Index

Jennifer Kuklenski (Northland College, USA)

Diversity and Organizational Development

ISBN: 978-1-83982-593-4, eISBN: 978-1-83982-592-7

Publication date: 16 June 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Kuklenski, J. (2021), "Index", Diversity and Organizational Development, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 139-146. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-592-720211011

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Ability diversity
, 19–20

Accessing new markets
, 81–82

Action planning
, 97

Activism
, 1–2

Adaptive preferences
, 73

Adhocracy organizational cultures
, 105

Affirmative action (AA)
, 28–29, 73, 117–118

Age diversity
, 18–19

Agricultural revolution
, 37–38

Ambivalent discrimination
, 101

Ambivalent prejudice
, 66–67

Anti-Discrimination Agency (ADS)
, 2–3

Anxiety
, 42

Assimilating
, 95

Assimilating organizations
, 104

Attitude, nature of
, 52

Attracting top talent
, 82

Authority ranking (AR)
, 54

Autostereotypes
, 65

Aversive prejudice
, 66–67

Baby bounty
, 12–13

Bartlett, Frederic
, 53–54

Bias
, 2–3

Biculturalism
, 81

Bilingualism
, 81

Blind spots
, 3, 96, 119

Bribe
, 100

Bribery
, 100

Broad category-based definition of diversity
, 29–30

Carroll, Archie
, 83

CEO
, 60

Chelsea Football Club
, 108

Chinese Culture Connection
, 44

Chinese Value Survey (CVS)
, 44

Circular migration
, 15–16

Civil Rights Act (1964)
, 69–70

Civilization
, 37–38

Clan culture
, 104–105

Closed systems cultures
, 106

Cognitions
, 59–60

Cognitive diversity

culture and self
, 51

organizational implications
, 59–61

relational mental models
, 53–56

social cognition
, 51–53

task and time orientation
, 56–59

Cognitive diversity
, 6

Collectivism
, 38, 49

cultures
, 40–42

Collectivist cultures
, 40–43, 72

Columbus Day
, 109

Commercial bribery
, 100

Common hand gestures
, 47–48

Communal relationships
, 55

Communal sharing (CS)
, 54–55

Communication
, 49

Communication barriers
, 46–47

Communication systems
, 46

Competing values framework
, 104–105

Competitive advantage
, 4, 82

Concept of culture
, 37–38

Concept of diversity
, 28–30

Concept of face
, 41

Conceptual challenges
, 114–115

Conflict management
, 92–93

Conformity
, 63–65

Conscious bias
, 92–93

Consumer behavior research
, 81

Context and communication
, 49

Continuous education
, 93

Convergence of oppression
, 5, 35, 67–68

Conversations
, 93

Coping with exclusion
, 73

Coping with social exclusion
, 72–73

Core values
, 103, 106

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
, 7, 82–83

embedding D&I in CSR strategy
, 84–85

hierarchy
, 83–84

linking diversity and inclusion with
, 82–85

programs
, 114

pyramid
, 83

Corporate strategy
, 84

Costs of exclusion
, 74–75

Counter-preferences
, 73

Covert discrimination
, 2–3, 67

Covert resistance
, 118–119

COVID-19
, 115

Creativity and innovation
, 77–79

Crenshaw, Kimberlé

Cross-cultural barriers
, 46

Cultural communication systems
, 6

Cultural differences
, 49–50

Cultural diversity

cultural differences
, 49–50

dimensions of national culture
, 38–46

diversity in communication
, 46–49

Cultural divisions
, 106–107

Cultural fluency
, 47

Cultural inequalities
, 109

Cultural narratives
, 96

Cultural relativism
, 100

Culture
, 5–6, 37–38, 51

Definition of culture
, 37

Definition of diversity
, 5, 36

DeGraffenreid v. General Motors
, 67–68

Demographic shifts
, 1, 11, 16

international migration trends
, 13–16

international population trends
, 11–13

Developed countries
, 113

Developing countries
, 113

Dìa de la Raza
, 109

Dimensions of national culture
, 38–46

collectivism
, 40–42

femininity
, 43–44

individualism
, 40–42

indulgence vs. restraint
, 45–46

long-term orientation
, 44–45

masculinity
, 43–44

power distance
, 38–40

short-term orientation
, 44–45

uncertainty avoidance
, 42–43

Dimensions of organizational culture
, 105–106

Disability diversity
, 19–20

Discretionary responsibilities
, 84

Discrimination
, 65–69

Dissent
, 79, 121

Diverse groups
, 2

Diversity
, 27–28, 30, 113

attributes
, 5, 35, 67–68

characteristics
, 29–30

in communication
, 6, 46, 49

comparative definitions
, 29–30

competency
, 88–89

definitions
, 29

diversity-related conflict
, 92–93

illustrative example
, 33–34

imperative
, 1–3

inclusion
, 116, 120–121

initiatives
, 99, 115–116

interacting attributes
, 34–36

in interpersonal relationships
, 56–58

levels
, 32–36

linking diversity and inclusion with corporate social responsibility
, 82–85

multinational definition
, 30–32

organizational diversity
, 113–116

organizational performance
, 77–82

reflecting on diversity’s complexity
, 36

training
, 7–8, 91

tree and sample attributes
, 33

value of
, 77–82

Diversity and inclusion (D&I)
, 1, 77, 87–88, 118

benefits
, 2–3, 7

commitment
, 85–86

efforts
, 31–32

embedding D&I in CSR strategy
, 84–85

initiatives
, 2

organizational development approach to
, 3–4

as value-adding activity
, 120–121

Diversity and inclusion organizational development (D&IOD)
, 4, 104

Diversity in context

global demographic shifts
, 11–16

national labor force trends
, 16–24

Diversity management
, 7–8, 28–29, 87, 93

recruiting for diversity
, 87–89

retaining diverse employees
, 89–93

Diversity Prediction Theorem
, 80

Dogma
, 53

Dogmatism
, 53

Dominating
, 95

Dominating organizations
, 8, 95

Dynegy
, 109

Emotional labor
, 57

Emotional overcoat
, 57

Employee Assistance Plans (EAPs)
, 92

Employee engagement
, 60, 103

Employee orientation
, 105–106

Employee turnover
, 74–75

Employee-oriented cultures
, 105–106

Employers of choice
, 82

Employment discrimination
, 67

Entrepreneurial mindset
, 39–40

Entrepreneurs
, 40

Environmental, social, and governance factors (ESG factors)
, 85

Environmental sustainability
, 115

Equal employment opportunities (EEOs)
, 28–29, 89–90

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
, 2–3

Equality in organizations
, 116–117

Equality matching (EM)
, 54–55

Equity
, 117

Equivalence
, 55

Ethnic diversity
, 17–18

Ethnocentrism
, 99

“Euro Disney” theme park
, 81–82

European Union (EU)
, 12

Evaluation procedures
, 91–92

Examples of diversity definitions
, 88

Exclusion. See also Inclusion; Social exclusion
, 3, 7, 69, 73

costs of
, 74–75

Exclusionism
, 101

Exclusive
, 94

Exclusive organizations
, 95

Explicit bias
, 73

Explicit diversity
, 32–34

Face
, 41

Factor analysis
, 78–79

Fear
, 42

Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency
, 70

Female board seats
, 21

Feminine societies
, 43

Femininity
, 38, 43–44

Fertility rates
, 17–18

in Europe
, 5

Fiske, Allen Page
, 54

Floating holidays
, 109

Florida Hospital
, 97–99

Forbes Insight study
, 25

Foreign-born colleague
, 66–67

Freedom
, 41–42

Freidman, Milton
, 84–85

Geertz, Clifford
, 5–6, 37

Gender diversity
, 20–21

Gender identity diversity
, 22

Gender inequality
, 74

Gender roles
, 43, 48

Global context
, 111

Global demographic trends
, 24–25

Global population
, 11, 104

Globalization
, 81

Great cultures
, 107

Grievance procedures
, 91–92

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 74

Group
, 63

norms
, 63–64

Grundfos
, 108

Grundfos Olympics
, 108

Guanxi in Asian business
, 44–45

Guest workers
, 13

Hall, Edward T.
, 6, 49

Hard work
, 118

Haslam, Nick
, 54

Heterogenous
, 77–78

Heterogenous groups
, 79–80

Heterostereotypes
, 65

Hewlett-Packard’s diversity programs (HP diversity programs)
, 31–32

Hierarchy cultures
, 105

High indulgence
, 45

High restraint
, 45–46

High-context communication
, 49

High-skilled immigrants
, 16

High-skilled migration
, 16

Hiring quotas
, 28–29

Historically marginalized groups
, 73, 117–118

Historically underrepresented groups
, 87, 114

Hofstede, Geert
, 5–6, 38, 105

Hofstede, Gert Jan
, 38

Homogenous
, 63

Homogenous groups
, 79, 86

Horizontal learning organization
, 54

Human capital
, 77, 120

Human resources (HR)
, 1

HR-driven program
, 3–4

Human resources (HR)
, 116

Immigrants
, 16

inflows
, 14–16

workers
, 15–16

Immigration
, 5, 113

Implementation
, 97

Implicit bias. See Subtle prejudice

Implicit diversity
, 32–34

In-groups
, 63

Inclusion
, 116, 120–121

hard work
, 118

resistance to change
, 118–120

striving for equity
, 116–118

Inclusive
, 120

Inclusive companies
, 84–85

Inclusive culture
, 104

Inclusive language
, 110–111

Inclusive leadership
, 8, 96

Inclusive organizational culture
, 100–101

Inclusive organizational development
, 94–95

challenges in multinational environments
, 99–101

diversity management
, 87–93

management to organizational development
, 93–95

in practice
, 95–99

Inclusive organizations
, 112

Inclusive workplace
, 7–8

Indigenous Peoples Day
, 109

Individualism
, 38, 40, 42, 49

Individualist cultures
, 40, 72

Indulgence vs. restraint (IVR)
, 45–46

Innovation
, 77–79

Innovative organizations
, 78–79

Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation (IRIC)
, 105

Integrating
, 95

Integrating organizations
, 8

Interacting attributes
, 34–36

International Labor Organization (ILO)
, 19

International migration
, 17

International migration trends
, 13–16

International population trends
, 11–13

Interpersonal relational styles
, 57

Interpersonal relationships, diversity in
, 56–58

Intersectionality
, 34–35, 67–68

Intolerance of ambiguity
, 80–81

Intrinsically inclusive
, 89

Involuntary turnover
, 3

Jelly bean model
, 30

Job-oriented cultures
, 105–106

Karoshi
, 41

Keiretsu system
, 41

Labor force trends
, 16–24

Labor migrants
, 14–15

Language
, 9, 110–111

fluency
, 47

Learning organization
, 45–46

Legacy phrases
, 110–111

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people (LGBTQ people)
, 68

Levels of diversity
, 32–36

LGBTQ

community
, 69–70, 72–73

employees
, 22

Likert-type scale
, 78–79

Linguistic diversity
, 46–47

Long-term orientation (LTO)
, 38, 44–45

Losing face
, 41

Low-context communication
, 49

Majority groups
, 70

Māori posture dance
, 107–108

Marginalization
, 68

Marginalized groups
, 74

Market cultures
, 104–105

Market pricing (MP)
, 54, 56

Masculine societies
, 43–44

Masculinity
, 38, 43–44

Mead, Margaret
, 37

Mental health disabilities
, 19–20

Mental models
, 6

Mentoring
, 89–90

Meritocracy
, 101

Microaggression
, 66

Migration pull factors
, 14

Migration push factors
, 14

Minkov, Michael
, 38

Minorities
, 69–70

Minority groups
, 88

Mission, vision, and purpose
, 107

Monochronic time orientation
, 58

Moore v. Hughes Helicopter, Inc.
, 67–68

Moral relativism
, 99–100

Motivation
, 3

Multi-dimensional diversity frameworks
, 34–35

Multicultural
, 39–40

Multicultural organizational development (MCOD)
, 94

Multinational environments, challenges in
, 99–101

Multinational organizations
, 4–5, 111

Narrow category-based definition of diversity
, 29

National labor force trends
, 16–24

ability and disability diversity
, 19–20

age diversity
, 18–19

gender diversity
, 20–21

political diversity
, 23–24

racial and ethnic diversity
, 17–18

religious diversity
, 22–23

sexual orientation and gender identity diversity
, 22

Networking
, 71–72

New Zealand All Blacks
, 107–108

Nonverbal communication
, 47–48

Normative cultures
, 106

Onboarding
, 89–90

Open system cultures
, 106

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 19–20, 70

Organizational change
, 4, 116

Organizational culture
, 8, 103, 106–107

dimensions
, 105–106

functions
, 103–104

shared meaning
, 107–111

sustaining culture
, 111–112

types
, 104–106

Organizational development (OD). See also Inclusive organizational development
, 4, 93, 114

approach to diversity and inclusion
, 3–4

management to
, 93–95

Organizational diversity
, 31, 113, 116

conceptual challenges
, 114–115

practical challenges
, 115–116

Organizational effectiveness
, 4

Organizational flexibility
, 80–81

Organizational for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
, 1

Organizational holidays
, 109–110

Organizational leaders
, 68–69

Organizational performance
, 77–82

value of diversity
, 77–82

Organizational productivity
, 4

Organizational readiness
, 96–97

Organizational subcultures
, 106–107

Organizational success
, 8, 115–116

Organizations
, 1–2, 84, 89, 104–105

Out-groups
, 63

Overt discrimination
, 2–3

Overt resistance
, 118–119

Page, Scott
, 78

Parental leave
, 20–21

Patent Cooperation Treaty
, 16

Payne v. Travenol
, 67–68

People with disabilities
, 19

Perception of time
, 58–59

Performance evaluations
, 91

Permanent immigrant inflows
, 15–16

Personality
, 50

Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project
, 23

Physical contact
, 55

Political diversity
, 23–24

Political ideology
, 23–24

Polychronic time orientation
, 58

Population
, 5, 12–13

Population growth
, 12

Positive action programs
, 117–118

Positive self-concept
, 65

Power distance
, 38, 40

Practical challenges
, 115–116

Pragmatic cultures
, 106

Prejudice
, 65–69

Privilege
, 5

Privileged groups
, 9

Problem-solving
, 79–80

Professional development
, 7

Professional development opportunities
, 7–8

Prosocial behavior
, 47

Protestant relational ideology (PRI)
, 57–58

Psychological research
, 42

Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI)
, 87–88

Purchasing behavior
, 81

Race
, 2–3, 34–35

Racial discrimination
, 67–68

Racial diversity
, 17–18

Racism
, 46–47

Random socialization
, 111–112

Rasse
, 46–47

Readiness assessment
, 97

Recruiting for diversity
, 87–89

Relational mental models
, 53–56

authority ranking
, 54

communal sharing
, 55

equality matching
, 55

market pricing
, 56

Relational models theory
, 6

Relational styles
, 6, 60–61

Relativism
, 99

Relevant diversity
, 80

Religious diversity
, 22–23

Replacement migration
, 17

Resistance to change
, 118–120

Response shift
, 73

Retaining diverse employees
, 89–93

Risk-taking behavior
, 42

Rituals
, 9, 107, 109

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
, 16

Selection processes
, 111–112

Self
, 51

Sensemaking
, 3

Serial socialization
, 111–112

Sex discrimination
, 67–68

Sexual orientation diversity
, 22

Shared identity
, 107–108

Shared meaning
, 107–111

rituals
, 107–109

Shared purpose
, 31

Short-term orientation
, 38, 44–45

Sincere ignorance
, 116

Single-axis framework
, 34–35

Single-dimensional diversity frameworks
, 34–35

Social attribution
, 52

Social categories
, 6–7, 65

Social categorization
, 63–65

Social cognition
, 51–53

dogmatism
, 53

nature of attitude
, 52

Social competition
, 73

Social conformity
, 63

Social context
, 63

Social emotionality
, 57–58

Social exclusion
, 74

coping with
, 72–73

costs of exclusion
, 74–75

exclusion
, 69–73

illustrative example
, 70–72

social categorization and conformity
, 63–65

stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
, 65–69

Social identity
, 63

Social identity theory
, 64–65

Social isolation
, 64

Social justice obligation
, 2

“Social niche” construction of relationships
, 68–69

Social perception
, 51–52

Social psychology research
, 6–7

Social ranking
, 54

Social sciences
, 5

Social significance
, 114–115

Social-emotional relational styles
, 56–57

Socially responsible investments (SRIs)
, 85

Sociocultural identities
, 81

Sound management
, 38

Spoken language
, 46

Stereotypes
, 51–52, 65, 69

Stock prices
, 3

Strategic plan
, 97–98

Strategy
, 4

Striving for equity
, 116–118

Strong culture
, 104

Subcultures
, 50

Subordinates
, 39–40

Subtle prejudice
, 65–66

“Superadditivity” of diverse tools
, 78

Supervisors
, 39–40

Sustainable competitive advantage
, 120

Sustaining culture
, 111–112

Symbols
, 9, 109–110

Systemic discrimination
, 52

Systemic marginalization
, 122

Tajfel, Henri
, 64

Talent pool
, 87–88

Target Corporation
, 96

Task orientation
, 56–59

Task-focused relational styles
, 56–57

Team-building rituals
, 108–109

Teamwork
, 104–105

The Diversity Tree
, 33

Thrift
, 44

Time orientation
, 56–59

Tolerance building
, 80–81

Top-level management
, 4

Traditional organizations
, 78–79

Training
, 7–8

Training and development
, 70

Trivial differences
, 27–28

Turnover
, 3

Uncertainty avoidance
, 38, 42–43

Unconscious bias
, 92–93

Underrepresented groups
, 90

Unemployment
, 19–20

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
, 78

United Nations
, 13

Universalism
, 101

Unspoken language
, 46

US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
, 66

US public schools
, 109–110

Value of diversity
, 77–82

Valued-adding activities
, 120–121

Values
, 1–2

Verbal communication
, 46

Voluntary turnover
, 3

Volunteer work
, 108–109

Weak cultures
, 103

Western cultural bias
, 50

Work cultures
, 1–2

Work-life balance
, 43

Workforce

diversity
, 87

projections
, 16

Workplaces
, 43–44, 81

diversity
, 16, 113

exclusion
, 3

inclusion
, 3

Xenophobic person
, 66–67

Young employee network (YEN)
, 31–32