The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse

ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2, eISBN: 978-1-83982-848-5

Publication date: 4 June 2021


(2021), "Prelims", Bailey, J., Flynn, A. and Henry, N. (Ed.) The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse (Emerald Studies In Digital Crime, Technology and Social Harms), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xxiv.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Jane Bailey, Asher Flynn and Nicola Henry. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title Page

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse

Title Page

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse

Compiled and Edited by

Jane Bailey

University of Ottawa, Canada

Asher Flynn

Monash University, Australia

Nicola Henry

RMIT University, Australia

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2021

Editorial matter and selection © 2021, Jane Bailey, Asher Flynn and Nicola Henry. Individual chapters © 2021 the authors.

Published by Emerald Publishing Limited

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY 4.0).

Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this book (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-83982-848-5 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-83982-850-8 (Epub)

List of Figures and Tables

Chapter 5
Figure 5.1. Experiences of Various Dimensions of TFVA by Gender.
Chapter 12
Figure 12.1. Combined Line/Bar Graph Showing the Number of Doxxing-Related Studies Published per Year between 2010–2019.
Chapter 13
Figure 13.1. Attributes of Othering Online Discourse (OOD) Can Be Divided Based on How the Discourses Relate to the Topic and Imagined Audience of the Discussion or How the Discourses Appear to the Reader.
Figure 13.2. The Orientations of Othering Online Discourse (OOD) Explore the Relationship between the Producer or the Target of OOD and the Imagined Audience of the Discussion.
Figure 13.3. Usages of Othering Online Discourse (OOD) Examine the Repercussions That Othering Can Have or How It Will Appear to the Reader.
Chapter 38
Figure 38.1. The Framework for Inclusive Safety within the Design Process.
Chapter 39
Figure 39.1. Three Phases of IPV that Affected Technology Use, Focusing on Privacy & Security Practices.
Figure 39.2. Overview of the Smart Lock System.
Chapter 40
Figure 40.1. Differentiation in Sentiment and Demographic Responses among Twitter Users within the “Nathan Broad” Search Term.
Figure 40.2. Distribution of References, Mediators, and Listeners within Network.
Figure 40.3. Listener–Mediator Network Prior to Community Detection.
Figure 40.4. Listener–Mediator Network Following Community Detection via ForceAtlas2 Clustering Algorithm and Size Differentiation Based on Betweenness Centrality.
Figure 40.5. Social Media Spectatorship and Image-Based Sexual Abuse.
Chapter 5
Table 5.1. Descriptive Characteristics of Respondents.
Table 5.2. Self-Reported Experience of Any Specific TFVA Among Respondents.
Table 5.3. Coping Strategies by Respondents.
Chapter 6
Table 6.1. Adult New Zealanders' Overall Engagement in TFA by Gender and Age.
Table 6.2. Prevalence of Each Type of TFA by Gender and Age.
Table 6.3. The Target of TFA by Gender and Age.
Table 6.4. Aggressors' Reasons for Engaging in TFA by Gender and Age.
Table 6.5. Channels Used for TFA.
Table 6.6. TFA as Part of a Wider Issue Happening Offline.
Chapter 12
Table 12.1. A Typology of Doxxing.
Chapter 14
Table 14.1. Harms Arising from Text-Based (Sexual) Abuse.
Chapter 29
Table 29.1. Relating Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse Harms to Human Rights Instruments.
Chapter 30
Table 30.1. The Status of Domestic Violence Laws in the Arab Region.
Table 30.2. The Status of Sexual Harassment Laws in the Arab Region.
Table 30.3. The Status of Cybercrime Laws in the Arab Region.
Chapter 31
Table 31.1. Data Set Decisions and Outcomes.
Chapter 39
Table 39.1. Tech Abuse Threat Model.
Table 39.2. Account Capabilities.

About the Editors and Contributors


Jane Bailey is a Full Professor at the University of Ottawa Faculty of Law (Common Law) in Canada. Jane's research focuses on technology's intersections with law and equality, with a particular current focus on technology-facilitated violence and its impacts on young people from marginalized communities. She has published and spoken locally, nationally, and internationally on a wide variety of technology-related topics, including “cyberbullying,” online hate, gender-based technology-facilitated violence, and the discriminatory effects of corporate data collection practices and how those practices set young people up for conflict and harassment. She currently co-leads The eQuality Project, a seven-year Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research initiative funded by a Cdn$2.5 million Partnership Grant. The Project involves an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Canada, the US, Hong Kong, and Finland, as well as over 20 community, governmental, educational, and youth organizations. It focuses on young people's experiences with privacy and equality in digitally networked environments. Jane leads the Project stream on technology-facilitated violence. She is a member of the New College of the Royal Society of Canada and the Women's Legal Education and Action Fund Committee on Gender-Based Technology-Facilitated Violence, was awarded the Ramon John Hnatyshyn Award for Law by the Canadian Bar Association, acted as lead counsel for an intervener before the Supreme Court of Canada on its first case dealing with the offense of voyeurism, and has been a visiting professor at RMIT, Hong Kong University, and the Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Dr Asher Flynn is an Associate Professor of Criminology at Monash University, a Group of Eight institution in Victoria, Australia. Asher's research utilizes a socio-legal framework to understand, critique, and transform legal policy and practice, with a particular focus on gendered and technology-facilitated violence and abuse. Asher has published widely and is lead researcher on several projects in the fields of AI-facilitated abuse, deepfakes, gendered violence, and image-based sexual abuse. Asher is the recipient of a number of prestigious national and international research fellowships including at the University of Durham, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Manchester, and the University of Warwick. She has advised the United Nations, Facebook, and the Australian Office of the eSafety Commissioner on policy and prevention of technology-facilitated violence and abuse and has received several awards for her research.

Nicola Henry is an Associate Professor and Vice-Chancellor's Principal Research Fellow in the Social and Global Studies Center at RMIT University (Melbourne, Australia). Nicola's research focuses on the prevalence, nature, and impacts of sexual violence, including legal and non-legal responses in Australian and international contexts. The goal of her work is to contribute to social, legal, and political change, deepen knowledge, and provide support to victim–survivors of violence. She has conducted numerous projects on image-based sexual abuse and technology-facilitated abuse which have led to significant legal and policy change in Australia. She is a member of the Office of the eSafety Commissioner's Expert Advisory Committee. She was Expert Advisor on the development of the eSafety Office's world-first image-based abuse portal as well as the award-winning eSafety Women: Online Training for Frontline Workers. Nicola has published widely in the sexual violence field and has been interviewed many times for television, radio, print, and online media.


Moira Aikenhead is a PhD Candidate at the Peter A. Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia, Canada. Her dissertation research explores the Canadian criminal response to technology-facilitated intimate partner violence through a feminist lens, and she has previously published research on Canada's nonconsensual distribution and voyeurism laws.

Sukaina Al-Nasrawi is a sustainable development expert at the United Nations ESCWA. She has a notable record of publications in the areas of technology for gender equality, digital divide, and smart sustainable cities, among others. Sukaina received research and professional awards including the United Nations Gold Award for Advancing Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. She holds a PhD in technology for development.

Briony E. Anderson is a graduate researcher in Criminology at the University of Melbourne, recently commencing her PhD candidature in 2020. Briony's thesis engages with privacy and anonymity in online space by considering the harm experience of doxxing.

Dr Kim Barker is Senior Lecturer in Law at the Open University (UK). Dr Barker's research focuses on internet regulation and intellectual property law. Her research focuses on the online regulation of platforms, with specific expertise in online abuses, online violence, and the legal responsibilities of internet actors.

Tabrina M. Bratton is a PhD student in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. She received her Master's Degree in Criminal Justice. Tabrina's research interest includes public attitudes toward sexual and gender minority populations, policy processes, and technology-facilitated victimization.

Ella Broadbent is a Criminology Honors graduate, who has completed a thesis researching image-based sexual abuse. Her research interests include the role social media plays in facilitating violence and harm and how mixed methods and quantitative research design can enrich criminological scholarship.

Elena Cama is a Scientia PhD Candidate at UNSW Law in Sydney, Australia. She is a mixed methods researcher with a background in criminology, social science, and public health. Her PhD research focuses on digital communications technologies and the perpetration of sexual harms in online dating.

Professor Bronwyn Carlson is an Aboriginal scholar and Head of the Department of Indigenous Studies at Macquarie University. She is the recipient of three consecutive Australia Research Council grants that focus on Indigenous cultural, social, and political engagements on social media. Her current project explores Indigenous people's experiences of online conflict.

Anne Cheung is a Professor of Law at the University of Hong Kong whose research encompasses the areas of law and technology, freedom of expression, and privacy. Her most recent project concerns China's social credit system, and she is the co-editor of Privacy and Legal Issues in Cloud Computing (2015).

Sarai Chisala-Tempelhoff LLB (Hons) LLM is a Malawian human rights lawyer and legal researcher. She is the founder and Executive Director of the Gender and Justice Unit, an initiative that hones in on legal empowerment as a tool to bring about gender equality and social justice in Malawi.

Ben Colliver is a Lecturer in Criminology at Birmingham City University. His research interests include hate crime, queer studies, gender, and sexuality. He has recently published in the area of online hate speech. He is a member of the steering group of the British Society of Criminology Hate Crime Network.

Dr Elizabeth Coombs was Privacy Commissioner of New South Wales, Australia from 2011–2017 and held CEO positions and statutory appointments in Government. Based in Malta, Elizabeth works for the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy, chairing the Taskforce “Privacy and Personality” and acting as a member of Health-Related Data; Corporations' Use of Personal Data, and Big Data–Open Data Taskforces.

Walter S. DeKeseredy is Anna Deane Carlson Endowed Chair of Social Sciences, Director of the Research Center on Violence, and Professor of Sociology at West Virginia University. He has published 26 books and over 100 refereed journal articles on topics such as woman abuse, rural criminology, and critical criminological theory.

Christopher Dietzel is a PhD candidate at McGill University. His doctoral research examines sexual consent related to dating app use and sexual violence against LGBTQ+ people.

Suzie Dunn is a PhD candidate and a Part-Time Professor at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law. Her research centers on the intersections of gender, equality, technology, and the law, with a specific focus the nonconsensual distribution of intimate images, deepfakes, and impersonation in digital spaces.

Dr Ryan Frazer is a settler scholar and cultural geographer. He recently completed his PhD, which drew on the work of Deleuze and Guattari to rethink geographies of care, volunteering, and refugee resettlement. He is currently Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Indigenous Studies, exploring Indigenous people's experiences of online conflict.

Chandell Gosse (she/her) is a PhD Candidate in Media Studies in the Faculty of Information and Media Studies at Western University in London, Ontario. Her research takes an interdisciplinary approach and sits most broadly at the intersection of feminism, digital culture, and anti-violence work. Find her on Twitter @ChandellEnid

Dr Elly Hanson is a Clinical Psychologist who focuses on the prevention of sexual abuse and reducing its impact. She has both academic and practice-based strands to her work, undertaking research, consultation, training and assessments, and working primarily with educators, law enforcement, social workers, survivors, and charities. Elly's recent research and writing has focused on online forces and dynamics conducive to sexual abuse.

Bridget Harris is an Australian Research Council DECRA Fellow based at Queensland University of Technology. Bridget researches on violence against women and spatiality; gender-based violence; domestic and family violence; and technology-facilitated violence, advocacy, and justice. Her edited collection (with Woodlock) examines Domestic Violence and Technology: Experiences, Perpetration, and Responses (Routledge).

Pam Hrick (JD, LLM) is a lawyer at Stockwoods LLP in Toronto, Canada. She maintains a broad practice that includes civil litigation, administrative law, criminal law, and constitution litigation. She regularly advises and represents survivors of sexual violence.

Heather K. Hudson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health Sciences at the University of Central Arkansas. She received her PhD in Health Education from Southern Illinois University. Her research interests include human sexuality and technology, sexual communication and social media, and women's health issues.

Nchelem Kokomma Ichegbo is a Program Officer at Viable Knowledge Masters in Nigeria where she provides technical support to multiple projects. She is experienced in conducting literature reviews and collecting quantitative and qualitative data. She has interests in adapting technological innovations to public health and education.

Michael Gboyega Ilesanmi is a Senior Social Development Specialist and Social Safeguards Coordinator for the World Bank Nigeria Country Office, Abuja. Currently, he is co-leading the World Bank's operation on Women's Economic Empowerment in Nigeria and leads the Bank's GBV risk mitigation work in Nigeria.

Dr Emma A. Jane is an Associate Professor at UNSW Sydney. Her interdisciplinary research focuses on the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTLE) causes and effects of emerging technology. Dr Jane's 10th book—Misogyny Online: A Short (and Brutish) History—was published by Sage in 2017.

Dr Olga Jurasz is a Senior Lecturer in Law at the Open University (UK). Dr Jurasz's research focuses on international law, human rights, and legal responses to violence against women (including online violence), specializing in feminist perspectives on law in these areas.

Dr Samantha Keene is a Lecturer at Criminology at the Institute of Criminology at Te Herenga Waka – Victoria University of Wellington. Dr Keene's research focuses on gendered experiences of crime, mainstream pornography and its effects, rough sex, and sexual violence.

Raine Liliefeldt is YWCA Canada's Director of Member Services and Development. She has over 16 years of experience in the nonprofit sector, was responsible for the federally-funded initiative Project Shift: Creating a Safer Digital World for Young Women, and oversees Lead Now, a national young women's leadership program.

Gisella Lopes Gomes Pinto Ferreira is a qualified lawyer in Brasil and has a degree in Law from UFMG. She holds a MPhil in Justice from Queensland University of Technology. Her thesis research explores the prevention of gendered violence in youth cohorts in Brasil.

Gabrielle L. Lory is a second-year PhD student at West Virginia University, specializing in criminology. Her research focuses on rural crime, violence against women, and restorative justice. She currently works as a Graduate Assistant in the Division of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion and serves as co-editor of The Rural Criminologist newsletter.

Yee Man Louie is a PhD candidate at the Technology, Communication and Policy Lab, Digital Ethnography Research Center at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Her current research focuses on the use of digital communication technologies, domestic violence, and the lived experiences of Chinese women in Melbourne.

Robert D. Lytle is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. He received his PhD in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Nebraska – Omaha. Robert's research interests include criminal justice policy, corrections, and public attitudes about criminal justice.

Olusesan A. Makinde is the managing partner at Viable Knowledge Masters (VKM), a research and consulting company registered in Nigeria. He has researched the intersection between gender-based violence and social media in Nigeria.

Alison J. Marganski, PhD is Associate Professor and Director of Criminology at Le Moyne College in Syracuse, NY. Her research takes an interdisciplinary approach to studying violence (perpetration as well as victimization), including technologically facilitated violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and mass murder, along with their respective solutions.

Olga Marques, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Criminology and Justice at Ontario Tech University. Her teaching and research focuses on the construction, policing, and regulation of sexed, gendered, and raced bodies. She is also engaged in research on the impacts of incarceration, as well as Indigenous experiences of criminalization and victimization.

Lisa A. Melander, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work at Kansas State University. Her primary research interests lie in the intersection of family and crime and include issues such as intimate partner violence, cyber aggression, and women's incarceration.

Neil Melhuish is Director of Policy and Research at Netsafe, New Zealand. He has worked on online safety issues since 2004.

Madeleine Novich, PhD is a Criminal Justice Professor at Manhattan College, USA. Her research focuses on the intersection of policing, procedural justice, and criminalized communities of color.

Emmanuel Olamijuwon is a Lecturer in the Department of Statistics and Demography at the University of Eswatini, Eswatini. He is also a PhD candidate in demography and population studies at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. His current research examines opportunities for advancing sexual and reproductive health of young African adults in the digital age.

Dr Cheluchi Onyemelukwe is a lawyer, academic, and international consultant with expertise in gender law and policy, gender-based violence, international human rights, and health law and policy. She is Associate Professor of Law at Babcock University School of Law and Security Studies.

Dr Edgar Pacheco is a Research Analyst at Netsafe, New Zealand. His work focuses on online risks and harm as well as disability and higher education.

Eva PenzeyMoog is a user experience designer working to build out the field of “safety design.” She works to make technology safe through centering the safety of survivors of domestic violence. Eva created the “Framework for Inclusive Safety” to help technologists create safe tech. Readers can learn more at

Dr Michael Salter is the Scientia Associate Professor of Criminology at the University of New South Wales, where he specializes in the study of complex trauma, gendered violence, and technology. He is an expert advisor to national and international online child protection agencies.

Sara Shayan is a lawyer practicing in Toronto, Ontario. She holds a Bachelor of Arts (Honors) in English Literature from the University of British Columbia and a JD from the University of Ottawa. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the view of her employer.

Dr Danielle C. Slakoff is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at California State University, Sacramento. Her research interests include media criminology and domestic violence. Danielle's work on women's issues within the criminal justice system can be found in Feminist Criminology, Sociology Compass, and Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law and Society.

Julia Slupska is a doctoral student at the Center for Doctoral Training in Cybersecurity and the Oxford Internet Institute. She researches how cybersecurity concepts and practices can address technologically mediated abuse, as well as how feminist theories and methodology—such as action research and the ethics of care—can improve cybersecurity.

Seonaid Stevenson-McCabe LLB (Hons) LLM is a Scottish lawyer and Lecturer in Law at Glasgow Caledonian University. Inspired by the rebellious lawyering movement founded by Gerald López, she is the co-founder of RebLaw Scotland, an organization which explores how law can be used as a tool for social justice.

Danielle M. Stoneberg is a PhD student in Sociology at West Virginia University. Her publications include articles in International Criminal Justice Review and Crime Prevention and Community Safety on topics such as drug use and policing in rural US communities and violence against women.

Leonie Maria Tanczer is Lecturer in International Security and Emerging Technologies at University College London's (UCL) Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP). Her research focuses on questions related to internet security, and she is specifically interested in the intersection points of technology, security, and gender.

Kristen Thomasen is an Assistant Professor of Law, Robotics, and Society at the University of Windsor, Faculty of Law, and a PhD candidate at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law. Her research focuses on the legal, social, and ethical implications of robotic and autonomous machines, with particular focus on privacy and public spaces.

Chrissy Thompson holds a PhD in Criminology. Her doctoral research examined upskirting in Australia, and she has published on topics including media archeology, creepshots, viral justice, countersurveillance, and upskirting. Chrissy's research interests include understanding how crime intersects with technology, gender, and disability.

Elina Vaahensalo is a doctoral candidate in the field of digital culture at the University of Turku. Elina’s chapter is based on her doctoral thesis that focuses on othering online discourse, polarization in internet cultures, and methods that can be applied to the study of online discussion cultures.

Dr Laura Vitis' research focuses on how technology is used to facilitate gendered, sexual, and domestic violence within the Global-South. Her work also examines the regulation of and resistance to technologically facilitated violence and youth sexting. In 2017, she co-edited a collection entitled Gender, Technology, and Violence for Routledge.

Ari Ezra Waldman is the John Marshall Harlan II Professor of Law and the Founding Director of the Innovation Center for Law and Technology at New York Law School. He earned a PhD in Sociology at Columbia University, a JD at Harvard Law School, and an AB, magna cum laude, at Harvard College.

Dr Alice Witt is a postdoctoral research fellow in the Digital Media Research Center, Faculty of Law at the Queensland University of Technology. Her research investigates the exercise of governing power in the digital age, focusing on the intersections of regulation, technology, and gender.

Mark A. Wood is a Lecturer in Criminology in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Deakin University. Most of Mark's research falls within the digital criminology sphere and examines intersections between technology, crime, and criminal justice. His first monograph, Antisocial Media, was published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2017.

Delanie Woodlock is a community researcher and adjunct lecturer at University of New England, Armidale, Australia and associate with the Research Center on Violence at West Virginia University. Her research interests include violence against women, domestic violence, and the medicalization of women's health.

Alyssa Zduniak is an English, Political Science, and Philosophy major at Manhattan College, USA. She previously presented research at the Undergraduate Woman's Philosophy Conference and the International Symposium on Lasallian Research. Alyssa will be graduating in the spring of 2020 and plans to pursue a PhD in English.


The creation of this Handbook is a manifestation of our ongoing desire to build international, intersectoral, and interdisciplinary collaboration in order to better understand and meaningfully address technology-facilitated violence and abuse. It would not have been possible without support from the following funding agencies:

  • The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, which funds The eQuality Project (eQ), a 7-year partnership initiative co-led by Valerie Steeves and Jane Bailey. eQ brings together academics, policy makers, educators, and community organizations who are concerned about how our digitally networked environment affects the privacy and equality rights of young people; and

  • The Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (HKU 17623016), which funded “Tackling cyberbullying by enhancing privacy protection,” a research project led by Dr Anne Cheung of the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law. Funding from Dr Cheung's grant made it possible for this Handbook to be published as Open Access, ensuring that its contents are widely and freely available.

We wish to acknowledge and thank research assistants Taylor Bain, Jasmine Dong, Stefani Vasil, and Alice Witt, as well as Robert Porter (The eQ Project Manager) for their unflagging and dedicated efforts and support that were critical to seeing this Handbook through to completion. We also want to thank the Emerald Publishing team, in particular Jules Willan and Carys Morley, and the Digital Crime, Technology and Social Harms Series Editors, James Martin and Asher Flynn, for their ongoing support, responses to our numerous queries, and for their dedication to the research field of TFVA, which has helped result in an Open Access edition of this collection. Thanks also to the wonderful colleagues who generously donated their time to provide peer reviews of many of the chapters in this collection.

Jane wishes to personally thank her family for their unflinching patience, level-headedness, and amazing hugs. She is also deeply grateful to all of her eQ colleagues, including Drs Valerie Steeves, Jacquelyn Burkell, Priscilla Regan, and Leslie Regan Shade for always being willing to lend their wisdom, insights, expertise, and kind hearts when she needed them most. Thanks also to Angela Cameron for being a wonderful colleague and friend and to Natasha Bakht, editor of the Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, for her help with obtaining the rights to republish the Bailey & Shayan chapter. And last, but not least, she wants to express her gratitude to her co-editors Nicola and Asher for working with her to bring the vision for this book to life in the face of all odds – notwithstanding the fact that an entire globe separates her from them and the uncertainties and tragedies arising from the arrival of a global pandemic midway through the process.

Asher wishes to thank her supportive and loving family, in particular, her amazing son Henry, who lights up this world and is going to make it a better place. She also wants to thank her colleagues and friends for their ongoing support, guidance and generosity – especially David Bright, Anastasia Powell, and Greg Stratton who have been the most wonderful lockdown companions throughout the uncertainty and difficult times we have experienced in 2020. Finally, she offers a big thank you to her co-editors – Jane and Nicola. Jane, thank you for your inclusive, supportive and understanding leadership style in keeping this collection moving forward. You are a generous and inspiring colleague.

Nicola: To my wonderful family: Mum, Dad, Justine, Emma, Matt, Alex, Mike, Emily, Isabel, Maya, Esther, Owen, Sylvie, Claire, and Ava, and to my aunties, uncles, and cousins, and to Brent's family – thank you for your support, love, and care. To my lovely friends, colleagues, and mentors: Nesam, Harriet, Kirstie, Rachel, Lea, Megan, Duncan, Sharyn, Jackie, Catherine, Ceridwen, Peta, Katherine, Suellen, Stef, Alice, Clare, Nicola, Angelica, Felicity, and Ascelin – thank you for your wisdom, humility, integrity, and generosity. To my co-editors: Jane and Asher – thank you for your amazing work on this collection, and a special thanks to Jane for doing such a great job in leading this. Finally, I would like to thank Brent and Frederick for providing me with a sublime sanctuary called home – thank you for always supporting me and believing in me.

Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse: International Perspectives and Experiences
Section 1 TFVA Across a Spectrum of Behaviors
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Is it Actually Violence? Framing Technology-Facilitated Abuse as Violence
Chapter 3 “Not the Real World”: Exploring Experiences of Online Abuse, Digital Dualism, and Ontological Labor
Chapter 4 Polyvictimization in the Lives of North American Female University/College Students: The Contribution of Technology-Facilitated Abuse
Chapter 5 The Nature of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse among Young Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 6 The Face of Technology-Facilitated Aggression in New Zealand: Exploring Adult Aggressors' Behaviors
Chapter 7 The Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women Crisis: Technological Dimensions
Chapter 8 Attending to Difference in Indigenous People's Experiences of Cyberbullying: Toward a Research Agenda
Section 2 Text-Based Harms
Chapter 9 Introduction
Chapter 10 “Feminism is Eating Itself”: Women's Experiences and Perceptions of Lateral Violence Online
Chapter 11 Claiming Victimhood: Victims of the “Transgender Agenda”
Chapter 12 Doxxing: A Scoping Review and Typology
Chapter 13 Creating the Other in Online Interaction: Othering Online Discourse Theory
Chapter 14 Text-Based (Sexual) Abuse and Online Violence Against Women: Toward Law Reform?
Section 3 Image-Based Harms
Chapter 15 Introduction
Chapter 16 Violence Trending: How Socially Transmitted Content of Police Misconduct Impacts Reactions toward Police Among American Youth
Chapter 17 Just Fantasy? Online Pornography's Contribution to Experiences of Harm
Chapter 18 Intimate Image Dissemination and Consent in a Digital Age: Perspectives from the Front Line
Section 4 Dating Applications
Chapter 19 Introduction
Chapter 20 Understanding Experiences of Sexual Harms Facilitated through Dating and Hook Up Apps among Women and Girls
Chapter 21 “That's Straight-Up Rape Culture”: Manifestations of Rape Culture on Grindr
Chapter 22 Navigating Privacy on Gay-Oriented Mobile Dating Applications
Section 5 Intimate Partner Violence and Digital Coercive Control
Chapter 23 Introduction
Chapter 24 Digital Coercive Control and Spatiality: Rural, Regional, and Remote Women's Experience
Chapter 25 Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women in Singapore: Key Considerations
Chapter 26 Technology as Both a Facilitator of and Response to Youth Intimate Partner Violence: Perspectives from Advocates in the Global-South
Chapter 27 Technology-Facilitated Domestic Abuse and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Victoria, Australia
Section 6 Legal Responses
Chapter 28 Introduction
Chapter 29 Human Rights, Privacy Rights, and Technology-Facilitated Violence
Chapter 30 Combating Cyber Violence Against Women and Girls: An Overview of the Legislative and Policy Reforms in the Arab Region
Chapter 31 Image-Based Sexual Abuse: A Comparative Analysis of Criminal Law Approaches in Scotland and Malawi
Chapter 32 Revenge Pornography and Rape Culture in Canada's Nonconsensual Distribution Case Law
Chapter 33 Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in an Era of Drones and Deepfakes: Expanding the Supreme Court of Canada's Decision in R v Jarvis
Chapter 34 Doxing and the Challenge to Legal Regulation: When Personal Data Become a Weapon
Chapter 35 The Potential of Centralized and Statutorily Empowered Bodies to Advance a Survivor-Centered Approach to Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women
Section 7 Responses Beyond Law
Chapter 36 Introduction
Chapter 37 Technology-Facilitated Violence Against Women and Girls in Public and Private Spheres: Moving from Enemy to Ally
Chapter 38 As Technology Evolves, so Does Domestic Violence: Modern-Day Tech Abuse and Possible Solutions
Chapter 39 Threat Modeling Intimate Partner Violence: Tech Abuse as a Cybersecurity Challenge in the Internet of Things
Chapter 40 Justice on the Digitized Field: Analyzing Online Responses to Technology-Facilitated Informal Justice through Social Network Analysis
Chapter 41 Bystander Apathy and Intervention in the Era of Social Media
Chapter 42 “I Need You All to Understand How Pervasive This Issue Is”: User Efforts to Regulate Child Sexual Offending on Social Media
Chapter 43 Governing Image-Based Sexual Abuse: Digital Platform Policies, Tools, and Practices
Chapter 44 Calling All Stakeholders: An Intersectoral Dialogue about Collaborating to End Tech-Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Chapter 45 Pandemics and Systemic Discrimination: Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse in an Era of COVID-19 and Antiracist Protest