Index

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality

ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4, eISBN: 978-1-83982-688-7

Publication date: 30 November 2020

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2020), "Index", Hassan, A. and Sharma, A. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 509-522. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-688-720201034

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Accelerating Social Cause Entrepreneurs program (ASCEnt program)
, 402

Accessibility
, 285

Accommodation
, 46

Accountability
, 447

Advertising cookies
, 38

Affective residency
, 361

Airbnb
, 4, 47–50, 53–54, 61, 365

‘Alexa’ (virtual assistants)
, 2, 476

Alipay
, 478

American Marketing Association
, 68, 262

ApPanormus
, 354–356

Arab–Norman itinerary
, 355

Artificial intelligence (AI)
, 476

web
, 200

‘Asusability’
, 474

Attraction sector, ICT in
, 240–241

‘Auditory elements affects tourists’ perceptions
, 197–198

Augmented reality (AR)
, 2, 10, 286–287, 348, 476

applied to mobile cultural heritage
, 351–353

technology
, 282

in tourism
, 348–351

Authentic tourism
, 363

Authentic tourist destinations, villages as
, 360–362

Authentic Villages of Italy
, 362

Authenticity
, 360–364

Automated teller machine (ATM)
, 505

Automation
, 480

Average variance extracted values (AVE values)
, 436

Beacons
, 34

Behavior of customers
, 337

Bibliometric review
, 482–483

Big Data
, 2, 338, 476–477

‘Bizcations’
, 479

Bleisure Travel
, 479–480

Blockchain technology
, 2, 477

Blog posts
, 327

Bloggers
, 327–328

Bloggers
, 328

Blogs
, 116, 324, 461

promoting of tourism experience and
, 326–327

Booking.com
, 117, 119

Bookmark
, 117

Brand equity
, 395

Branding
, 414

Business(es)
, 69, 71, 263–265

innovation models
, 325

integrated marketing for
, 75–76, 269–270

Cell Phone applications
, 217

Central reservation system (CRS)
, 494, 497, 500–501, 504

ChatBots
, 476, 480

City marketing
, 416–417

City of Waterloo
, 401–403

Classical process innovations
, 419

Cloud Adoption (CAD)
, 435

Cloud computing
, 288, 428

hospitality industry benefits from adoption
, 429

Co-creation

concept
, 412, 417

principle
, 396

Co-operation
, 414

Collaborative governance
, 398

Collaborative Writing/Editing
, 216

Colour
, 89–90

Communication technology
, 233, 366

Community Informatics (CI)
, 253

Competencies in tourism and hospitality business
, 449–450

Competition
, 70, 264

Competitive pressure (CMP)
, 431, 435, 437

Competitiveness
, 414

Computer

simulations
, 254

systems
, 1

Concierge
, 376

Conscious travel
, 481

Consumer

behavior
, 120

perception
, 197

services
, 200

Content-based reliable decision-making systems
, 446

Convenient sampling
, 218

Cookie(s)
, 34

disclosure
, 37

usage by global hotel chains
, 38

Corporate information
, 201

Correlation(s)
, 221

analysis
, 59–61

Cost Saving (CTS)
, 435, 437

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient
, 57

Cultural

event
, 155

tourism
, 392

Customer relationship management (CRM)
, 449

platforms
, 376–377

Customer-oriented marketing
, 70–71

approach
, 81

in hotels
, 275

in integrated marketing
, 268–269

product-oriented marketing to
, 264–265

Customer(s)
, 275

buying process
, 88

customer-focused marketing strategy
, 72

customer-oriented approach in integrated marketing
, 74–75

decision-making process
, 55–57

engagement
, 86

experience
, 480–481

functionality cookies
, 38

satisfaction
, 48

Customisation of e-HRM
, 454

Cyberspace technologies
, 137

Data analysis technique
, 500

Data-driven decision-making process
, 451

Data-driven Planning for Sustainable Tourism in Portugal project
, 373–374

Decision-making in e-HRM
, 447–448

Demographics
, 34

Depopulation
, 360

Desire2Learn (D2L)
, 402

Desk-based review method
, 248

Destination
, 322–323

communication network
, 289

management
, 342

websites
, 196, 205–208

Destination management system (DMS)
, 216, 236, 254

Destination marketing organizations (DMOs)
, 326–327

Development
, 69, 273

Development Management Organizations (DMOs)
, 8, 214–215

promotional tools used by
, 215–217

Diffusion of innovation theory (DOI theory)
, 430, 433

Digital entrepreneurs
, 103

Digital marketing to sustainable tourism
, 464

Digital resources and products
, 383–386

Digital technologies
, 386

Digital VR game

designing game
, 172–176

gaming and tourism
, 169–171

GBR VR game
, 171–172

VR in tourism
, 168–169

Digitalization of tourism
, 100

Distributed computing
, 13

E-Business
, 217

E-commerce
, 114, 215, 217

e-HRM
, 13

application
, 446

architecture
, 452–454

compensation
, 451

competencies in tourism and hospitality business
, 449–450

decision-making in e-HRM
, 447–448

development and customisation of
, 454

human resources in tourism industry
, 448–449

perceived vs. expected performance
, 450–451

Sinai in Egypt
, 446–447

special location of Sinai in Egypt
, 452

e-travel agencies
, 236

Economic development

5G network
, 477

augmented reality
, 476

bibliometric review
, 482–483

Big Data
, 476–477

Bleisure Travel
, 479–480

blockchain
, 477

customer experience
, 480–481

Ecotravel
, 478

emergence of super apps
, 477–478

Fintech innovation and alternative payment methods
, 482

global tourism industry and purposes
, 474

ICT developments and facilitation
, 478

identifying keywords clusters
, 485–488

IoT
, 476

local experience
, 478–479

methodology of study
, 482

mobile technology
, 475

personalisation
, 479

prescriptive analytics
, 477

results
, 483–485

robots, Chatbots, and automation
, 480

social media influencing booking travel
, 481

Solo Travel
, 478

sustainability and conscious travel
, 481

technological advancements
, 473–474

technology, tourism, and economic development
, 475

trending ICT solutions for tourism
, 475

virtual assistants
, 476

Economic sustainability
, 372–373

Ecotravel
, 478

Education
, 52

Egypt, special location of Sinai in
, 452

Electronic Cash Register (ECR)
, 237–238

Electronic commerce (e-commerce)
, 196

Electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM)
, 201

development
, 216

Electronic marketing
, 70

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
, 233

Electronic word of mouth (eWOM)
, 88, 120, 496

marketing
, 134, 140–141

Emigration
, 360

Emotional branding
, 105–107, (see also Influencer marketing)

emotional aspect of tourism
, 102–103

ICT tools in tourism industry
, 103–105

Energy Monitor App
, 376

Enterprise(s)
, 2

brand strategists
, 141

Entertainment
, 272

Entrepreneurial ecosystems
, 371

“Entrepreneurship-focused university”
, 396

Environment Management Information System (EMIS)
, 254

Environmental factors
, 54–55

Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA)
, 253

Essential cookies
, 38

Ethics
, 478

eTourism
, 6, 182, (see also Religious events tourism)

ICTs
, 182–183

innovation impacts on handcrafts
, 188–189

innovation in tourism
, 183–184

methodology and case study
, 187–188

technological innovation
, 185–187

tourist destination development
, 184–185

European Union
, 36

Event tourism
, 149–151, (see also Religious events tourism; Smart tourism)

event types
, 153–156

features of
, 151–153

impact on destination
, 156–157

internet marketing in
, 160–162

marketing and features
, 157–160

promotion
, 158–160

‘Events’
, 150

Existential authenticity
, 361

Expedia
, 70, 117, 119, 263

Experience-based tourism services
, 323–324

Experiential marketing
, 158

Eye-tracking
, 336

Facebook
, 5, 114, 118, 120–122, 461, 496

Faith-based travel
, 458–459

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)
, 459

Finnish 21st Century Skills
, 450

Fintech innovation and alternative payment methods
, 482

Fishbone analysis
, 482, 488

5G

network
, 477

technology
, 2–3

5-point Likert scale
, 57

Flesch Reading Ease tests
, 40

Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level tests
, 40

Food and beverage management system
, 237–238

Forum
, 117

Front office management system
, 237

Functional competencies, ICT-based marketing and
, 311–312

Futurity
, 249

Gamifying
, 171

Gaming and tourism
, 169–171

General Data Protection Regulations
, 36–37

Generation theory
, 50–51

Generation Y (Gen Y)
, 4, 47–48, 50

correlation analysis
, 59–61

customer’s decision-making process
, 55–57

demographic breakdown of sample
, 59

environmental factors
, 54–55

generation theory
, 50–51

reliability test
, 58–59

research methodology
, 57–58

social media influence
, 54

socio-economic factors
, 51–52

technological factors
, 52–54

Generation Z
, 50

Generic variables
, 34–35

Geographical information systems (GIS)
, 286

Ghostery. com privacy tool
, 38

Global Distribution System (GDS)
, 106, 214, 239, 494, 497

Global Information System (GIS)
, 253

Global Positioning System (GPS)
, 2, 217, 253, 348

tracking devices
, 343

“GlobeXplore”
, 286

Google Assistant
, 476

Google Cardboard headsets
, 172

Google Earth
, 386

“Google Maps”
, 286, 386–387

Google online survey
, 90

Google Pay
, 478

Governance-related sustainability
, 373

Government tourism policies
, 341

Great Barrier Reef (GBR)
, 168

VR game
, 171–172

Green economy
, 360

Hallmark
, 155–156

Handcrafts, innovation impacts on
, 188–189

“Headset”
, 291

Health and wellness tourism
, 325

HearPlanet
, 288

Holidaycheck
, 119

Holidaywatchdog
, 119

Hospitality
, 1–2, 47, 262, 270, 446

competencies in
, 449–450

ICT in hospitality sector
, 236–238

industry benefits from cloud computing adoption
, 429

influencer marketing future for
, 142–143

SM in
, 134–137

SM tools in
, 137–138

and tourism industry
, 48

Host community, religious events tourism impact on
, 462

Hotel Concierge App
, 376

Hotel management

customer satisfaction
, 76–77

customer-oriented marketing in hotels
, 81–82, 275

hotel business market
, 79–80, 273

integrated marketing approach in
, 76, 270

integrated marketing in hotels
, 82–83, 275–276

properties and operations of hotels
, 77–79, 271–273

strategic marketing planning in
, 80–81, 274

Hotels
, 68

business market
, 79–80, 273

industry
, 428

marketing of
, 69

Human Resources Department
, 79, 272

Human resources in tourism industry
, 448–449

‘Image recognition’
, 353

Importance–performance analysis (IPA)
, 412

India, religious event tourism in
, 462–464

Indian tourism and hospitality industry
, 301–302

data analysis and research findings
, 306

ICT and functional competencies
, 303–304

ICT-based marketing
, 302–303, 307–310

ICT-based marketing and functional competencies
, 311–312

ICT-based marketing and profitability
, 304–305

ICT-based marketing business profitability
, 310–311

methodology
, 305–306

result of hypotheses
, 312–315

tourism and hospitality organizations and employees
, 307

Individual Internet
, 196

Indoor tourist guides
, 376

Industry 4. 0
, 370–371

ICT aligned with SDG in tourism
, 372–373

smart tourism
, 371–372

Tourism 4. 0 case studies in Portugal
, 373–377

Influencer marketing
, 138, 140, (see also Online marketing)

future for travel, tourism and hospitality enterprises
, 142–143

influence of SM for marketing implementation
, 132–138

strategies
, 140–142

Information
, 89

governance
, 403

society
, 232–234

systems
, 428

Information and communication (IC)
, 104

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
, 1, 3–6, 10–11, 20–21, 52, 101, 135, 182–183, 186, 214, 233, 253, 290, 302, 336–337, 348, 448, 450–451, 473, 496

aligned with SDG in tourism
, 372–373

attraction sector
, 240–241

business profitability in tourism and hospitality organizations
, 310–311

emotional branding and
, 105–107

and functional competencies
, 303–304, 311–312

future in tourism sector
, 241–242

hospitality sector
, 236–238

ICT-based marketing
, 302–303

ICT-based marketing and profitability in India
, 304–305

tools in tourism industry
, 103–105

tourism and
, 214–215

in tourism and hospitality
, 24

in tourism sector
, 234–236

travel sector
, 238–240

usage among tourism and hospitality organizations
, 307–310

Information technology (IT)
, 7, 103, 160, 232, 429–431, 494

future of ICTs in tourism sector
, 241–242

ICT in tourism sector
, 234–241

information society and ICT
, 232–234

in tourism
, 285

travel agencies and information technology
, 497–498

Informativeness
, 285–286

Innovation
, 187, 371

in destinations
, 414

impacts on handcrafts
, 188–189

process
, 419

in tourism
, 183–184

Innovative city development

literature review
, 412–419

methodology
, 419–420

results
, 420–422

technology application and innovation process
, 419

Innovative social technologies
, 416

Innovative thinking
, 414

Instagram
, 5, 114, 118, 122, 461

Institutional innovations
, 394, 419

Integrated marketing approach
, 68, 69, 263

for businesses
, 75–76

customer-oriented approach in
, 74–75, 268–269

definition, content and scope of
, 71–72, 265–266

difference between IMCs and
, 266–267

difference between integrated marketing and IMC
, 72–73

in hotel management
, 76–83, 270–276

integrated marketing for businesses
, 269–270

marketing hotel
, 68–69

from product-oriented marketing to customer-oriented marketing
, 70–71

relation between integrated marketing and strategic management
, 73–74, 267–268

transition from product-oriented marketing to customer-oriented marketing
, 264–265

WOM advertising
, 262

Integrated marketing communications (IMC)
, 72, 179, 266

difference between integrated marketing and
, 72–73, 266–267

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
, 253

Inter-departmental coordination
, 265

Inter-generational equity (see Futurity)

Interaction
, 285

Interdisciplinary approach
, 172

International Air Transport Association (IATA)
, 494

Internet
, 1, 46–47, 52–53, 69, 196, 239, 447

advertising
, 240–241

information systems
, 285

internet-digital-viral-interactive-SM marketing
, 132

technologies
, 114

Internet Discussion Forums
, 216

Internet marketing
, 498

in event tourism
, 160–162

Internet of Things (IoT)
, 2, 284, 476

Internet Relay Chat
, 216

Internet Telephony
, 216

Intra-site navigation
, 200

Inventory management system
, 238

Investment in technology
, 428

Italian cities

ApPanormus
, 354–356

AR applied to mobile cultural heritage
, 351–353

AR in tourism
, 348–351

‘Sicily the Island of Wonders’ app
, 353–354

technology in tourism
, 347–348

Italian Responsible Tourism Association
, 363

Italian Sabbatical
, 365

Job types
, 47

Joint marketing
, 185

Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin values (KMO values)
, 436

KeyForTravel
, 374–375

Knowledge
, 396, 414

capital
, 396

knowledge–attitude–behaviour gap
, 167

KwaZulu-Natal Literary Map
, 387

LCC
, 24

LinkedIn
, 216, 461

Literary maps
, 386–387

Literary tourism
, 11–12, 381–383, 388–390

cases
, 386–388

digital resources and products
, 383–386

Location-Based Services (LBS)
, 216, 254

Lonely Planet
, 496

Loney Planet
, 117, 119

Machine Learning
, 476

Malawi
, 495

targeted travel agencies
, 500

as tourist destination
, 15

Management innovations
, 419

Marketing
, 68, 86–87, 182, 262, 394

promotion and
, 215–216

of religious events tourism
, 461

of territories
, 395

Marketing in tourism
, 447

Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMIGs)
, 216

Media types
, 87

Mega events
, 155

Mesh-t
, 376

Message board
, 117

Microblogging
, 327

Microblogs
, 117

Millennials (see Generation Y (Gen Y))

Minor tourist destinations
, 363

Mixed reality (MR)
, 2

Mobile

AR applied to mobile cultural heritage
, 351–353

communication
, 2

devices
, 86, 241

technology
, 2, 9, 46, 215–217, 219–221, 285, 475

Mobile augmented reality (MAR)
, 350

“Mobile Key” application
, 241

Monitoring technologies
, 34

Motivation
, 415

MySpace
, 114, 122, 216, 496

National Tourism Authority (NTA)
, 373

Nature-based tourism
, 167

attraction
, 170

Neoliberalism
, 396

Network(s)
, 117

technologies
, 103

New dominant logic
, 398

New Economic Geography
, 394–395

New Information and Communication Technologies
, 53

New product design

designing game
, 172–176

gaming and tourism
, 169–171

GBR VR game
, 171–172

VR in tourism
, 168–169

New Theory of Growth
, 394–395

Non-probability sampling
, 499

Nova SBE University & Telco (NOS)
, 373

One-to-one approach
, 36

Online advertisement
, 215–217, 221–223

Online brand communities
, 134

Online marketing
, 88, (see also Influencer marketing)

colour
, 89–90

data analysis and findings
, 91–94

design
, 88–89

impact in travel agency
, 92

information
, 89

internet
, 85–86

marketing
, 87

picture
, 89

price
, 90

promotion
, 87–88

research methodology
, 90–91

theoretical framework
, 90

Online media
, 460

Online monitoring technologies
, 34, 36

Online tracking

cookie
, 35–37

findings
, 38–41

General Data Protection Regulations
, 36–37

generic variables
, 34–35

research methodology
, 37–38

Online travel agencies
, 117

Organizational innovations
, 183

Outdoor tourist guides
, 376

Overtourism
, 114, 122

Palermo city and heritage sites
, 354–356

Paperless online ticketing system
, 88

Participatory governance
, 398

Partnerships
, 395, 414

Pay-as you-go service
, 428

PayTM
, 478

Pearson Correlation
, 218, 223

Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Method
, 59

Peer to peer economy
, 367

Perception process
, 197

Personalization
, 285, 479

PhonePe
, 478

Picture
, 89

Place branding
, 415

‘Place excellence’
, 413

Place marketing
, 412–413, 415, 418

Podcast
, 117

Point of Sale (POS)
, 237

Points of interest
, 337

Politic, Economy, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE)
, 55

Poon’s model of competitiveness
, 398

Price
, 90

Priceline
, 70, 264

Probability sampling
, 499

Process innovations
, 419

Product, partnership, people, accessibility, program, price and promotion (8Ps model)
, 416

Product, price, place, and promotion of marketing (4Ps of marketing)
, 263, 275

Product innovations
, 419

“Product-oriented components”
, 200

Product-oriented marketing
, 70–71

to customer-oriented marketing
, 264–265

Promotion(al)
, 87–88, 204–205, 240–241

for DMOs
, 217

and marketing
, 215–216

for religious events tourism
, 465–467

strategies
, 276

tools used by DMOs
, 215–217

of tourism products
, 370

Psychographics
, 34

Push–pull factors
, 23–24

QR Code
, 388

Qualitative methods
, 412, 498

Quantitative research
, 90

Queepix
, 376

Rail-cruise-automobile-aviation
, 21

Regression

analysis
, 436

model
, 219–220, 223–225

Relative Advantages (RA)
, 435, 438

Reliability test
, 58–59

Religion
, 457

Religious event
, 458

as opportunity for tourism sustainability and promotion
, 464

SWOT analysis of
, 464–465

Religious events tourism
, (see also eTourism; Smart tourism)

digital marketing to sustainable tourism
, 464

economic and social impact
, 462

generation from religious tourism
, 458

impact on host community
, 462

marketing of religious events tourism
, 461

promotion
, 465–467

religious event tourism in India
, 462–464

religious tourism
, 458–461

religious tourism as particular interest
, 462

SWOT analysis of religious events
, 464–466

tourism
, 457–458

Religious tourism
, 458–461

as particular interest
, 462

Research in Motion (RIM)
, 401–402

Residents
, 361

Rewiewcentre
, 119–120

Robots
, 476, 480

Sampling procedure
, 499

Second Life (SL)
, 169

Security
, 79, 201, 273, 431

Security Concerns (SEC)
, 435, 437

Self-service systems
, 454

Selling
, 81, 275

“Sensation”
, 197

‘Sharing economy’
, 46

and new technologies for tourism development
, 364–367

Shift in technology
, 22

in tourism and hospitality
, 24–26

‘Sicily the Island of Wonders’ app
, 353–354

Simple Linear Regression
, 218

‘Siri’ (virtual assistants)
, 2, 476

Site analytics cookies
, 38

Site security
, 201

6-stars model for territorial purposes
, 400

Slow tourism
, 363–364

Smart business ecosystems
, 372

“Smart City”
, 286, 399

Smart destination
, 284, 372

Smart experience
, 372

Smart information systems 2914

Smart management systems

findings
, 401–404

literature review
, 394–400

methodology
, 400–401

Smart phone
, 286

Smart tourism
, 9, 282, 283–284, 371–372, (see also Religious events tourism)

AR
, 286–287

cloud computing
, 288

destination
, 288–289

informativeness
, 285–286

IoT
, 288

smart concept
, 282–283

smart experience and smart destination
, 284

smart technology use in tourism to stakeholders
, 289–292

technologies
, 284–285

VR
, 287

Smartness
, 283

Smartphone
, 2

Social Bookmarking
, 216

Social Citations
, 216

Social Guides
, 216

Social media (SM)
, 1, 5, 114, 132, 215–217, 223–225, 256, 292, 495–496

cookies
, 38

features and forms
, 114–117

increasing overtourism crisis
, 122–123

influence on Gen Y
, 54

influencing booking travel
, 481

influencing for marketing implementation
, 132

internet
, 132–133

internet-based SM
, 133–134

promoting of tourism experience and
, 326–327

tools
, 117–120

tools in travel, tourism and hospitality
, 137–138

in tourism and hospitality
, 134–137

transforming tourist behavior
, 120–122

Social media influencers (SMI)
, 140

Social media marketing (SMM)
, 134–135

Social networking sites
, 496

Social networks
, 133, 236, 360

Social Reputation Network
, 216

Social sustainability
, 372

Socio-economic factors
, 51–52

Soft factors of development
, 394–395, 398

Solo Travel
, 478

Spying tourists
, 337

Sri Lanka

adopter and non-adopters of cloud computing technology
, 435

AVE
, 436

background of study
, 429–430

cloud computing in
, 428

data analysis and findings
, 433

descriptive statistics
, 434–435

explanatory power of model fitting
, 436–439

hospitality industry benefits from cloud computing adoption
, 429

literature review and theoretical framework
, 430–432

reliability and validity of construct
, 435

research contribution
, 440

research methodology and conceptual framework development
, 432–433

validation test of constructs
, 436

Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
, 57

SPSS Version 21
, 433

SPSS 20
, 90

Statistical tests
, 57

Storytelling
, 348

Strategic approaches
, 414

Strategic Development Plan for Tourism
, 362

Strategic management
, 72, 266

relation between integrated marketing and
, 267–268

Strategic marketing

decisions
, 74

planning in hotels
, 80–81, 274

Stratified Random Probability Sampling method
, 57

Stress
, 396

Supply and demand
, 70, 264

Supply side event development
, 151

Sustainability
, 360, 478, 481

in minor destinations
, 362–363

Sustainability development goals (SDGs)
, 372

ICT aligned with SDG in tourism
, 372–373

SDG 10
, 372

SDG 11
, 372

SDG 12
, 372

SDG 16
, 372

SDG 8
, 372

SDG 9
, 372

“Sustainable branding”
, 256

“Sustainable destination management”
, 256

Sustainable development
, 247, 250

development objective
, 249–250

objectives and principles of
, 249

policy implications
, 256

requirements for
, 250

research methodology
, 248

technology and
, 251–252

technology-led sustainable tourism
, 252–256

“Sustainable marketing”
, 256

Sustainable tourism
, 252, 363

digital marketing to
, 464

SWOT analysis of religious events
, 464–466

Synergy
, 251

Technological/technology
, 46, 86, 103, 248, 284, 289, 396, 474, 480

advancements
, 473–474

in Amavido
, 366

assist civilisation
, 19

available forms in travel agencies
, 500–504

benefits in travel agencies
, 504–505

challenges of technology use in
, 26

data analysis
, 500

data collection
, 499

ethical consideration
, 500

factors
, 52–54

impacts, shifts
, 24–26

innovations
, 19–20, 185–187, 281–282

literature review
, 495–497

poses challenges to travel agencies in developing countries
, 505–507

research methodology
, 498

resources
, 370

results
, 500

review of approaches
, 20

sampling procedure
, 499

study area
, 499

and sustainable development
, 251–252

targeted travel agencies and study limitations
, 500

technological innovations
, 19–20

technology-economic development tourism
, 475

technology-led sustainable tourism
, 252–256

in tourism and hospitality
, 20–24

in travel
, 494–495

travel agencies and information technology
, 497–498

travel agencies’ strategies to overcoming challenges of technological use
, 507–508

Technology, Organization, and Environment framework (TOE framework)
, 430, 433

Technology-led Sustainable Tourism Development Process (TSTD)
, 252, 254

Telekom Network Malawi Ltd (TNM)
, 503, 507

‘Teleportation’
, 2

Territory
, 394, 412–413

marketing of
, 395

Theory of Growth
, 12

‘Third-party cookies’
, 35

3D technologies
, 402

TOMI
, 374

Top Management Support (TMS)
, 435, 437

Tourism
, 1–2, 46, 100–101, 182, 247–248, 322–323, 446, 494

agents
, 273

attraction
, 168

competencies in
, 449–450

context of technology use
, 22

and economic development
, 475

emotional aspect of
, 102–103

emotional branding and ICT tools in
, 105–107

and employees in India
, 307

exchange through blogs impacting destination promotion
, 327–329

experience
, 322

experience-based tourism services
, 323–324

gaming and
, 169–171

and hospitality
, 20, 307

human resources in
, 448–449

ICT tools in tourism industry
, 103–105

impacts, shifts, and challenges of technology use in
, 24–26

influencer marketing future for
, 142–143

innovation in
, 183–184

knowledge and experience for tourist
, 324

organizing tourism experience through value-added services
, 324–326

promoting of tourism experience and role of social media and blogs
, 326–327

push–pull factors
, 23–24

SM in
, 134–139

technology in
, 20–23

VR in
, 168–169

websites for
, 203–205

Tourism 4. 0
, 370

case studies in Portugal
, 373

Data-driven Planning for Sustainable Tourism in Portugal project
, 373–374

KeyForTravel
, 374–375

TOMI
, 374

Tourism 360°
, 375–377

Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)
, 252, 254

Tourism destination promotion
, (see also Online marketing)

changes in tourism destination promotion with technological advancement
, 225–226

impacts on tourism business
, 217

mobile technology
, 219–221

online advertisement
, 221–223

promotional tools used by DMOs
, 215–217

research methods
, 218

result
, 218

social media
, 223–225

technological tools for
, 218–219

technologies
, 213–214

tourism and ICT
, 214–215

Tourism Information Systems (TISs)
, 253

Tourist destination
, 182

development
, 183–185

Tourist tracking techniques
, 337–339

industry implications of
, 343

problems linked to
, 339–341

Tourists
, 46, 322

knowledge and experience for
, 324

websites for
, 203–205

Tracking
, 335–336, 343

industry implications of tourist tracking techniques
, 343

problems linked to tourist tracking techniques
, 339–341

technologies
, 336–337

tourist tracking techniques
, 337–339

tourists to support policymaking
, 341–343

Traditional marketing
, 86

Traditional media tools
, 134

Transparency principle
, 395

Travel
, 494

decision process
, 290

enthusiasts
, 459

ICT in travel sector
, 238–240

industry 4. 0
, 11

influencer marketing future for
, 142–143

SM tools in
, 137–138

Travel agency
, 494

colour
, 89–90

data analysis and findings
, 91–94

design
, 88–89

in developing countries
, 505–507

information
, 89

and information technology
, 497–498

internet
, 85–86

marketing
, 87

online marketing
, 88

picture
, 89

price
, 90

promotion
, 87–88

research methodology
, 90

strategies to overcome challenges of technological use
, 507–508

technologies available forms in
, 500–504

technologies benefits in
, 504–505

theoretical framework
, 90

TravelBots
, 476

Traveler
, 322

Travelocity
, 70, 263

TripAdvisor
, 117–119, 288, 338, 496

Tripcast
, 288

TripHub
, 119–120

Triple Helix concept
, 394–395

Trust
, 361

Twitter
, 114, 118, 122, 461

Typography
, 199

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
, 303

Urban cultural tourism
, 350

Urbanisation
, 157

US Federal Trade Commission
, 36

Value-added services

tourism experience through
, 324–326

Velocity Case-study
, 403–404

Video blogs
, 117

Villages, tourist development of
, 360–362

Virtual Assistants
, 2, 476

Virtual Presence
, 216

Virtual reality (VR)
, 2, 168, 287, 476

in tourism
, 168–169

Virtualization
, 103

Visual design elements on websites
, 198–199

‘Visual elements affects tourists’ perceptions
, 197–198

Visual objects
, 199

Voice over the Internet Protocol (VOIP)
, 217, 238

Watson Assistant
, 476

Web

bugs
, 34

technology
, 23

Web 1. 0
, 115

Web 2. 0
, 115, 496

Web 3. 0
, 115

Web 4. 0 applications
, 103

Web-based consumer communication platforms
, 120

Web-based networking media
, 5

Web of Science (WOS)
, 482–483, 485

Weblogs
, 116

Website designing
, (see also Online marketing)

destination website design
, 205–208

e-commerce
, 196

features of websites
, 199–201

visual and auditory elements affects tourists’ perceptions
, 197–198

visual design elements on websites
, 198–199

website quality
, 201–203

websites for tourists and tourism destinations
, 203–205

Websites
, 360

WeChat
, 478

WhatsApp
, 288

Wikipedia
, 338

Wikis
, 117

Wonder Grottole project
, 365

Word-of-mouth (WOM)
, 87–88

advertising
, 262–263

marketing
, 69, 132–133, 140

World Tourism Organization (WTO)
, 34, 189, 205, 239, 283

World Wide Web
, 115

“Yahoo Maps”
, 286

Yelp
, 117, 119

YouTube
, 5, 114, 119, 122, 241, 461, 496

Prelims
Introduction
Part One: Technology in Tourism and Hospitality: Concepts and Applications
Chapter 1: A Pragmatic Approach of Interaction between Technology and Tourism-Hospitality
Part Two: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Service Promotion
Chapter 2: Online Tracking Using Cookies and Similar Technologies: An Analysis of Hotel Company Practices
Chapter 3: Factors Influencing Generation Y to Choose Airbnb
Chapter 4: Integrated Marketing Approach in Hotel Management
Chapter 5: The Impact of Online Marketing in Travel Agency
Part Three: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Branding Aspects
Chapter 6: Emotional Branding for Tourist Destinations: A Review of ICT Tools
Part Four: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Consumption Behavior
Chapter 7: Social Media Transforming Tourist Behavior
Part Five: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing Contexts
Chapter 8: Influencer Marketing for Tourism and Hospitality
Chapter 9: Internet Marketing Communication in Event Tourism Promotion
Part Six: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Destination Promotion
Chapter 10: New Product Design: Creating a Digital VR Game to Promote the Conservation of Nature-based Tourism Attractions
Chapter 11: Development of a Destination Through eTourism: Experience and Creativity
Chapter 12: Website Designing and Its Impact on Tourism Destinations
Chapter 13: Changes in Tourism Destination Promotion with the Technological Innovation
Chapter 14: Tourist Experience Exchange Through Blogs and Its Impact on Destination Promotion
Part Seven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Effects and Changes
Chapter 15: Impact of Information Technology on Tourism
Chapter 16: ICT and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Tourism Industry
Chapter 17: Role of Mobile Technology for Tourism Development
Part Eight: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Smart City Involvement
Chapter 18: Smart Tourism: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities
Part Nine: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing and Profitability
Chapter 19: ICT-based Marketing and Profitability in Tourism and Hospitality Organizations in Indian Scenario
Part Ten: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Niche Tourism
Chapter 20: Application of Tracking Tools in Tourism and Hospitality Management
Chapter 21: Value of Technology Application at Cultural Heritage Sites: Insights from Italy
Chapter 22: Sharing Economy and Villages’ Development Through the Application of Technology: The Italian Case
Chapter 23: The Effects of Industry 4.0 in Tourism and Hospitality and Future Trends in Portugal
Chapter 24: Link up with Technology Application in Literary Tourism
Chapter 25: Smart Management Systems in Cities and Their Marketing: Case of the Waterloo City in Canada
Chapter 26: The Innovative City Development through Place Marketing, Branding, Co-creation and Technology Application as New Perspectives for Slovakia
Chapter 27: An Empirical Study on Cloud Computing Technology on Hotel Industry in Sri Lanka
Chapter 28: e-HRM Application in Tourism and Hospitality in Sinai of Egypt
Chapter 29: Digital Marketing for Religious Event of India for Tourism Sustainability and Promotion
Part Eleven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Economic Development
Chapter 30: Technology-Driven Tourism and Hospitality Industry as a Tool for Economic Development: A Bibliometric Analysis
Part Twelve: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: The Future
Chapter 31: The Future of Our Planet is Technology: Is it OK to Embrace the Change in Travel and Tourism Industry in the Developing World
Index