Index

Energy Security in Times of Economic Transition: Lessons from China

ISBN: 978-1-83982-465-4, eISBN: 978-1-83982-464-7

Publication date: 20 January 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Lixia, Y. (2021), "Index", Energy Security in Times of Economic Transition: Lessons from China, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 193-199. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-464-720201010

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Index

Acceptability (AC)

data
, 57

indicators
, 49–52

Adequacy
, 19, 34

Administrative Measures for the Coal Production License
, 85

Affordability (AF)
, 20

data
, 57–58

indicators
, 52–53

Aggregated energy security indicators
, 34–36

Air pollutant emissions
, 49

Air pollution control during reform period
, 96–101

Air Pollution Prevention Law
, 98

Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP)
, 7, 27

Analytical robustness
, 41

Applicability (AP)

data
, 55–57

indicators
, 44–48

4-As evolution
, 59

AC trend
, 69–71

AF trend
, 71–72

AP trend
, 68–69

AV trend
, 66–67

Asian Financial Crisis
, 140

Availability
, 20

Availability indicators (AV)

data
, 54–55

indicators
, 42–44

Availability of resource, applicability of technology, acceptability by society framework (3-A framework)
, 22–23, 31

Availability of resources, applicability of technologies, acceptability by society, affordability of prices framework (4-As framework)
, 11–12

Average thermal efficiency of power plants
, 47

Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
, 5, 10, 151–152, 161

projects in world’s energy sector
, 152–158

BP Statistical Review of World Energy
, 54

Brightness Program and Ride the Wind Program
, 70

Brightness Project Implementation Planning
, 103

Carbon

factor
, 51n14

intensity
, 50n12

Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS technology)
, 101n21

Carbonisation index (see Carbon factor)

Central Asia, BRI projects in
, 152–154

CFC-Free Energy-Efficient Refrigerator Project
, 93

China Energy Conservation Investment Corporation (CECIC)
, 132

China Energy Statistical Yearbook
, 54

China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)
, 135

China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)
, 129, 152

China Petrochemical Corporation
, 129

China Statistical Yearbook (CSY)
, 54

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
, 154–155

China’s Agenda 21
, 70, 97

China’s CO2 emissions
, 49–50

China’s coal reserves
, 54–55

China’s economic reform and energy security
, 148–149

China’s electricity generation
, 88–90

China’s Energy in Fifty Years
, 7

China’s energy policy
, 5–9

importance of analysing
, 4–5

China’s energy security
, 5–9

under BRI
, 170

frameworks evaluating
, 27–28

China’s Medium and Long Term Energy Conservation Plan
, 93

China’s new energy and renewable energy development outline
, 102

China’s oil and gas industry
, 87

China’s oil balance
, 87–88

natural gas development in China
, 88

China’s SO2 emissions
, 50

Chinese economy
, 167

Chinese tax system
, 130–131

Climate change
, 20

Coal
, 49, 52, 68

coal-electricity price linkage mechanism
, 146

coal-sector reform
, 117–118

pricing
, 137–139

Coal Industry Policy
, 96

Coal price

policies on
, 106–107

volatility
, 58

Coal production during reform period

adjustment of coal industry distribution and development
, 82–84

contribution of China’s TVCMs to coal production
, 84–87

Coal reserve-to-production ratio (Coal R/P ratio)
, 42

Coalbed methane (CBM)
, 84

Command
, 4–5

Compatible macro-policy environment
, 169

Competitive price
, 3n2

Contract responsibility system (CRS)
, 115

Crisis capability index (CC index)
, 37

Critical geopolitics
, 2

Crude oil distillation capacity
, 47

‘Cultural revolution’, energy policies during
, 81–82

Data coding
, 58–59

Decision about Investment Regime Reform
, 69

Decision of the State Council on further Strengthening the Work of Environmental Protection
, 97

Decision of the State Council on Strengthening Energy Conservation Work
, 94

Demand-side management
, 20

Direct indicators
, 41

Diversification of Primary Energy Demand (DoPED)
, 35

Diversity index
, 34–35

Domestic SOEs
, 103

Driving force SIs
, 37

Driving force–state–response model (DSR model)
, 37–38

Earth Summit (1992)
, 32

Ecological diversity
, 35

Economic dimension
, 20

Economic factor
, 37

Electric Power Law of the People’s Republic of China (1996)
, 108–109

Electric Power Sector Reform Plan
, 144

Electricity
, 44, 46

policies on electricity price
, 107–109

prices
, 52

supply
, 44

Eleventh Five-Year Plan of Renewable Energy Development
, 90

Energy
, 1

advancement of energy technologies
, 95–96

conservation
, 62, 90–95

consumption per capita
, 53

efficiency indicators
, 20, 45

energy–environment indicators
, 33n11

factor
, 37

price volatility
, 34

pricing
, 52

self-sufficiency rate
, 34

technology
, 45

Energy import

dependence ratio
, 43

dependency
, 34

Energy indicators for sustainable development (EISD)
, 38, 42–43

Energy industry

reform
, 8

technical updating and transformation investment/investment
, 48

Energy intensity
, 34, 45–46, 90–95

Energy Leading Group (ELG)
, 147

Energy policy
, 1–4, 17–18, 75

during ‘cultural revolution’
, 81–82

of AC dimension
, 96–106

of AF dimension
, 106–110

of AP dimension
, 90–96

of AV dimension
, 82–90

effects
, 77

Great Leap Forward Period
, 77–80

investment
, 76

reform of energy enterprises
, 76–77

for third front construction
, 80

Energy sector reform
, 115, 142

adjustment and recovering of economy
, 124–126

adjustment of economy
, 116

coal-sector reform
, 117–118

economic reform
, 141–142

government restructuring
, 127–128

HRS
, 117–118

initial period
, 116–119

market
, 118–119

from rural to urban
, 119–124

Energy security
, 1–4, 17

analytical framework
, 12–15

assessment frameworks for
, 22–28

need for holistic approach
, 28–32

quantification
, 32–38

research methodology
, 15

research questions and key findings
, 5

spectrum
, 24

study value and contributions to knowledge
, 9–10

views on
, 17–28

Energy Security physical availability indicator (ESIvolume)
, 35

Energy Security price indicator (ESIprice)
, 35

Environmental dimension
, 20

Environmental protection, increasing attention to
, 147–148

Environmental Protection Law
, 97

European Union (EU)
, 43

Financial reform and energy sector
, 131–133

Fiscal reform
, 167

and energy sector
, 130–131

Five-dimensional framework
, 25–26

Five-Year Plan period (FYP period)
, 8, 39, 76, 113, 164

Fossil fuels
, 1

Four-dimensional frameworks
, 23–25

Frontier Works Organisation (FWO)
, 154

Fuel mix in electricity generation
, 51

General Contract Program
, 83

Geopolitical ideology
, 2

Geopolitics
, 2

Gezhouba project
, 81

Global Terrorism Index (GTI)
, 155

Globalisation
, 2

Government restructuring
, 127–128

energy sector under
, 128–130

Great Leap Forward Period
, 77

adjustment of investments in energy industry
, 79

of coal industry
, 77–78

on energy industry
, 79

energy policies in
, 77

of power and oil industries
, 78–79

Gross generation efficiency of fossil fuel-fired power plants
, 46–47

Group Company System (GCS)
, 133

HELIO International
, 33n13

High-in policy
, 108

High-out policy
, 108

Household Responsibility System (HRS)
, 12, 114, 117–118, 162

‘Hydropower-based’ development approach
, 78

Imbalance index
, 62–63

Import dependence ratio
, 43

Independent energy security measurement systems
, 36

CC index
, 37

DSR model
, 37–38

S/D index
, 36

Independent power producers (IPPs)
, 108

Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development (ISED)
, 37–38

Indicators identification
, 32–38

Indirect indicators
, 41

Initial public offering (IPO)
, 156

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
, 37

International Energy Agency (IEA)
, 15, 33n10

Investment
, 76

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
, 45

Kazakhstan
, 153

Kuomintang government (KMT government)
, 76

Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Coal Industry
, 86

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
, 54

Long-term energy security
, 19

Macro economy-driven energy security mechanism
, 12, 14–15, 161–162, 169 (see also Independent energy security measurement systems)

Management Regulations of Township and Village Coalmines
, 85

Market
, 5, 118–119

reforms
, 134

Marketisation
, 145–147

Measurability
, 41

Medium and Long-term Renewable Energy Development Plan
, 90

Middle East, BRI projects in
, 156–158

Middle East Oil Import Dependency (MEOID)
, 35–36

Military factor
, 37

Ministry of Coal Industry
, 78, 85, 129–130

Ministry of Electrical Power (MEP)
, 134

Ministry of Fuel Industry
, 75

Mitigation Assessment (MA)
, 37

Modern Enterprise System (MES)
, 133

Multi-fossil-fuels approach
, 35

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
, 47

National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)
, 71, 93, 141

National Economic Commission
, 91

National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)
, 95, 129

National oil companies (NOCs)
, 133, 153

and oil price liberalisation
, 136–137

National People’s Congress (NPC)
, 84

National Plan for Medium-to Long-Term Scientific and Technological Development
, 96

Natural gas

development in China
, 88

reserve-to-consumption ratio
, 44

Net Energy Import Dependency (NEID)
, 35–36

Net Oil Import Dependency (NOID)
, 35–36

New Plant, New Price policy
, 108

Ninth Five-Year Plan of Industrialization of New and Renewable Energy
, 70

Non-Carbon-based Fuel Portfolio (NCFP)
, 35–36

Not in my backyard (NIMBY)
, 21

Notice on Issues of Further Support for Renewable Energy Development
, 103

Nuclear energy
, 71

Nuclear power
, 105–106 (see also Power)

Oil import dependence ratio
, 42–43

Oil price

liberalisation
, 136–137

policies on
, 109–110

Oil supply crisis
, 19

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 25

Particular matter concentration level emissions (PM10 emissions)
, 50n13

Patents
, 48

People’s Republic of China (PRC)
, 4, 75

Performance scoring
, 59

Persuasion
, 5

Plans on Medium-and Long-term Development of Renewable Energy Resources
, 71

Policy relevance
, 41

Political factor
, 37

Power

plants and grids
, 67

power-sector reform
, 120–121

shortages
, 147

Price reform and ‘cross the price hurdle’
, 122–124

Pricing liberalisation
, 72

Production Lump Sum Policy
, 109

Property rights
, 13

Provisional Regulations Regarding Energy Conservation Management
, 91

Qualitative methodology
, 165–170

Quantitative analysis of energy security in China
, 39

4-As evolution
, 59–72

data
, 54–58

data coding
, 58–59

formulation of indicators
, 39–53

performance scoring
, 59

Quantitative methodology
, 163–165

Reasonable price
, 3n2, 20, 34

Reform of energy enterprises
, 76–77

Regulation on Management of Grid-connected Wind Farms (1994)
, 102

Reliability
, 19, 34

Renewable energies
, 101–105

Renewable Energy Law
, 71, 90, 104–105

Renewable Energy Promotion Law
, 70

Renewable energy share in energy and electricity
, 51

Research Report on China’s Energy Policy
, 7

Response SIs
, 37

Retail electricity prices
, 52n16

Retail gasoline/petrol prices
, 52n16

Ride the Wind Program
, 102

Risk Assessment (RA)
, 37

Rural biogas
, 103

‘Scientific Outlook on Development’
, 143

Selection difficulty
, 40

Self-sufficiency
, 43n5

Sending Electricity to Townships
, 103

Shannon-Wiener index
, 35–36

Short-term energy security
, 19

Simple energy security indicators
, 34

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
, 80

‘Socialism with Chinese characteristics’
, 119–120

‘Socialist planned commodity economy’
, 119–120

Soot emissions, volume of
, 50–52

South Asia, BRI projects in
, 154–155

Southeast Asia, BRI projects in
, 158–159

Spatial scale
, 39

Stability of electricity prices
, 53n17

State Administration for Coal Industry
, 128

State coalmines
, 137–139

State Development and Planning Commission (SDPC)
, 102, 128

State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC)
, 70, 98, 127–128

State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC)
, 144

State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA)
, 98, 129

State Petrochemical Industry Bureau (SPIB)
, 128

State Planning Commission (SPC)
, 81

State Power Corporation of China (SPCC)
, 14, 133

State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC)
, 158

State SIs
, 37

State-owned enterprises (SOEs)
, 13, 89, 95, 114, 162

energy sector under
, 144–145

reform
, 132–133, 143–145

reform in coal sector
, 137

reform in oil sector
, 135–136

reform in power sector
, 134–135

Steel Industry Development Policy
, 94

Supply of energy
, 31

Supply/Demand Index (S/D Index)
, 36

Surety, survivability, supply, sufficiency, and sustainability (‘five Ss’)
, 22

Sustainability indicators (SIs)
, 37, 40

Sustainable development factor
, 37

Sustainable energy development
, 163

Sustainable Energy Programs under Agenda 21
, 97

Sustainable Energy Watch reports (SEW reports)
, 33n13

Tariff Reform Plan
, 109

Technology
, 20, 31, 46

innovation
, 20

Tentative Provisions on Pollution Charge
, 96

Tenth Five-Year Plan for New and Renewable Energy Commercialization Development
, 70

‘Third Front’ of China’s industrial distribution
, 80

Time scale
, 39

Top 1
, 000 Enterprises Energy Conservation Action Implementation Plan, 94

Total Load Control
, 99n20

Total primary energy supply (TPES)
, 35, 43, 51

Town and village coalmines (TVCMs)
, 12–13, 66, 83–85, 117, 137–139

Township and village enterprises (TVEs)
, 97, 116, 117n5, 166

Traditional geopolitics
, 2

Transmission and distribution (T&D)
, 135

Transport factor
, 37

Turkmenistan
, 153

Two-cent policy
, 108

Two-tier pricing system
, 12–13, 121–122

U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
, 54

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DSD)
, 33n12

United Nations Development Programme
, 21

United Nations Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable Development (WPISD)
, 37

User utility
, 41

Volatility of coal prices
, 53

Western development strategy and impact on energy sector
, 139

China’s regional disparities and
, 139–140

energy sector under
, 140–141

World Energy Council (WEC)
, 54

World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)
, 45