Prelims

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality

ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4, eISBN: 978-1-83982-688-7

Publication date: 30 November 2020

Citation

(2020), "Prelims", Hassan, A. and Sharma, A. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xix. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-688-720201035

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:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


Half Title

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality

Title Page

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality

Edited by

Azizul Hassan

The Tourism Society, UK

And

Anukrati Sharma

University of Kota, India

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2021

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-83982-688-7 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-83982-690-0 (Epub)

Contents

About the Authors xi
Introduction
Azizul Hassan and Anukrati Sharma
1
Part One: Technology in Tourism and Hospitality: Concepts and Applications
Chapter 1 A Pragmatic Approach of Interaction between Technology and Tourism-Hospitality
Samik Ray
19
Part Two: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Service Promotion
Chapter 2 Online Tracking Using Cookies and Similar Technologies: An Analysis of Hotel Company Practices
Peter O’Connor
33
Chapter 3 Factors Influencing Generation Y to Choose Airbnb
Anshul Garg
45
Chapter 4 Integrated Marketing Approach in Hotel Management
Kaplan Uğurlu
67
Chapter 5 The Impact of Online Marketing in Travel Agency
Ahmad Albattat
85
Part Three: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Branding Aspects
Chapter 6 Emotional Branding for Tourist Destinations: A Review of ICT Tools
Venkata Rajasekhar Moturu, Srinivas Dinakar Nethi and Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa
99
Part Four: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Consumption Behavior
Chapter 7 Social Media Transforming Tourist Behavior
Aysen Ercan İşti̇n
113
Part Five: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing Contexts
Chapter 8 Influencer Marketing for Tourism and Hospitality
Seda Yetimoğlu and Kaplan Uğurlu
131
Chapter 9 Internet Marketing Communication in Event Tourism Promotion
Yesim Koba
149
Part Six: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Destination Promotion
Chapter 10 New Product Design: Creating a Digital VR Game to Promote the Conservation of Nature-based Tourism Attractions
Alexandra Coghlan and Lewis Carter
167
Chapter 11 Development of a Destination Through eTourism: Experience and Creativity
Jéssica Miranda Ferreira, Bruno Barbosa Sousa and Francisco Barbosa Gonçalves
181
Chapter 12 Website Designing and Its Impact on Tourism Destinations
Gülay Özaltin Türker
195
Chapter 13 Changes in Tourism Destination Promotion with the Technological Innovation
Rupa Sinha, Azizul Hassan and Rahul Kumar Ghosh
213
Chapter 14 Tourist Experience Exchange Through Blogs and Its Impact on Destination Promotion
Anurodh Godha
229
Part Seven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Effects and Changes
Chapter 15 Impact of Information Technology on Tourism
Gül Erkol Bayram
243
Chapter 16 ICT and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Tourism Industry
Priyakrushna Mohanty
259
Chapter 17 Role of Mobile Technology for Tourism Development
Kevser Çınar
273
Part Eight: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Smart City Involvement
Chapter 18 Smart Tourism: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities
Uğur Akdu
291
Part Nine: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing and Profitability
Chapter 19 ICT-based Marketing and Profitability in Tourism and Hospitality Organizations in Indian Scenario
Lakhvinder Singh and Dinesh Dhankhar
311
Part Ten: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Niche Tourism
Chapter 20 Application of Tracking Tools in Tourism and Hospitality Management
Hugo Padrón-Ávila
333
Chapter 21 Value of Technology Application at Cultural Heritage Sites: Insights from Italy
Donatella Privitera
345
Chapter 22 Sharing Economy and Villages’ Development Through the Application of Technology: The Italian Case
Debora Calomino
357
Chapter 23 The Effects of Industry 4.0 in Tourism and Hospitality and Future Trends in Portugal
Célia M. Q. Ramos and Isabel Sofia Brito
367
Chapter 24 Link up with Technology Application in Literary Tourism
Sílvia Quinteiro
379
Chapter 25 Smart Management Systems in Cities and Their Marketing: Case of the Waterloo City in Canada
Marica Mazurek
391
Chapter 26 The Innovative City Development through Place Marketing, Branding, Co-creation and Technology Application as New Perspectives for Slovakia
Marica Mazurek
409
Chapter 27 An Empirical Study on Cloud Computing Technology on Hotel Industry in Sri Lanka
Mohamed Ayoobkhan and Mubarak Kaldeen
425
Chapter 28 e-HRM Application in Tourism and Hospitality in Sinai of Egypt
Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said and Krishnan Umachandran
441
Chapter 29 Digital Marketing for Religious Event of India for Tourism Sustainability and Promotion
Shruti Arora and Anukrati Sharma
453
Part Eleven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Economic Development
Chapter 30 Technology-Driven Tourism and Hospitality Industry as a Tool for Economic Development: A Bibliometric Analysis
Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav, Ruturaj Baber and Sneha Rajput
469
Part Twelve: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: The Future
Chapter 31 The Future of Our Planet is Technology: Is it OK to Embrace the Change in Travel and Tourism Industry in the Developing World
James Malitoni Chilembwe and Victor Ronald Mweiwa
489
Index 509

About the Authors

Samik Ray is ex-faculty of Department of Folklore, University of Kalyani; Travel and Tourism Management in MPTI (Kolkata); and WTCC School of Trade and Commerce (Kolkata). He is also ex-trainer and faculty of Regional Level Guide Training (Govt. of India, Department of Tourism). Ray is presently working as RLG (Govt. of India, Department of Tourism), and Editor of ‘‘Tourism Theory and Practice’’. He is the author of several essays on tourism studies and management, social science, and literary criticism. He received National Tourism Award in the category of ‘‘The Best Tourist Guide’’.

Dr Peter O’Connor is Professor of Strategic Management at University of South Australia Business School. His primary research, teaching and consulting interests focus on the use of technology in online retailing and marketing. In addition to authoring two leading textbooks, Peter has published research-based articles in leading academic journals including the Journal of Marketing, Harvard Business Review, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Tourism Management, the Cornell Quarterly and the International Journal of Hospitality Management, amongst others. Prior to joining the UniSA, Peter founded the Chair in Digital Disruption, sponsored by BNP Paribas, at Essec Business School in Paris France. He has also regularly taught executive education seminars at London Business School; held visiting positions at both the Johnson Graduate Business School and the School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University; as well as worked in a variety of positions in industry in both Europe and the United States.

Anshul Garg is a Senior Lecturer working with the Faculty of Social Sciences and Leisure Management at Taylor’s University, Malaysia. His research interest includes Self Service Technologies, Service Quality, Service Clues, Hospitality Service, Risk and Crisis Management in Hospitality & Tourism and Tourist Risk Perception. He has an excellent record of publication.

Dr Kaplan Uğurlu is an Associate Professor of Faculty of Tourism at Kırklareli University in Kırklareli, Turkey. He has been working in Turkey for eight years as an academician. He has worked as a senior manager for more than 20 years in the tourism sector. He is specialised in marketing, finance, accounting, cost controlling and hotel openings. After his bachelor degree at Uludag University, Turkey (BSc in Tourism and Hotel Management), he completed his master degree at University of Surrey, England (MSc in International Hotel Management) and received his PhD at Marmara University, Turkey (PhD in Production Management and Marketing). He has more than 40 papers presented and published in national and international congresses, journals and books. His academic research interests include tourism and hotel management, tourism and hotel marketing, accounting and finance.

Dr Ahmad R. Albattat is a Senior Lecturer in Post Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. He is a visiting Professor and external examiner in Medan Academy of Tourism (Akpar Medan). He holds a doctoral degree in Hospitality Management from University Sains Malaysia (USM). He worked as an Assistant Professor, Ammon Applied University College, Amman, Jordan. Senior Lecturer and research coordinator in School of Hospitality and Creative Arts, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, and Researcher at Sustainable Tourism Research Cluster (STRC), Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. He was working for the Jordanian hospitality industry for 17 years. He has participated and presented research papers in a number of academic conferences held in Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Jordan. He is an active member of Scientific and Editorial Review Board on Hospitality management, hotel, tourism, events, emergency planning, disaster management, human resource Management. His latest works have been published in the refereed international journals, conference proceedings, books and book chapters.

Dr Venkata Rajasekhar Moturu is currently working as Academic Associate in the Marketing Area at the Indian Institute of Management, Visakhapatnam. He has completed doctoral program in Marketing from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He was a recipient of prestigious ICSSR (Indian Council of Social Sciences Research) Doctoral fellowship and has qualified UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) Management in 2012 and Andhra Pradesh State Eligibility Test (APSET) in Commerce in 2016 for Lectureship. His research interests are consumer behaviour, brand management and advertising management.

Srinivas Dinakar Nethi is the Organizational Behavior and Human Resource (OB&HR) area Academic Associate at Indian Institute of Management, Visakhapatnam. Srinivas worked as a Learning and Delivery Analyst at Deloitte (Office of the US). He has graduated in Pharmaceutical Sciences, holds a postgraduate diploma in Intellectual Property Rights (Patent Law) and did his post graduation from Department of Management Studies, NALSAR, India’s prestigious law school. He is fond of reading and enjoys travelling.

Dr Challa Krishnaveer Abhishek is currently working as Soft-Skills Trainer cum faculty of Andhra University. He completed Doctorate from Department of Linguistics, Andhra University. He also the secretary of Centre for emotional education Society. He has authored 27 books and published 54 articles. He completed Masters in English, Journalism, Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science and Linguistics (Hindi & Telugu). He qualified UGC recognized State Eligibility Test for Assistant Professorship in English. He organized more than 100 training programs on topics pertaining to Soft- Skills and Mass Communication. He directed and acted in various award-winning short films and produced a music album.

Dr Aysen Ercan İştin is an Assistant Professor. İştin completed her undergraduate education in 2010 at Mustafa Kemal Üniversity, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management. In addition, she completed her master’s degree in 2014 at Akdeniz University, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management and her PhD degree in 2018 at Mersin University, Department of Tourism Management. She, who started to work as a Research Assistant in 2017, was appointed as an Assistant Professor in 2018 at department of Tourism and Hotel Management at Şırnak University. She carries on her career as the Head of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department in the same university. She instructs undergraduate and graduate level in the fields of management and organization and issues related tourism businesses. She has articles, books chapters and papers in the same fields and carries on her studies.

Seda Yetimoğlu is a Research Fellow of Faculty of Tourism at Necmettin Erbakan University in Konya, Turkey. She completed her Bachelor degree from the Department of Tourist Guiding, College of Tourism and Hotel Management at Erciyes University. After her Bachelor degree, she worked as a Freelance Tour Guide in tourism industry for some time. She received her Master degree from the Department of Tourism Management at Necmettin Erbakan University. She is currently a PhD candidate. Her research interests include tourism marketing, experiential marketing, tour guiding, tourist and consumer behaviour and cultural and heritage tourism development and gastronomy tourism.

Dr Yesim Koba is Associate Professor at the University of Dokuz Eylül, Turkey. Koba graduated from Mersin University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management in 1996. She completed her BA in Business Administration at Anadolu University (2003) and respectively got her MA (2006) and PhD (2013) Degrees in Tourism Management from Dokuz Eylül University. She worked at Muğla University between 2007 and 2012. She has been working as a Lecturer at Dokuz Eylül University, School of Applied Science since 2012.

Dr Alexandra Coghlan is an Associate Professor in the Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management at Griffith Business School. Her research focus is consumer behaviour and pro-environmental outcomes of tourism. Coghlan also has a BSc (Hons.) in Marine Biology and is a PADI-certified dive master. She has a 20-year career of working in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, including her current research using virtual reality games as a way of informing tourists of the complexity of the Reef as an ecosystem. She has over 20 top-tier publications on tourism in the reef, and over 60 publications more broadly.

Dr Anukrati Sharma is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Commerce and Management, University of Kota, Kota, Rajasthan, India. She has two postgraduate degree specialties: one in International Business (Masters of International Business) and the other in Business Administration (Masters of Commerce). Her core subjects are Tourism, Tourism Marketing, Strategic Management and International Business Management. A member of 17 professional bodies, she has attended a number of national and international conferences. She has been invited for many talks/ lectures/ panel discussions by different national and international universities. She is editor of book projects from Routledge, Apple Academic Press, CAB International, IGI Global and Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Lewis Carter is a PhD candidate in the school of Information Communication Technology at Griffith University. Having completed a Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Software), his research moved to focus on designing for novel uses of games and virtual reality. Previous projects include a Virtual reality alcohol awareness tool and a virtual reality elite cycling simulator, while his dissertation work looks at the design considerations of turning a complex ecosystem into a virtual reality serious game. While still early in his career as a researcher, Lewis has eight publications and leads development teams on various games and virtual reality projects.

Jéssica Ferreira is a PhD student in Tourism (University of Lisbon – IGOT). She completed her Master in Tourism Management from Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave (IPCA, Portugal). She both authored and co-authored several papers. Her research interests include tourism marketing, tourism management and experiential marketing in tourism contexts.

Dr Bruno Sousa is a Professor in Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave (IPCA, Portugal). Sousa is the Head of Master Program in Tourism Management, PhD Marketing and Strategy in the Research Centres: CiTUR and Applied Management Research Unit (UNIAG). Sousa is the author and co-author of several papers and her research interests include tourism management, marketing and strategy and the editorial board member of several peer reviewed scientific journals and ad-hoc reviewer of several peer-reviewed scientific journals. Sousa is the member of the scientific committee of several national and international congresses and conferences.

Dr Francisco Gonçalves is Professor in Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave (IPCA, Portugal). Gonçalves is also responsible for PhD in Tourism programme and Research centre: GOVCOPP. He has authored or co-authored several papers. Gonçalves has research interests in tourism and tourism products and destinations.

Dr GÜLAY ÖZALTIN TÜRKER completed her bachelor degree from the Tourism and Hotel Management Department, Tourism Faculty in Akdeniz University. She completed her Master from the Business Department of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University and her PhD from the Tourism Management Department of the Institute of Social Sciences in Akdeniz University. The author’s PhD thesis included the examination of the relationship between the word of mouth communication and the consumer based brand equity application on customer for tour operators and travel agencies. The author is an academic member of the Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Ortaca Vocational School of Higher Education’s Tourism and Hotel Management program. The author has research interests in word of mouth communication, recreation management and boutique hotel management.

Dr Rupa Sinha is currently working as Assistant professor in Institute of Management study, affiliated with MAKAUT (Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology), Kolkata, West Bengal in the Department of Tourism. Sinha completed MBA in Tourism Administration from the University of Burdwan, WB & qualified UGC_ NET in Tourism Administration & management. She has attended and presented research paper in a number of national & national conference at ViswaBharati, Pondicherry University, Karnataka University, AIMS Delhi, NSHM- Durgapur etc. So far, she has some publication in reputed journals and edited books among them some of them into queues & some of them are into preparation. Areas of her research include cultural and heritage tourism development, community development which will add some social values.

Dr Azizul Hassan is a member of the Tourism Consultants Network of the UK Tourism Society. Hassan earned his PhD in eTourism from the United Kingdom. His areas of research interest are: technology-supported marketing for tourism and hospitality, immersive technology application in the tourism and hospitality industry, technology influenced marketing suggestions for sustainable tourism and hospitality industry in developing countries. Hassan authored over 100 articles and book chapters in leading tourism outlets. He is also part of the editorial team of 15 book projects from Routledge, Springer, CAB International and Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Hassan is a regular reviewer of Tourism Management, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Tourism Analysis, the International Journal of Human Resource Management, Journal of Ecotourism, Journal of Business Research, eReview of Tourism Research (eRTR), International Interdisciplinary Business-Economics Advancement Journal, International Journal of Tourism Cities, Heliyon and Technology in Society.

Rahul Kr. Ghosh is Assistant Professor at Institute of Management Study in the area of Computer Science since 2015. Ghosh was graduated and post graduated in information Technology from Kuvempu University, Karnataka along with UGC NET JRF qualified. His keen interest in Market Research and Data Analytics, have led him to attend several workshops and Faculty Development Programmes on Research Methodology, Data Validation using SPSS, Education Research and Analytics, Data Envelopment Analysis and PHP Development. He has a number of papers published in renowned national and international journals of repute. His research interest includes E-Governance and introduction of E-Credentials in Indian Education System.

Dr Anurodh Godha is working as Assistant Professor at Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota, Rajasthan, India since August 2009. He is also looking after the affairs of Centre for Entrepreneurship and Skill Development (CESD) as Dy. Director at VM Open University, Kota. Previously Dr. Godha was associated with Centre for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, M. D. S. University, Ajmer as Post Doctoral Fellow. His field of specialization is finance, tourism & entrepreneurship. He is also working on various perspectives and dimensions of Management of Distance Education Institutes. As editor he has many books in his account and also contributed in various edited books at national level. He has also published many research papers in various journals. In administrative capacity, he is working as Dy. Director, School of Commerce & Management   at VM Open University, Kota.

Dr Gül Erkol Bayram completed her undergraduate degree in 2009 and Master Degree in 2012 from Tourist Guidance Department, Faculty of Tourism of Balıkesir University. She completed her PhD in Tourism Management from Sakarya University in 2016. In 2010, Bayram started to work as a Professional Tourist Guide under the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. From 2012 to 2016, she worked as a Lecturer at the Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Department, Vocational School of Social Sciences in Harran University. In 2016, she started worked as a faculty member and Head of the Department of Tourism Guidance at the School of Tourism and Hotel Management at Sinop University where she stills works in the same position. She has published many books and conference papers presented in Turkey and abroad. Her research interests are Tourism Planning and Policy, Tourism Guidance and Organizational Behavior.

Priyakrushna Mohanty is an UGC Junior Research Fellow at the Department of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University. He is an awardee of the prestigious Travel Corporation (India) Gold Medal for his outstanding performance in Master’s Degree in Tourism Studies from Pondicherry University. He served the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd. for two years following which he was recruited as a Guest Faculty in the Dept. of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University. He has published a number of articles in national and international journals.

Dr Kevser Çınar holds PhD in Tourism Management from Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey. She is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Tourism in the same university. She is certified at curriculum development program by the Institute of Educational Sciences. She has also been working as EU Projects expert for 14 years. She has won several European Projects grants including TOURBAN, TOURIBOOST, STARTUPS, SCOUT and she has organised several international tourism events such as HACKATOUR Konya, Science Centers as Tourism Assets and the 5th EATSA International Tourism Conference. She was also a TEDx speaker at TEDxDenHelder. Her research interests include consumer behaviour, innovation and branding.

Dr Uğur AKDU is Asstistant Professor at Tourism Faculty in Gumushane University in Turkey. He holds Bachelor’s degree from the Faculty of Commerce and Tourism Education of Gazi University in 2006 and Master degree from Institute of Education Sciences of Gazi University in 2009. Akdu had PhD from the Institute of Social Sciences of Akdeniz University in 2014. All of his degrees are related to tourism and hospitality management and education. His research focuses on tourism marketing, health tourism, alternative tourism types, sustainable tourism and current tourism research.

Dr Lakhvinder Singh is currently working as Assistant Professor of Tourism in Government College, Kaithal affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), India. He holds Ph.D. Degree in with UGC-NET qualification in Tourism Administration & Management. He has more than 4 years of teaching & research experience and has more than 30 research publications in his credit. He is in the Editorial/Advisory Board of different Journals of International and National repute. His areas of interest include tourist behavior, tourism marketing, tourism impact, culture & religious tourism, e-tourism and ICT in tourism.

Dr Dinesh Dhankhar holds the position of Assistant Professor in Department of Tourism & Hotel Management, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra with doctoral degree in the subject with UGC-NET-JRF qualification. He has seven years of teaching experience and published a couple of research papers in journals of national and international repute. He is an active member of Indian Hospitality Congress and Indian Commerce Association. His areas of interest are ICT in tourism and hospitality management, tourism marketing, research methodology, transport management and event management.

Hugo Padrón-Ávila is currently hired as a Researcher in the Department of Applied Economics and Quantitative Methods, Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain. He also serves as proffesor at Escuela Superior de Turismo de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. He has a Bachelor’s Degree in Tourism and Hospitality Management and three posgraduate degrees: Master’s Degree in Tourism Management and Planning, Master’s Degree in Protocol and Business Comunication, and Master Degree in Leadership and Managerial Skills. His core subjects are Tourist Behavior, Mobility, Tourism Econometrics and Sustainable Tourism. He is member of different research groups and has attended to several conferences to present their results during his career.

Dr Donatella Privitera is currently a full Professor of Geography at University of Catania (Italy), Department of Educational Sciences. Her Executive Master study in Agri-Business was attended at the Catholic University of Milan. Prior to becoming a fulltime academic, she had work experience in a multinational company in marketing area (Kraft General Food s.p.a., Milan, Italy). At present, she is teaching economic geography and implication with tourism and regional development. She has presented paper at several conferences, published in international books. Research and publication interests include geography of tourism; sustainable cities; green economy; e-tourism.

Debora Calomino is a journalist, specialised in tourism and territorial marketing. Calomino graduated in Tourism Sciences and Tourism Systems Design and Management from the University of Calabria, Italy. She collaborates with tourism magazines, where she writes about success stories in local marketing. She is also Subject Expert and Teaching Assistant in Tourism and Local Marketing at University of Calabria, Italy.

Dr Célia M. Q. Ramos graduated in Computer Engineering from the University of Coimbra, obtained her Master’s in Electrical and Computers Engineering from the Higher Technical Institute, Lisbon University, and the PhD in Econometrics in the University of the Algarve (UALG), Faculty of Economics, Portugal. She is Professor at School for Management, Hospitality and Tourism, also in the UALG, where she lectures mainly Information Systems. Current research interests include tourism information systems, electronic tourism, business intelligence tools, digital marketing, and panel data models. Researcher at the Centre for Tourism, Sustainability and Well-being (CinTurs).

Isabel Sofia Brito is Professor of Computer Engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Portugal. Her research interests include Requirements Engineering, Software Engineering for Sustainability, Big Data and IoT. She teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on computer science. She has participated in several research and teaching projects, e.g. DECIdE - Sistema de Apoio à InvestigaçãoCientífica e Tecnológica, SAICT-POL/24135/2016 | LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-024135, 2018 –2019; Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering (NaPiRE) 2017 –2019 and; U-Bike, Programa Operacional Sustentabilidade e Eficiência no Uso de Recursos, POSEUR-01-1407-FC-000003, 2016 – 2019. She has occupied several conference positions in software engineering conferences, mainly as program chair. She has organized international conferences and workshops on software and requirements engineering-related topics.

Dr Sílvia Quinteiro is a Coordinating Professor at the University of the Algarve – School of Management, Hospitality and Tourism. She holds a first degree in Modern Languages and Literatures from the New University of Lisbon, and a Masters and PhD in Comparative Literature from the University of Lisbon. She is a full member of the Research Centre for Comparative Studies, based at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Lisbon, where she created and coordinates the research cluster on Literature and Tourism: Lit&Tour. She collaborates with the Tourism, Space and Urbanities Research Group of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and with the Centre for Research, Development and Innovation in Tourism (CITUR). Her research interests include Comparative Literature and the relation between Literature and Tourism. She has edited, authored and co-authored several national and international scientific publications, including Key Concepts in Literature and Tourism Studies (2018).

Marica Mazurek is a PhD candidate at Zilinska University, Slovakia. Mazurek’s research interests are: competitiveness of tourism destinations, branding, marketing, place marketing and place branding, innovations in tourism. She participated in several academic exchanges in Canada. She is the author of several academic Scopus publications and book chapters in Emerald or Cambridge Scholar Publishing. She participated at the numerous international conferences in Turkey, Portugal, Finland, Canada, Taiwan, Spain, etc. She is a founding member of EATSA (European Asian Tourism Studies Association). The author teaches Marketing, Digital Marketing, Economics and Management at the University of Zilina, Slovakia. She is a member of the Editorial board of the Scopus journal Communications.

Dr Mubarak Kaldeen is currently Senior Lecturer at the Department of Marketing Management, Faculty of Management and Commerce, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka. He is a Commonwealth fellow (UK) and has earned his PhD in Tourism Marketing from Malaysia. His core subjects are Tourism Marketing, Marketing Communications and Human Resource Management. He has edited three books and published 30 research papers in national and international Journals. He is an editor of SEUSL-Journal of Marketing and co-editor of Journal of Tourism Economic and Applied Research. Mubarak has attended a number of national and international conferences.

Dr Mohamed Ayoobkhan is attached to the Faculty of Management and Commerce, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka. He has been working as Instructor in Computer Technology for over seventeen years. He has earned his PhD in ICT. His bachelor and master degree is based on Commerce and Management, Information Technology (IT), Computer Software Applications, and e-Commerce. His interested teaching areas are E-commerce, Web Technology and Computer Software Applications for undergraduate and postgraduate students. He enjoys developing Web based applications and ICT consultancy services for individuals and business organizations. He has contributed by writing research articles about Cloud Computing Technology and Services regularly in index and peer reviewed journals.

Dr Shruti Arora is currently guest faculty in the Department of Commerce and Management, University of Kota, Kota, Rajasthan, India. She had her PhD in Event Management from the University of Kota, Kota, Rajasthan. She had an experience of 9 years in education industry. Her core subjects are Marketing, General Management, International Business Management and Customer Relationship Management. She has published 5 research papers in International Referred Impact Factor Journals and one chapter in edited book in Routledge Advances in Event Research Series in 2018. She has authored a book on “Event Management and Marketing: Theory, Practical Approaches and Planning” in 2018.

Prof (Asst.) Dr. Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said is an Egyptian Scholar, Professor of Education and Islamic Sciences (Islamic Studies), Supervisor, Senior Lecturer and former Academic Coordinator for Islamic Education Unit, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education (KOED), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). He is an Author, Editor and Reviewer of international and national academic journals, He has authored more than seventy (70) publications including Books, Chapters in books, Articles and conferences papers, He is an Expert in Educational Development, Islamic Education, Islamic Sciences, Islamic Thought, Islamic Civilization, Southeast Asia Studies, Arab-Malay Manuscripts studies and Teaching Arabic for non-Arab Speakers. He is a Supervisor for PhD and Master of Education, Senior Lecturer for postgraduate and undergraduate students, involved with the courses of: Aqidah Islamiyyah, Da’wah and Leadership, Islamic Theological Thought, Introduction to Fiqh al-Jinayat, Introduction to ‘Ilm al- Mantiq, Quranic and Prophetic texts, Tafsir Ayat and Ahadith al-Ahkam, Usul al-Fiqh and Tarikh al-Tashri’, Ethics in Education, and Textbook Development for Islamic Education.

Dr Krishnan Umachandran has 32 years of industrial experience, evolved to be a consultant for spectrum of industries ranging from Beverages, Batteries, Chemicals, Ceramic Tiles, Leather, Electricity, Manufacturing, Facilities, IT, ITES, and tourism etc. He has been teaching at the PG Centre for Personnel Management & Industrial Relations in Madras School of Social Work since 1999. Backed with Corporate, Consulting, and Academic (CCA) quest escalated Human Potential and proved strategy initiatives of multidisciplinary passion. His interests include pedagogy development, market promotions, customer retention; and linking leadership-management-organization development.

Dr Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav is an Assistant Professor of Marketing and Tourism Management at the Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior, India since 2013. He holds PhD from Jiwaji University, Gwalior with major in tourism destination marketing. He is responsible for teaching, training, research, and consultancy. His research interests include internal marketing, destination-marketing, performance, market orientation, rural tourism, hotel–selection, performance, entrepreneurial intentions, and technology acceptance. He has published articles/papers in scholarly journals on marketing, tourism, and services management and written books on Marketing Management, Services Marketing, and SPSS. He is a renowned and invited speaker to numerous research methodology workshops and is also associated with the online program of the University of Liverpool, USA as DBA Thesis Supervisor and BITS-Pilani, India as an Adjunct Faculty.

Dr Ruturaj Baber attained Doctorate in management from Jiwaji University in marketing concepts. He is known trainer, motivator and consultant in the field of marketing and entrepreneurship. His areas of interests lie in business research, development of entrepreneurship along with guiding aspiring researchers. Dr Baber is invited by various universities to deliver lectures on research methodology for PhD Scholars and has trained over 100 researchers in business research methods. With over nine years of academic and corporate experience, he also has published 30 articles in indexed journals and conference proceedings of national and international repute. Dr Baber also is part of editorial team of various research journals.

Dr Sneha Rajput presently works as Assistant Professor at Prestige Institute of Management Gwalior. MBA from School of Economics, Devi Ahilya University Indore in the year 2005. Doctorate from Jiwaji University in the year 2015. 12 years of Experience in teaching and research. Published more than 50 research papers in reputed national and international journal and conference proceedings and presented more than 61 research papers and cases. She has authored/ co-authored six edited books and two Souvenir. Content writer for E-Pathshala (an online learning website by MHRD). Organizing Secretary for 8th International Conference held at Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior in 2017. Organizing Secretary for 10th National Research Methodology to be held at Prestige Institute of Management, Gwalior in 2018. Resource person for Ph.D. Coursework for Management and Tourism Specialization. Appointed as a member in Board of Studies in Management by Jiwaji University Gwalior.

James Malitoni Chilembwe is a Lecturer at the Faculty of Tourism, Hospitality, and Management of Mzuzu University, Malawi. He is Doctor of Philosophy candidate in Tourism Management at Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU), UK. He holds MSc in International Tourism Enterprise obtained from GCU in 2012. He possess a BSc in International Travel and Tourism Management, and a certificate in Global Distribution System. His primary research interests include; aviation, sustainable transport, tourism development, corporate social responsibility, information technology. He has authored/co-authored and published peer- reviewed research journal articles and book chapters.

Victor Ronald Mweiwa is a Lecturer with ten years of professional experience in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Management at the Malawi Institute of Tourism (MIT). Before joining MIT, he worked as a Senior Sales and Tour Consultant at Express Air Travel and Tours in Malawi for three years. He is an MBA student in Tourism Management at Lovely Professional University (LPU), India. He holds a BBA in Strategic Management, Tourism Management Diploma, Tourism Management certificate and Teacher Training qualifications, International Travel Tourism professional qualifications. His research interest includes: sustainable tourism, tourism policy and development, tourism marketing, travel agency and tour operations and climate change. He has a good record of publications.

Prelims
Introduction
Part One: Technology in Tourism and Hospitality: Concepts and Applications
Chapter 1: A Pragmatic Approach of Interaction between Technology and Tourism-Hospitality
Part Two: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Service Promotion
Chapter 2: Online Tracking Using Cookies and Similar Technologies: An Analysis of Hotel Company Practices
Chapter 3: Factors Influencing Generation Y to Choose Airbnb
Chapter 4: Integrated Marketing Approach in Hotel Management
Chapter 5: The Impact of Online Marketing in Travel Agency
Part Three: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Branding Aspects
Chapter 6: Emotional Branding for Tourist Destinations: A Review of ICT Tools
Part Four: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Consumption Behavior
Chapter 7: Social Media Transforming Tourist Behavior
Part Five: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing Contexts
Chapter 8: Influencer Marketing for Tourism and Hospitality
Chapter 9: Internet Marketing Communication in Event Tourism Promotion
Part Six: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Destination Promotion
Chapter 10: New Product Design: Creating a Digital VR Game to Promote the Conservation of Nature-based Tourism Attractions
Chapter 11: Development of a Destination Through eTourism: Experience and Creativity
Chapter 12: Website Designing and Its Impact on Tourism Destinations
Chapter 13: Changes in Tourism Destination Promotion with the Technological Innovation
Chapter 14: Tourist Experience Exchange Through Blogs and Its Impact on Destination Promotion
Part Seven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Effects and Changes
Chapter 15: Impact of Information Technology on Tourism
Chapter 16: ICT and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Tourism Industry
Chapter 17: Role of Mobile Technology for Tourism Development
Part Eight: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Smart City Involvement
Chapter 18: Smart Tourism: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities
Part Nine: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing and Profitability
Chapter 19: ICT-based Marketing and Profitability in Tourism and Hospitality Organizations in Indian Scenario
Part Ten: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Niche Tourism
Chapter 20: Application of Tracking Tools in Tourism and Hospitality Management
Chapter 21: Value of Technology Application at Cultural Heritage Sites: Insights from Italy
Chapter 22: Sharing Economy and Villages’ Development Through the Application of Technology: The Italian Case
Chapter 23: The Effects of Industry 4.0 in Tourism and Hospitality and Future Trends in Portugal
Chapter 24: Link up with Technology Application in Literary Tourism
Chapter 25: Smart Management Systems in Cities and Their Marketing: Case of the Waterloo City in Canada
Chapter 26: The Innovative City Development through Place Marketing, Branding, Co-creation and Technology Application as New Perspectives for Slovakia
Chapter 27: An Empirical Study on Cloud Computing Technology on Hotel Industry in Sri Lanka
Chapter 28: e-HRM Application in Tourism and Hospitality in Sinai of Egypt
Chapter 29: Digital Marketing for Religious Event of India for Tourism Sustainability and Promotion
Part Eleven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Economic Development
Chapter 30: Technology-Driven Tourism and Hospitality Industry as a Tool for Economic Development: A Bibliometric Analysis
Part Twelve: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: The Future
Chapter 31: The Future of Our Planet is Technology: Is it OK to Embrace the Change in Travel and Tourism Industry in the Developing World
Index