
, 148

processes
, 147–148

Neoliberalism
, 98, 276

New psychoactive substances (NPS)
, 13–14

Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
, 45, 220

Normalisation theory
, 203–204

Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
, 160

Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
, 254–256

Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
, 132

Older drug users
, 59

Older people who use drugs (OPWUD)
, 59

Older women who use drugs (OWWUD)
, 59, 62

risk and edgework
, 60–61

risk behaviours among
, 62–65

setting scene
, 59–60

‘One size fits all’ policy
, 25

Open Society Initiative for Eastern Africa (OSIEA)
, 192, 223

Opiates
, 10

Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs
, 198

Opioid substitution treatment (OST)
, 79, 81

Organized crime
, 159

next steps in research of female participation in organised crime
, 167–168

Overdose crisis

barriers to care for pregnant women who use drugs
, 199–202

in New York City
, 198

women who use drugs as overdose responders
, 198–199

Panic attacks
, 72

Participation
, 2, 30, 99, 106–109, 241, 258

Partnership for Action in Drugs (PADS)
, 242–243

Pathology
, 275

Patriarchal cultures
, 28

Patriarchy
, 278

Peace Agreement
, 176

Penalisation-based policies
, 132–133

Penitentiary Act (1936)
, 138

People Using Drugs movement
, 191

People who inject drugs (PWID)
, 76, 113–114, 116, 120–121, 220

People who use drugs (PWUD)
, 33, 35, 37, 39, 124, 220–222, 225

Physical reproduction
, 31

Plant supply, women and
, 155–159

Plant-based substances
, 10

Pleasure
, 5, 32–33, 35–36, 61, 260, 277

Police corruption
, 108

Policing
, 2–6, 15, 34, 93–94, 120–121, 265–266

Policy fiasco, drug control as
, 15–17

Policy shift
, 243

2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action
, 250

Political dimension of justice
, 99

Politicisation
, 215–216

Population of people who use drugs (PWUD)
, 113

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
, 51, 68

among women who use drugs
, 72–73

‘Postclassical mode’
, 71

Poverty
, 82

Pregnancy
, 29, 34, 45, 69, 72, 81, 127, 173, 197, 200–202, 234

Pregnant women who use drugs, barriers to care for
, 199–202

Prison

and policy in Kenya
, 124

prison-based programmes
, 138

system
, 29, 134, 138–139, 217

Prison industrial complex (PIC)
, 264–266

Professional drug user
, 245–246

Programa de Sustitución Integral de Cultivos Ilícitos (PNIS) (see National Comprehensive Program for the Substitution of Illicit Crops)

Prohibition
, 279, 282

prohibition-based drug strategies
, 19–20

Prostitution
, 92

Prostitution Reform Act (PRA)
, 96

Psilocybin
, 209–210, 243

Psycho-education and support
, 128

Psychoactive substances
, 1

Psychotropic Narcotic Act
, 127

Queer feminine identities
, 215–218

Queer sex workers who use drugs
, 217

Queer women
, 216–218

Race
, 4, 20–21, 33, 43, 71, 97, 269, 271, 282

Racial profiling
, 263

Re-framing gendered drug use
, 281

Reach Out Centre Trust (RCT)
, 221

Recognition–redistribution divide
, 97

Recovered/recovering drug users
, 243–244

Recreational drug use
, 7

‘Redistribution’
, 99

Regulation
, 92–94

Representation
, 99

Repression
, 115–116

Repressive approach of drug policy
, 115

Repressive drug policies
, 82

Reproductive hormones
, 68

Resistance
, 61, 97, 126, 158, 220–221, 277, 285

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
, 176

Right-wing nationalism
, 31

Risk
, 60–61, 275

behaviours among OWWUD
, 62–65

in sex workers
, 93

Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce (RSA)
, 240

Rural poverty
, 134, 158, 176

Russia

CSO
, 114–115

discrimination across criminal justice system
, 118–120

drug possession
, 113–114

extrajudicial police practices and violence
, 116–118

findings
, 115

policing in
, 114

repression and gender-based stigma
, 115–116

Russian Federation
, 113

sentencing practices in
, 118

WWUD
, 120–121

Scholarly activism
, 32, 38

Scotland case study
, 95

regulating to protect public and rescue women from male violence
, 95–96

Scottish Drug Policy Conversations (SDPC)
, 240–241, 247

Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment model (SBIRT model)
, 53

Security
, 26

Self of Western liberal humanist theory
, 276

Self-medication
, 69

Sex
, 68

challenges for sex workers
, 192–193

work
, 93–95

Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)
, 223

Sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS)
, 222

experience and lessons learnt during implementation of
, 227

Sexual diversity
, 93

Sexual IPV
, 51

Sexual practices
, 64

Sexuality
, 29, 31, 35, 37, 91, 152, 216, 271, 282

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
, 51

Sharkey, Suzanne (story)
, 85–89

Sick drug users
, 244–245

Sinaloa
, 160

Sinaloa Criminal Groups

scholarly and media coverage of female participation in
, 161

scholarly and media coverage of female participation in Sinaloa DTO
, 162–163

Sinaloa DTO, female participation in
, 162–163

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
, 127, 155, 260

1961 Single Convention
, 17

Social control
, 278

Social impact of drug use on women
, 123–124

Social justice

approach
, 92

theories
, 98

Social movement

of peasant women
, 181

of women
, 287

Social reproduction
, 31

Sociological accounts
, 273

Southeast Asia

ASEAN Community
, 131–132

drug policies in
, 132–134

drugs in
, 131

women offenders in
, 134–139

Soviet drug registry
, 77

Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR)
, 158

Standard Minimum Rules
, 125

State violence
, 21, 263, 268

Stigma
, 44

Stress-related disorders
, 72

Structural determinants
, 69

‘Subcultural capital’
, 150

Subjective approach
, 170

Substance abuse, AIDS, and violence syndemic (SAVA syndemic)
, 49–51

community level and structural interventions
, 56

integrated IPV, HIV, and substance use prevention interventions
, 54–55

integrating SBIRT models within continuum of HIV/HCV test-and-treat interventions
, 53

opportunities for future research, interventions, and policies
, 56–57

risk environments fuelling SAVA syndemic
, 52

SAVA syndemic with women
, 52

trauma-informed interventions
, 55–56

Substance knowledge
, 210–211

Substance use
, 69, 86, 123

Supervised injection facilities
, 198

Supply actors
, 20

Supporting for Addiction Prevention and Treatment in Africa (SAPTA)
, 128

‘Suppression regime’
, 15

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
, 257

leveraging
, 256–257

Syndemic
, 49–52

Synthetic drug markets
, 153

Tanzania National Coordinating Mechanism for Global Fund (TNCM)
, 194

Thailand Institute of Justice (TIJ)
, 135, 138–139

The Omari Project (TOP)
, 221

Therapeutic Communities (TC)
, 138

Trauma
, 275

trauma-focussed integrated intervention
, 55

trauma-informed interventions
, 55–56

trauma-related diagnoses among women who use drugs
, 72–73

Unequal enforcement of drug laws
, 262

2016 UNGASS
, 11, 252–254

United Nations (UN)
, 10, 26, 115, 249

Development Programme
, 126

leveraging UN Human Rights mechanisms
, 255–256

UN Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs (1961)
, 9

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
, 148, 252

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
, 192

United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
, 148

United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV)
, 10

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
, 10, 60, 106, 113, 125, 132, 149, 156–157, 169, 219, 250–251, 261

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
, 14, 55

Victimisation
, 136

Violence
, 21, 116–118

against children
, 108

‘Vulnerability’
, 28, 71

War on drugs
, 169, 259–262, 277

lives of Cocaleras in Putumayo
, 170–172

Queer feminine identities
, 215–218

women cultivating coca
, 172–177

women in Duterte’s
, 183–188

Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA)
, 103, 106, 110

‘Welfare internationalism’
, 1

Welfarisation
, 93

Who use drugs (WUD)
, 49–50

Woman who uses drugs
, 215

young transgender
, 215

Women

as actors in drug economy
, 147

alcohol
, 207

amphetamine
, 207–208

Angela
, 109

cannabis
, 207

coca growers
, 179

coca leaf production
, 179–180

cocaine
, 208

correctional services and incarceration of
, 124–125

in crime
, 163

cultivating coca
, 172

as drug consumers
, 141–142

as drug intermediaries
, 142–143

in drug policy outcomes
, 250–252

as drug sellers/traffickers
, 142

drug supply and drug markets
, 149–151

drug use patterns in comparative harm reduction perspective
, 211–213

drug use patterns in festival settings
, 206–207

in Duterte’s war on drugs
, 183–188

evaluating impacts of drug policy on
, 257–258

as exceptional and ‘abnormal’
, 28–29

impact of forced eradication
, 174–177

in illicit crop cultivation
, 249

illicit drug use impact on women in Zimbabwe
, 143–144

incarcerated for drug-related offences
, 103

innovation, creativity and autonomy
, 151–153

involvement and participation of
, 106–109

in Kenya
, 123

at locus of intersecting risk
, 52

LSD
, 209

at margins
, 92

market change, future trends and research limitations
, 153–155

MDMA
, 208–209

member retention
, 164–166

methods
, 204–205

money laundering
, 166–167

at music festivals
, 203

neoliberal processes
, 147–148

normalisation theory
, 203–204

as optimal partners
, 163

Orfa
, 109–110

and plant supply
, 155–159

psilocybin
, 209–210

reasons for cultivating coca
, 172–174

rights
, 26

sample characteristics
, 205–206

social impact of drug use on
, 123–124

substance knowledge and harm reduction measures
, 210–211

women and plant supply
, 155–159

women’s incarceration in Latin America
, 104–106

Women Initiating New Goals for Safety (WINGS)
, 53

to identify and tackle GBV among Women WUD
, 53–54

Women offenders in Southeast Asia
, 134

characteristics of women prisoners
, 135–136

female prison populations
, 134–135

pathways to prison
, 136

treatment of women prisoners
, 137–139

Women prisoners

characteristics
, 135–136

treatment
, 137–139

Women who inject drugs (WWID)
, 49

Women who use drugs (WWUD)
, 67, 114–115, 120–121, 144, 220, 269–270, (see also Older women who use drugs (OWWUD))

academic literature on
, 270–271

anxiety disorders among
, 72

depression among
, 71–72

eating disorders among
, 73

experience and lessons learnt during implementation of SRHS for
, 227

feminist readings of
, 273–274

gendered comorbidity
, 70–71

gendered mental health
, 68–69

health-oriented approaches for
, 127–128

mental health
, 67–68

mental health disorders among
, 71

mental illness and substance use
, 69

narcofeminism
, 280–283

narratives of deficit
, 274–277

as overdose responders
, 198–199

privileging emotionality and difference as feminist act
, 281–284

PTSD and trauma-related diagnoses
, 72–73

theory and method
, 275–277

Women’s CoOp (WC)
, 54

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 68, 80, 201

Yakuza
, 159–162, 164, 166–167

Yamaguchi-gumi organisation
, 159–160

scholarly and media coverage of female participation in
, 161–162

Zimbabwe

illegal drug trade in
, 141

illicit drug use impact on women in
, 143–144

women as drug consumers
, 141–142

women as drug intermediaries
, 142–143

women as drug sellers/traffickers
, 142

Prelims
Introduction
Chapter 1: International Drug Policy in Context
Chapter 2: Gendering Drug Policy
Chapter 3: Women and the Politics of Pleasure in Critical Drug Studies
Chapter 4: Fiona’s Story
Chapter 5: Nexus of Risk: The Co-occurring Problems of Gender-based Violence, HIV and Drug Use Among Women and Adolescent Girls
Chapter 6: Risk Behaviours Among Older Women Who Use Drugs
Chapter 7: Women Who Use Drugs and Mental Health
Chapter 8: Access Barriers to Health Services for Women Who Use Drugs in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Chapter 9: Suzanne’s Story
Chapter 10: Sex Work, Justice and Decriminalisation: Beyond a Politics of Recognition in Promoting a Social Justice Response to Women at the Margins
Chapter 11: Women Incarcerated for Drug-related Offences: A Latin American Perspective
Chapter 12: Policing and Sentencing Practices in Russia and their Impacts on Women Who Use Drugs
Chapter 13: Women, Drug Policy and the Kenyan Prison System
Chapter 14: Drug Policy and Women Prisoners in Southeast Asia
Chapter 15: The Increase in Women Who Use Drugs in Zimbabwe
Chapter 16: Women as Actors in the Drug Economy
Chapter 17: Women’s Involvement in Organised Crime and Drug Trafficking: A Comparative Analysis of the Sinaloa and Yamaguchi-gumi Organisations
Chapter 18: From the Colombian Coca Fields: Peasant Women Amid the War on Drugs
Chapter 19: ‘Las Empoderadas’ Women Coca Growers Building Territorial Peace
Chapter 20: Unseen and Unheard: The Women in Duterte’s War on Drugs
Chapter 21: Happy’s Story
Chapter 22: Overdose Risks and Prevention Strategies for Pregnant Women in New York City
Chapter 23: Patterns of Recreational Drug Use and Harm Reduction Strategies among Women at Music Festivals: The Case of Hungary and Poland
Chapter 24: Queer Feminine Identities and the War on Drugs
Chapter 25: Best Practices in Reaching ‘Hidden’ Populations and Harm Reduction Service Provision
Chapter 26: A Mother’s Story
Chapter 27: Drug Users as Stakeholders in Drug Policy: Questions of Legitimacy and the Silencing of the Happy Drug User
Chapter 28: Improving Drug Policy Metrics and Advancements in Measuring Gender-based Drug Policy Outcomes
Chapter 29: Towards an Abolitionist Drug Policy Reform
Chapter 30: Women Who Use Drugs: Resistance and Rebellion
References
Index