Index

The Emerald Handbook of Public Administration in Latin America

ISBN: 978-1-83982-677-1, eISBN: 978-1-83982-676-4

Publication date: 12 January 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Peters, B.G., Tercedor, C.A. and Ramos, C. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of Public Administration in Latin America, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 489-502. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-676-420201019

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited.


INDEX

Accountability
, 3, 59–61, 322, 334–335, 410, 412–419, 437, 475

bureaucratic politics in Mexico
, 194–198

Chile’s institutions of
, 103–108

in Colombia
, 127–132

congressional oversight
, 103–104

control bodies
, 104–105

in Costa Rica
, 162–170

financial and economic
, 128–129

formal instruments
, 128–130

horizontal
, 103–105, 162–169

informal instruments
, 130–132

media
, 130–131

in Paraguay
, 220–221

performance
, 129–130

political
, 128

public
, 131–132

Uribe effect
, 132

in Uruguay
, 247–249

vertical
, 105–107, 169–170

Accounting Tribunal (TCR)
, 230–231, 233

Acto Legislativo 02 of 2004
, 118

Administrative bureaucracy
, 37

Administrative decentralization
, 471–472

Administrative Department of Public Service
, 120

“Administrative modernization”
, 11

Administrative reforms
, 13–14, 298–299

processes characteristics
, 15–16

Administrative Statute
, 89–90

Administrative style
, 299

Administrative Tribunal (TCA)
, 230–231, 233

“Agencification”
, 14, 135–136

Agriculturally based economies
, 312

Agrupación Nacional de Empleados Fiscales (ANEF)
, 102

Alianza Democrática M-19 (AD M-19)
, 115

American Congresses
, 294–298

American legislators
, 297

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI)
, 134

Antipoverty programs, governance in
, 389–394

Apps
, 366–369

Argentina
, 23–27

Argentine state and successive reform processes
, 39–41

bureaucracy
, 35–38

characteristics of public employment
, 28–35

characteristics of selected structures
, 49–50

civil and no civil personnel by hierarchies
, 47–48

congress
, 25–26

federalism
, 24

national public policy
, 27

party system
, 26–27

political parties
, 35–37

politics of Argentine bureaucracy
, 37–38

PPM in
, 278–280

presidential rule
, 25

selected organs according to type of link
, 51

structure of government and political institutions
, 24–27

Argentina-Compra
, 358

Argentina. gob. ar
, 358, 361–362

Argentine national bureaucracy
, 24

Aristocratic culture
, 306

Articulation in Semi-arid (ASA)
, 388–389

Assembly’s technical capacity
, 303

Auditoría Superior de la Federación (ASF)
, 195

Autonomous institutions
, 151

Bilaterals
, 332

Black Box
, 397–399

Bolsa Família
, 74

Brazil

Brazilian Civil Service
, 61–67

organizational structure
, 55–57

political institutions
, 57–61

political stability
, 298–299

political system and administrative structures as institutional environments
, 55–61

politics of public administration in democratic brazil
, 68–76

PPM in
, 269–272

public administration in
, 55

Brazilian “coalition presidentialism”
, 271

Brazilian bureaucratic building process
, 299

Brazilian Civil Service
, 55, 61–67

social security policy changes in public sector
, 67

weight of political appointees
, 63–67

Brazilian Pluriannual Plan
, 464

Brazilian public administration
, 53

Broadband diffusion
, 347–349

Budget

budget-oriented systems
, 447–450

units
, 323

Budgetary resources
, 321

Bureaucracy
, 279–280

Bureaucratic Functional Capacity Index (BCI)
, 127

Bureaucratic Merit Index
, 127

Bureaucratic/bureaucracy politics
, 99–103

of accountability
, 194–198

in Colombia
, 124–127

in Costa Rica
, 160–161

in Latin America
, 290

in Mexico
, 190–194

in Paraguay
, 216–220

in Uruguay
, 245–246

Bureaucratic–Weberian administrations
, 13–14

Business Management System
, 88–89

Cardoso governments
, 70–73

Career bureaucrats
, 335

Career-based model. See Traditional civil service (TCS)

Casa Civil
, 330

Caudillismo
, 311

Caudillos
, 10

Center of Government (CoG)
, 5, 320

and coordination
, 473–474

functional and structural approaches
, 320–321

increasing relevance
, 324–326

institutional structure
, 322–324

in Latin America
, 326–336

political and technical functions
, 321–322

political economy of strengthening
, 335–336

Centro Latinoamericano de Administración para el Desarrollo (CLAD)
, 13–14, 72–73

Centro para la Promoción de las Exportaciones e Inversiones (CENPRO)
, 171–172

Chile

accountability
, 103–108

bureaucratic politics
, 99–103

characteristics of Chilean public sector
, 83–89

political stability
, 298–299

PPM in
, 267–269

public sector personnel
, 89–99

reform and change
, 108–112

Chile Compra
, 111, 359

Chilean public sector characteristics

executive
, 83

government institutions
, 83–89

judiciary
, 84–85

legislature
, 84

public administration
, 86–89

subnational government
, 85–86

Chilean state
, 81–82

Christian Democratic Party (PDC)
, 82

Citizen participation
, 107

forums
, 161

Civil career system
, 182–186

in Mexico
, 182–186

Civil servants
, 158–160

Civil service

laws
, 89–93

systems in Latin America
, 2

Civil Service Development Index (CSDI)
, 265, 301

Client-focused service
, 252

Clientelistic parties
, 308–310, 312

Closed model. See Career-based model

Code drafting process
, 421

Collective bargaining
, 275

Colombia
, 116

accountability
, 127–132

agencification, formalization, peace
, 135–136

basic structural features
, 117–121

bureaucracy politics in
, 124–127

economic performance
, 116

executive branch
, 117–118

fiscal adjustment
, 133–134

government institutions
, 117–120

judicial branch
, 119

legislative branch
, 118–119

links with civil society
, 126

links with political parties
, 125

local government
, 120

other government institutions
, 120

politics of bureaucracy
, 124–127

presidency in “check”
, 133

public administration
, 120–121

public personnel
, 121–124

reform and change
, 132–138

state modernization
, 133

transversal reforms with a fiscal focus
, 134–135

Colombian public administration
, 115

Colorado party
, 204, 232

Comisión Nacional del Servicio Civíl (CNSC)
, 121, 274–275

Commission for Protection of Rights of People
, 104

Committee system
, 296

Communications
, 322, 334–335

units
, 323

Community Aqueducts. See Community Organizations for Water and Sewerage Services (OCSAS)

Community management of water
, 388–389

Community Organizations for Water and Sewerage Services (OCSAS)
, 388

Competitive hiring processes
, 92

Comprehensive analysis
, 1

Concentric circles
, 323

Concertación coalition
, 82, 86–88, 99

‘Conditional Cash Transfers’ Programs (CCTP)
, 134

Conditioned Transfer Programs (PTCs)
, 389, 394

Congress
, 25–26

Congress capacity index
, 301, 303

Consejo de la Alta Dirección Pública
, 268

Consejo Nacional de Producción (CNP). See National Council for Production

Constitution (1988)
, 54–57, 59, 69

Constitutional Court
, 104–105

Consultative Committee
, 93

Consultative Council
, 276–277

“Continental European model”
, 232

Contract employees
, 90

Contraction–retraction dynamics
, 40

Contrata
, 267

Contratado a honorario
, 267

Coordinating Committee of Deputy Ministers (CCV)
, 329–330

Coping with turbulence
, 474

Core state careers
, 71

Corruption
, 127, 409, 429–430, 475

reduction
, 409

Costa Rica
, 4

bureaucracy and political parties
, 160

bureaucracy politics in
, 160–161

PPM in
, 272–273

relation with civil society
, 160–161

Costa Rican Electricity Institute (ICE)
, 153

Costa Rican public administration
, 147

accountability
, 162–170

Costa Rican public institutions characteristics
, 148–156

government system
, 148–151

philosophy and culture of governance
, 155–156

politics of bureaucracy
, 160–161

public administration
, 151–154

public personnel system
, 157–160

reform and change
, 170–174

Council for Internal Government Audits
, 104

Credible commitment
, 477–478

Crowdsourcing
, 363

Cuoteo
, 269

Decentering governing
, 477

Decentralization
, 136–137, 471–472, 477

Decentralized administration
, 27

Defense of Free Competition Court
, 85

Delegative democracy
, 292

Democracy
, 25

‘Democratic accountability in context of PPME systems’ trends and challenges
, 459–464

emphasis on evaluation
, 461–462

new developments and trends
, 460–462

opening spaces to negotiating with sector-specific authorities
, 461

political orientation integrating budget considerations
, 460–461

PPME systems to citizens and parliaments
, 462

recurrent and new challenges
, 462–464

Democratic backsliding
, 474

Democratic opening
, 180

Democratic political theory
, 17

Democratic Security Program (PDS)
, 134

Democratic stability
, 231

Democratization
, 35

Departamento Administrativo de la Función Pública (DAFP). See Administrative Department of Public Service

Depoliticization
, 470–471

Differentiated Procurement Regime (RDC)
, 76

Digital agenda
, 475

Digital governance
, 475

in LA
, 5–6

Digital government (DG)
, 344

AgendaSetting and policy design from regional perspective
, 350–353

comparative data and participation performance
, 353–357

comparative overview in Latin America
, 349–357

E-government to
, 137–138

Digital Public Administration. See also Latin American public administration

comparative overview of digital government in Latin America
, 349–357

e-government implementation in Latin American Countries
, 357–369

LatAm countries and information society
, 345–349

National Agendas
, 357–360

Digital social media
, 364

Digitalization
, 359

DIPRES
, 446

Dirección General de Servicio Civil (Civil Service General Directorate)
, 272–273

Direction and Advisory Positions (DAS)
, 63, 271

E-consultation
, 355

E-decision-making
, 355

E-government to digital government
, 137–138

E-information
, 355

E-Participation
, 355–357

Economic

accountability
, 128–129

boom
, 4

decentralization
, 136–137

liberalization
, 180

variables
, 12–13

Educational funding
, 74

eLAC
, 351

Electoral Court
, 85

Electronic Government (E-Government). See also Digital government (DG)
, 344, 350

implementation in Latin American Countries
, 357–369

in LatAm countries
, 345

Electronic Public Service Delivery Portals
, 360–362

Employment
, 267

Employment Contracts Act
, 29

Enactment coalition
, 191

Ethics Committees
, 421

Ethics training
, 421

“European continental model”
, 10–11

European debates on governance
, 376–384

Evidence-based policy
, 252

Executive Branch Commissioned Positions (FCPE)
, 65

Executive’s role in institutions
, 291–294

searching for external coercion
, 294

Explicitly mixed systems
, 452–453

Export expansion prosperity
, 309–310

Export-based prosperity
, 308–309

External coercion, searching for
, 294

“Fast Track” system
, 275

Federal Transparency Act on Access to Information. See Ley Federal de Transparencia de Acceso a la Información (LFTAIPG)

Federalism
, 24

Financial accountability
, 128–129

“First-Generation Reforms”
, 170

Fiscal Adjustment
, 133–134

Fiscal relations
, 471

Fiscal Responsibility Law
, 63

Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Regional (FNDR)
, 86–88

Formalism
, 2

Formalization
, 135–136

Framework Law Regulating National Public Employment
, 29

Functional capacity index
, 301

Game theory
, 295

General System of Participations (GSP)
, 136–137

Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency (GIFT)
, 416

Gobernaciones
, 90

Gobierno en Línea (GEL)
, 359–360

Good governance
, 376, 407–408

FOIA in Latin America
, 413–415

in LAC
, 408

Press Freedom in Latin America and Caribbean
, 416

theoretical framework
, 408–411

Governance
, 375

in antipoverty programs
, 389–394

Black Box
, 397–399

conceptualizations on interactive governance and meta-governance
, 384–385

European debates on
, 376–384

ideal type
, 378–380

impacts, differences, and institutional legacies
, 394–395

in Latin America
, 376, 385–394

model of welfare state
, 383

principal conflicts
, 381–382

reflections on state reform
, 395–397

theory
, 409–410

“Governance without government”
, 377

Government effectiveness
, 36–37

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 355

“Habsburg model” of royal government
, 305

Heterogeneity of NGOs
, 393

“Honorary” contract employees
, 90

Horizontal accountability. See also Vertical accountability
, 103–105

congressional oversight
, 103–104

control bodies
, 104–105

Human Resource and Professional Service Unit
, 185

Human Resources Management System
, 158

Human Rights National Commission (CNDH)
, 190–191

Hyper-presidential setting
, 292

Ibero-American Charter for Electronic Government (ICEG)
, 350

Ibero-American Interoperability Framework
, 351

IDB. See Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

Impacts
, 423–428

Imperfect neo-Weberianism
, 275

Income and services transfers
, 390–391

Incorporation
, 306–307

Indirect administration
, 56

Industrial organization of US Congress
, 296

Informal sources of accountability
, 107–108

Information and Claims Office (OIRS)
, 111

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
, 344

Information System for Financial Management (SIGFE)
, 111

Innovation Labs
, 366–369

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
, 275–276

Institutional strengthening
, 13

Institutionalization of PPME systems in region
, 453–454

Institutionalized favoritism
, 306–307

Institutions
, 291–298

American vs. Latin American Congresses
, 294–298

executive’s role
, 291–294

Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje (National Apprenticeship Institute)
, 272

Integrated poverty–reduction programs
, 390–391

Integrated State
, 263–264

Integrated System of Financial Information (SIIF)
, 129

Integrity
, 419–423

“Intelligent public governance”
, 17

Intelligent state
, 477

Intendencias
, 90

Intendentes
, 83, 85–86

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
, 127, 300, 350, 385

Inter-institutional Network for Transparency
, 168

Inter-temporal constitutional convention
, 295–296

Interactive governance, conceptualizations on
, 384–385

Interministerial Coordination Division (DCI)
, 329

Internal Control units
, 130

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
, 387

International Conference on National Evaluation Capacities (NEC)
, 439

International cooperation
, 469

International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI)
, 419

Interoperability
, 345, 351

initiatives
, 362–363

Inversión Sectorial de AsignacióRegional (ISAR)
, 86–88

Judiciary as policymaker
, 58–59

Judiciary Investigation Organism
, 150

Justicialist Party (PJ)
, 26–27

Labor Contract Law
, 29, 33

Labor Populism
, 312

Labor-intensive agriculture
, 311

Latin America

bureaucracy and politics in
, 289–290

bureaucracy politics in
, 290

civil service systems in
, 2

CoG in
, 326–336

comparative historical analysis
, 307–312

cultural explanation
, 305–307

effects on bureaucratic performance
, 300–305

experienced economic growth
, 1

FOIA in
, 413–415

governance in
, 376, 385–394

institutions
, 291–298

political stability
, 298–299

PPM in
, 265–280

public administration in
, 2, 6

Latin America and Caribbean (LAC)
, 407–408

good governance in
, 408

Press Freedom in
, 416

Latin American Center for Developing Administration (CLAD)
, 350

Latin American Congresses
, 294–298

Latin American countries (LatAm countries)
, 344

E-Government in
, 345, 357–369

and information society
, 345–349

Latin American public administration
, 10

administrative reform processes characteristics
, 15–16

first configurations of public administration model
, 11–12

historical construction of model
, 11–15

latest trends in reform of public administrations
, 16–17

Public Management Reforms of 1980s
, 12–15

Latin American Transparency Index Budget (ILTP)
, 416

Law on Participation
, 107

Legal counsel units
, 323

Legalism
, 2

Legislative Assembly
, 272

Legislative Power
, 148

Legislatures
, 295

Legitimacy
, 437

Ley de Nuevo Trato
, 267–268

Ley del Nuevo Trato Laboral (LNTL)
, 91, 98, 100

Ley del Servicio Profesional de Carrera (LSPC)
, 182–183

Ley Federal de Transparencia de Acceso a la Información (LFTAIPG)
, 197

Local decentralization
, 386

Macroeconomic stabilization process
, 72

Management commitments
, 15

Management for results (MfR)
, 441–442

Management Improvement Programs
, 102, 108–109

Market governance, dilemmas and tensions around
, 387–388

Merit systems
, 470–471

Meritocratic

bureaucracy
, 37

practices
, 34

principles
, 10

Meta-governance, conceptualizations on
, 384–385

Mexican MCS
, 276–277

Mexican SED
, 452

Mexico

bureaucracy politics in
, 190–194

links with actors and political parties
, 191–193

links with civil society
, 193–194

PPM in
, 275–278

Mexico’s public administration. See also Latin American public administration
, 177–178

bureaucratic politics of accountability
, 194–198

civil career system
, 182–186

current profile of public administration
, 180–182

democratic transition and change in Mexico’s government and public administration
, 178–182

governmental institutions
, 178–180

politics of bureaucracy
, 190–194

public employees
, 186–190

public personnel
, 182–190

reform and change
, 198–200

Middle Ages’ capital markets
, 294–295

Mining Committee
, 296

Ministerial coordination mechanisms
, 39

Ministry of Administration and State Reform (MARE)
, 70–71

Ministry of National Planning and Economic Policy (MIDEPLAN)
, 328

Ministry of Social Development and Inclusion (MIDIS)
, 329–330

Modelo de Acessibilidade de Governo Eletrónico (e-MAG)
, 358–359

Modern civil service (MCS)
, 261, 264–265

Modern professional civil service (MPCS)
, 5

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E)
, 438–439

Monitoring inflation
, 331

“MOP-Gate” corruption scandal
, 267–268

More Autonomous Public Bodies (MAPB)
, 238

Nacional party
, 232

National Anti-Corruption System
, 195

National Civil Service Directorate
, 91

National Civil Service Office (ONSC)
, 233

National Commission of Civil Service. See Comisión Nacional del Servicio Civíl (CNSC)

National Council for Production
, 153

National Development Plan (NDP)
, 445

National Electoral Institute (INE)
, 190–191

National Institute for Access to Information (INAI)
, 190–191

National Insurance Institute (INS)
, 153

National Office of Civil Service
, 274–275

National Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Latin America, nature and logic of
, 443–444

National Planning Department (DNP)
, 327–328

National Procurement Agency
, 129

National Program of Accountability, Transparency and Fight Against Corruption (PNTCDA)
, 195

National public policy
, 27

National Results-Based Management and Evaluation System (SINERGIA)
, 129–130, 332

National School of Public Administration
, 269–270

National System of Administrative Profession (SINAPA)
, 40

Neo-weberianism/Post-NPM
, 476

Neoliberal reforms
, 3–4

Networks
, 377

New Constitution of 1991 (NC91)
, 116, 117, 119, 121, 125, 132

New Deal Law (Ley del Nuevo Trato)
, 299

New National System of Civil Servants
, 29

New Public Administration models
, 12

New Public Management (NPM)
, 2, 4, 11–14, 16, 89, 261, 264, 376

model
, 470

paradigm
, 31

Non-state public entity
, 153

Nonclientelistic popular articulation
, 309–310

Nonstate Public Bodies (NEPB)
, 238

Normalization process of contracted workers
, 29

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
, 180

Nuclear Regulatory Agency
, 32

Office of Planning and Budget (OPP)
, 328

Online Government Strategy
, 138

Open, useful, reusable government data index (OUR government data index)
, 138

Open Budget Index
, 416

Open data
, 364–366

Open government
, 364–366, 419

Open government data (OGD)
, 138

Open Government Declaration
, 365

Open Government Partnership (OGP)
, 365–366, 440

Open model. See Position-based model

Organismo de Investigación Judicial (OIJ). See Judiciary Investigation Organism

Organization of American States (OAS)
, 350

Ouvidorias
, 60

Overcentralization
, 470

Pacto por México
, 191

Padrões de Interoperabilidade em Governo Eletrónico (e-PING)
, 358–359, 363

Paraguay
, 4, 203–204

accountability
, 220–221

bureaucracy politics in
, 216–220

government institutions
, 205–207

links with political parties
, 216–217

links with society
, 218–219

politics of bureaucracy in
, 216–220

public administration
, 208–210

public sector personnel
, 211–216

reform and change
, 222–223

Paraguayan MCE-SIPP
, 452

Parallel bureaucracy
, 38

Parliamentary power
, 26

Parliamentary Republic
, 81–82

Participation
, 471–472

Participatory government
, 363

Partido dos Trabalhadores
, 271–272

Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
, 182, 275–276

Party for Democracy (PPD)
, 82

Party professionals
, 476

Party system
, 26–27

Patronage bureaucracy
, 33–34, 38

Performance
, 32

accountability
, 129–130

indicators
, 110

management
, 472

performance-based management
, 252

performance-related management
, 271

Performance monitoring and improvement units
, 322, 331–333

Permanent staff
, 90

Personal computing
, 347

Plan Nacional de Gobierno Electrónico (PNGE)
, 358

Planning-oriented systems
, 447–450

Plano Plurianual (PPA)
, 73

Planta
, 267

Policy

advice units
, 323

coordination
, 321–323, 329–331

councils
, 60

entrepreneurs
, 54

networks
, 377

Política de Gobierno Digital
, 359–360

Political accountability
, 128, 221

Political appointees
, 208

Political Committee
, 333–334

Political decentralization
, 471

Political dimension
, 396

Political economy of strengthening CoG
, 335–336

Political institutions in Brazil
, 57–61

accountability
, 59–61

congress, political parties, and governing coalitions
, 57–58

judiciary as policymaker
, 58–59

Political management
, 322, 333–334

Political parties
, 35–37

Political responsiveness
, 335

Political science research
, 320

Political stability
, 298–299

Political systems
, 452

Political trap
, 429–430

Political-managers
, 279–280

Political–administrative environment
, 55

Politicization
, 2, 476

“Politicized incompetence”
, 219

Politics of Argentine bureaucracy
, 37–38

Politics of bureaucracy
, 3

Politics of public administration in democratic Brazil
, 68–76

Ascendance of Center Left
, 73–75

Cardoso governments
, 70–73

continuity and change
, 75–76

turbulent years
, 69–70

Populism
, 312

Portal Pagos del Estado
, 111

Portal Tramites del Estado
, 111

Position-based model. See Traditional civil service (TCS)

Poverty governance, tensions and dilemmas in
, 392–394

Poverty-Reduction Strategy (PRSP)
, 389

President’s direct support units
, 323

Presidential Delivery Unit
, 331–332

Presidential rule
, 25

Privatization(s)
, 12–13

of public services
, 386

Professional bureaucracy
, 299

Professional Career Service
, 182–183

Professional Career Service Act. See Ley del Servicio Profesional de Carrera (LSPC)

Professional Career Service Law
, 276

Professional Career System (SPC)
, 184

Professionalization
, 271

Professionalized “Weberian” bureaucracy
, 300

Program evaluations
, 110

Program for Public Administration Renewal
, 134

Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC)
, 74

Programa de Renovación de la Administración Pública (PRAP). See Program for Public Administration Renewal

Programas de Mejoramiento de Gestión (PMGs). See Management Improvement Programs

Provincial Economic and Social Council (CESPRO)
, 86

Public accountability
, 438

Public administration
, 1, 86–89

in Argentina
, 39

in Colombia
, 120–121

current issues
, 470–475

future
, 476–478

generalizations
, 467–468

in Latin America
, 2, 9–11

model
, 17

in Paraguay
, 208–210

research
, 320

unconsolidated model of public management reform
, 469–470

in Uruguay
, 232–239

Public bureaucracy
, 1

Public conferences
, 60

Public Contracts Court
, 85

Public employees
, 93–99

in Mexico
, 186–190

Public employment
, 217

characteristics in Argentina
, 28–35

subnational public employment
, 34–35

Public Employment Framework Law
, 29

Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability initiative (PEFA initiative)
, 416

Public hearings
, 60, 161

Public integrity
, 419–420

Public management. See also Strategic management

in Brazil
, 61

policy community
, 72–73

unconsolidated model of public management reform
, 469–470

Public Management Reforms
, 12–15, 72

after 2010
, 75–76

Public Performance Monitoring and Evaluation system (PPME system)
, 6, 437, 440

absence of key stakeholders in conversation
, 457–459

budget-oriented vs. planning-oriented systems
, 447–450

classifying distinct approaches
, 447

democratic accountability in context of PPME systems’ trends and challenges
, 459–464

diverse functions, tools, and stakeholders
, 444–447

five to twelve systems
, 450–453

institutionalization of PPME systems in region
, 453–454

lack of credibility of information
, 454–455

low coherence and high fragmentation
, 455–457

results-oriented
, 441–447

Public personnel

civil servants
, 158–160

in Colombia
, 121–124

institutional framework of
, 157–158

public employees
, 121–124

rewards of office
, 124

system in Costa Rica
, 157–160

Public personnel management (PPM)
, 261

historical background
, 262–265

Latin America
, 265–280

Public Prosecutions Office Organic Law
, 166–167

Public sector personnel
, 3

in Chile
, 89–99

civil service laws
, 89–93

in Paraguay
, 211–216

public employees
, 93–99

in Uruguay
, 239–243

Public service development index
, 303

Public Service Secretariat (SFP)
, 276

Public–private partnership law
, 75–76

Pure transfers programs
, 390–391

Radical Civic Union (UCR)
, 26–27

Radical mass parties
, 308–310

Radical Party (PR)
, 82

redGEalc
, 353

Regional Ministerial Secretariats (SEREMI)
, 85–86

Renovación Nacional (RN)
, 82

Reorganization Act (1939)
, 324–325

Responsive bureaucracy
, 264

Responsive competence
, 335

Results-based budgeting
, 111

Results-based management
, 16

“Rule of Law”
, 424–428

School of Governance
, 376

Secretaría de la Función Pública (SFP)
, 183–184

Secretarías
, 209–210, 210

Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit
, 195

Secretariat of Public Administration. See Secretaría de la Función Pública (SFP)

Secretary of Civil Service
, 211

Secretary of Federal Administration (SAF)
, 69–70

Sectoral Cabinets
, 330

SEDAP-PR (National Secretary of Public Administration)
, 69

Semi-autonomous institutions
, 151

Senior Public Management Council
, 92

Senior Public Management System
, 92, 103

SEPLAN-PR (National Secretary of Planning)
, 69

Service comptroller’s offices
, 168–169

Servicio Nacional de Electricidad (SNE)
, 172

Servicio Profesional Electoral (Professional Electoral Service)
, 278

SHCP. See Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit

SINEP
, 33

Sinergia territorial
, 445

Sistema Administrador de Empresas (SEP)
, 88–89

Sistema de Alta Dirección Pública
, 267–268

Sistema de Información y Gestión del Empleo Público (SIGEP)
, 123

Sistema Nacional de Profesión Administrativa (SINAPA)
, 278

Smart Cities
, 366–369

Smart governance
, 366–369

Social actors
, 1

Social media
, 363–364

Social mobilization
, 170

Social Organizations
, 56

Social Organizations of Public Interest
, 56

Social security policy changes in public sector
, 67

Social trap
, 429–430

Socialist Party (PS)
, 82

Spanish feudalism
, 305

Spoils system
, 262

State capacity
, 472–473

State modernization
, 133

State reform
, 375

processes
, 10

reflections on
, 395–397

State-owned companies
, 153

state-owned company-private entity
, 153

state-owned company-public entity
, 153

State-owned enterprises (SOEs)
, 54, 56, 209–210, 237

Strategic management
, 327–328

of government
, 321

Strategy units
, 322–323

Strength of committee system
, 301–303

Subnational public employment
, 34–35

Superintendencia General de Entidades Financiera (SUGEF)
, 171

Superintendencias
, 88

Superior Tribunal of Electoral Justice (TSJE)

Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs)
, 419

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
, 439

System for Administrative Development (SISTEDA)
, 120–121

System of Programming and Management by Objectives and Results (SIGOB)
, 129–130

Tackling corruption
, 423

Targeted poverty-reduction policies
, 386

Temporary personnel (contratados)
, 215–216

Timing of industrialization
, 309

Traditional civil service (TCS)
, 261

Transparency
, 411–412

Transparency Council
, 106

Transparency International
, 423–424

Transparency Law
, 75, 105–106

Transparency pacts
, 130

Transversal careers
, 75

Tri-Ministerial Council
, 93

Tribunal de Servicio Civil (Civil Service Court)
, 272

Tribunal Electoral Supremo (Supreme Electoral Tribunal)
, 272

Turbulence
, 2

“Un millón de cisternas rurales” program
, 388–389

“Unified national public service system”
, 243

Union Demócrata Independiente (UDI)
, 82, 101

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
, 385

United Nations e-Government Development Index (EGDI)
, 353–354

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL)
, 350

United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
, 386

United States Congress
, 295

Uruguay
, 230

accountability
, 247–249

bureaucracy politics in
, 245–246

government institutions
, 230–232

links with civil society
, 245

links with political parties
, 243–245

politics of bureaucracy
, 243–246

PPM in
, 273–275

public administration
, 232–239

public sector organization
, 234–236

public sector personnel
, 239–243

reform and change
, 249–254

Uruguayan democracy
, 5

Veedurías Ciudadanas
, 128

Vertical accountability. See also Horizontal accountability
, 105–107

citizen participation
, 107

informal sources of accountability
, 107–108

transparency and access to information
, 105–106

“Voice and Accountability” Index
, 416–418

Voucher system
, 74

Water Co-ops. See Community Organizations for Water and Sewerage Services (OCSAS)

Water Committees. See Community Organizations for Water and Sewerage Services (OCSAS)

Water governance
, 386–389

Weberian façade
, 306

Weberian models
, 10, 14

World Bank (WB)
, 385

Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)
, 36–37

Prelims
Introduction: Focus and Book Outline
Chapter 1 A Brief Story of Latin American Public Administration: A Particular Model
Country Chapters
Chapter 2 Public Administration in Argentina: Characterization and Analysis of the Political–Institutional Dynamic
Chapter 3 Public Administration in Brazil: The Elusive State – Eighty Years Attempting to Build a Professional and Responsive Public Service
Chapter 4 Modernizing the State to Strengthen Democracy: Public Sector Reforms in Chile
Chapter 5 Colombia: Public Administration in the Midst of Uncertainty
Chapter 6 Costa Rican Public Administration: Neo-Weberian State, Fragmentation, and Dilemmas
Chapter 7 Mexico's Public Administration: Huge Problems, Partial Solutions
Chapter 8 Paraguay: The Supremacy of Informality in Public Administration
Chapter 9 Public Administration in Uruguay: Modernization in Slow Motion
Cross Country Chapters
Chapter 10 The Management of Public Personnel in Latin America: Scope and Limits of a Modern Civil Service
Chapter 11 Bureaucracy and Politics
Chapter 12 The Center of Government in Latin America
Chapter 13 Digital Public Administration in Latin America: Digitalization, Public Innovation, and the Future of Technologies in the Public Sector
Chapter 14 The Dilemmas of Governance in Latin America
Chapter 15 Good Governance and Corruption in Latin America
Chapter 16 Enhancing Accountability Through Results-oriented Monitoring and Evaluation Systems
Conclusion: The Present and Future of Public Administration in Latin America
Index