The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse

ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2, eISBN: 978-1-83982-848-5

Publication date: 4 June 2021


Bailey, J. (2021), "Introduction", Bailey, J., Flynn, A. and Henry, N. (Ed.) The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse (Emerald Studies In Digital Crime, Technology and Social Harms), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 385-386.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Jane Bailey. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This chapter is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of these chapters (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at


This chapter is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of these chapters (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at

The four chapters in this section focus on technology-facilitated violence and abuse (TFVA) in the contexts of domestic and family violence, as well as between intimate partners. Together, they provide rich insights from survivors and from the advocates and practitioners who support them. They highlight the double-edged sword of technology in both perpetuating and combatting these forms of TFVA, as well as the necessity of taking an intersectional approach to gender-based violence. As Crenshaw (1991) so ably demonstrated, failure to take into account the impacts of intersecting forms of oppression on women experiencing violence is likely to result in policy and services that fail to meet the needs of women from the most marginalized communities, such as immigrant and refugee women, as well as racialized and Indigenous women, and women living in remote and rural areas. From an international perspective, the Global-North's domination in published research has meant that the narratives and experiences of women in the Global-South have received too little consideration on the world stage (Barberet & Carrington, 2018). The chapters in this section help to address some of the existing gaps in the literature by giving voice to the lived experiences of women living in remote areas of Australia (Bridget Harris & Delanie Woodlock), and those of advocates and practitioners supporting women experiencing domestic violence in Singapore (Laura Vitis), young women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in Brasil and Australia (Lopes Gomes Pinto Ferreira), and culturally and linguistically diverse women in Australia (Yee Man Louie).

The section opens with Harris and Woodlock's chapter that acknowledges how the spacelessness of digital coercive control allows IPV perpetrators to create an overwhelming sense of omnipotence, but also emphasizes the continuing relevance of spatiality. Harris and Woodlock conducted individual interviews and a focus group with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women living in rural areas of New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria (31% of whom were born outside of Australia). Their findings highlight both the significance of intersectionality in research in this area, as well as the double-edged sword of digital technology in the fight against IPV. While technology played a role in amplifying (ex) intimate partners' coercive control over their participants because of their remote locations, it was also sometimes their only point of connectivity with the outside world.

Vitis' chapter addresses the gap in the existing empirical research on TFVA against women in South East Asia by providing insights from interviews with frontline workers about the ways technology is shaping the dating, domestic, and family violence experiences of women in Singapore. Vitis' results support the need to include TFVA in future quantitative surveys in Singapore and for further qualitative research with women survivors of TFVA to gain a better understanding of the role of technology in Singaporean women's experiences of violence. She argues that research grounded in lived experience could play a crucial role in formulating meaningful policy responses.

Lopes Gomes Pinto Ferreira' chapter also reports on findings from interviews of those working on the front lines to address IPV. In this case, however, the advocates are based in the Global-South – Brasil and Australia – and their work focuses on IPV and young people. Approaching her research through a Southern Feminist framework, the results of Lopes Gomes Pinto Ferreira' interviews with 14 Brasilian and five Australian advocates emphasize both the negative and positive roles played by technology in the context of IPV among youth. Noting other findings suggesting a normalization of IPV in young people's relationships, as well as their own observations of the use of technology to perpetrate IPV among the young people they work with, Lopes Gomes Pinto Ferreira' participants also identify the important role that social media, websites, and/or online games can play in raising awareness about healthy relationships and signs of IPV among this highly digitally connected population.

Finally, Louie's chapter helps to address the gap in the domestic violence literature with respect to the experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse women. Her interviews with 13 domestic violence practitioners from a variety of sectors who had experiences working with culturally and linguistically diverse women, specifically provide insights with respect to victim-survivors of Chinese descent, with eight of her participants having worked with women in this demographic. Louie's results demonstrate both the importance of intersectionality, as well as the double-edged sword of technology in the domestic violence context. Similar to the research participants reported on in other chapters in this section, Louie's participants confirm the role of technology as both a facilitator of and a response to IPV. However, they also note the importance of ensuring the accessibility of technology-based responses in terms of meeting the linguistic needs of victim-survivors and using the platforms they are most likely to access.


Barberet et al., 2018 Barberet, R. & Carrington, K. (2018). Globalizing feminist criminology: Gendered violence during peace and war. In K. Carrington , R. Hogg , J. Scott & M. Sozzo (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and the Global South (pp. 821845). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crenshaw, 1991 Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 12411299.

Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse: International Perspectives and Experiences
Section 1 TFVA Across a Spectrum of Behaviors
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Is it Actually Violence? Framing Technology-Facilitated Abuse as Violence
Chapter 3 “Not the Real World”: Exploring Experiences of Online Abuse, Digital Dualism, and Ontological Labor
Chapter 4 Polyvictimization in the Lives of North American Female University/College Students: The Contribution of Technology-Facilitated Abuse
Chapter 5 The Nature of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse among Young Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 6 The Face of Technology-Facilitated Aggression in New Zealand: Exploring Adult Aggressors' Behaviors
Chapter 7 The Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women Crisis: Technological Dimensions
Chapter 8 Attending to Difference in Indigenous People's Experiences of Cyberbullying: Toward a Research Agenda
Section 2 Text-Based Harms
Chapter 9 Introduction
Chapter 10 “Feminism is Eating Itself”: Women's Experiences and Perceptions of Lateral Violence Online
Chapter 11 Claiming Victimhood: Victims of the “Transgender Agenda”
Chapter 12 Doxxing: A Scoping Review and Typology
Chapter 13 Creating the Other in Online Interaction: Othering Online Discourse Theory
Chapter 14 Text-Based (Sexual) Abuse and Online Violence Against Women: Toward Law Reform?
Section 3 Image-Based Harms
Chapter 15 Introduction
Chapter 16 Violence Trending: How Socially Transmitted Content of Police Misconduct Impacts Reactions toward Police Among American Youth
Chapter 17 Just Fantasy? Online Pornography's Contribution to Experiences of Harm
Chapter 18 Intimate Image Dissemination and Consent in a Digital Age: Perspectives from the Front Line
Section 4 Dating Applications
Chapter 19 Introduction
Chapter 20 Understanding Experiences of Sexual Harms Facilitated through Dating and Hook Up Apps among Women and Girls
Chapter 21 “That's Straight-Up Rape Culture”: Manifestations of Rape Culture on Grindr
Chapter 22 Navigating Privacy on Gay-Oriented Mobile Dating Applications
Section 5 Intimate Partner Violence and Digital Coercive Control
Chapter 23 Introduction
Chapter 24 Digital Coercive Control and Spatiality: Rural, Regional, and Remote Women's Experience
Chapter 25 Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women in Singapore: Key Considerations
Chapter 26 Technology as Both a Facilitator of and Response to Youth Intimate Partner Violence: Perspectives from Advocates in the Global-South
Chapter 27 Technology-Facilitated Domestic Abuse and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Victoria, Australia
Section 6 Legal Responses
Chapter 28 Introduction
Chapter 29 Human Rights, Privacy Rights, and Technology-Facilitated Violence
Chapter 30 Combating Cyber Violence Against Women and Girls: An Overview of the Legislative and Policy Reforms in the Arab Region
Chapter 31 Image-Based Sexual Abuse: A Comparative Analysis of Criminal Law Approaches in Scotland and Malawi
Chapter 32 Revenge Pornography and Rape Culture in Canada's Nonconsensual Distribution Case Law
Chapter 33 Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in an Era of Drones and Deepfakes: Expanding the Supreme Court of Canada's Decision in R v Jarvis
Chapter 34 Doxing and the Challenge to Legal Regulation: When Personal Data Become a Weapon
Chapter 35 The Potential of Centralized and Statutorily Empowered Bodies to Advance a Survivor-Centered Approach to Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women
Section 7 Responses Beyond Law
Chapter 36 Introduction
Chapter 37 Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women and Girls in Public and Private Spheres: Moving from Enemy to Ally
Chapter 38 As Technology Evolves, so Does Domestic Violence: Modern-Day Tech Abuse and Possible Solutions
Chapter 39 Threat Modeling Intimate Partner Violence: Tech Abuse as a Cybersecurity Challenge in the Internet of Things
Chapter 40 Justice on the Digitized Field: Analyzing Online Responses to Technology-Facilitated Informal Justice through Social Network Analysis
Chapter 41 Bystander Apathy and Intervention in the Era of Social Media
Chapter 42 “I Need You All to Understand How Pervasive This Issue Is”: User Efforts to Regulate Child Sexual Offending on Social Media
Chapter 43 Governing Image-Based Sexual Abuse: Digital Platform Policies, Tools, and Practices
Chapter 44 Calling All Stakeholders: An Intersectoral Dialogue about Collaborating to End Tech-Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Chapter 45 Pandemics and Systemic Discrimination: Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse in an Era of COVID-19 and Antiracist Protest