Index

Islam Abdelbary (Arab Academy for Science and Technology)

Reviving Arab Reform: Development Challenges and Opportunities

ISBN: 978-1-83982-319-0, eISBN: 978-1-83982-318-3

Publication date: 15 February 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Abdelbary, I. (2021), "Index", Reviving Arab Reform: Development Challenges and Opportunities, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 191-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-318-320211012

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Note: Page numbers followed by “n” indicated footnotes.

Abuse of political power
, 112

Accountability
, 74

Accountable governance system
, 176

Advanced economies
, 35

estimated panel data models for
, 128–134, 135–141

heterogeneity of panel data models for
, 163–164

relationship between economic growth and public health expenditure
, 166

relationship between economic growth and sanitation
, 167

Aggregate governance indicator
, 161

Aggregate structural reform indicator
, 72–73

Arab Aggregate Demand
, 44

Arab countries (ACs)
, 1–2, 19, 39, 172

adopting reforms to diversify economic structures
, 71

bureaucracy system
, 107

development of financial and banking sector
, 71–72

economic reform programmes
, 99

estimated panel data models for
, 142, 146–154

facing economic shocks and fluctuations
, 53

gains from oil
, 39

governance and institutions in
, 100–102

heterogeneity of panel data models for
, 165–166

percentage of oil and tax revenues
, 60

politics in Arab states
, 2

production structures
, 78

societal development in
, 81

Arab economics
, 39–40

actual and expected GDP of Arab region
, 45

Arab economic growth characteristics
, 44–46

Arab GDP per capita growth
, 41

Arab potential and actual GDP with output gap
, 41, 49

Arab’s Chronic Low-Growth Syndrome
, 45

GDP growth in Arab region
, 46

GDP per capita growth for sub-Arab groups
, 50

growth rates of GDP components in Arab region
, 51

sub-Arab groups, economic growth pattern in
, 43–44

whole region, economic growth pattern in
, 40–43

Arab health indicators
, 88

Arab institutional reform
, 122

Arab Monetary Fund index (AMF index)
, 76

Arab multidimensional poverty index
, 86

Arab oil-exporting countries
, 43

Arab Reform

democracy
, 102–105

evolution
, 46–48

failure to provide inclusive reforms
, 119–125

governance and institutions in ACs
, 100–102

impact on Arab World
, 116–119

inclusive development framework for
, 169–178

public administration capacity
, 105–109

social aspects of
, 82–97

state of law
, 109–114

Arab socialism
, 101

Arab Spring
, 2, 18–19, 40, 62, 162

Arab Stock Markets Combined Index
, 77

Arab Sub-groups
, 36–37

Arab vulnerable governance system
, 123

Arab–Israeli conflict
, 102

Armed conflicts
, 172

Asian financial crisis
, 41–42

Barro-type regression
, 17, 23

Between-country disparities
, 85

Budget balance
, 62

Business reform indicators
, 16–17, 27

Central and South Asian countries (CSA)
, 19

Centralised bureaucratic system in Arab region
, 39

Chronic Low-Growth Syndrome
, 45, 48

Civil wars
, 124–125, 170

Cobb-Douglas production function
, 11

Commodity Structure of Arab Exports
, 79

Communication tools
, 175

Comparative cross-country analysis
, 16

Comparative heuristic approach
, 16

Confessionalism
, 174

Consumer price index
, 56

Control of corruption (CC)
, 111–114, 161

Control variables
, 17–18

Corruption
, 108

Credibility gap
, 175

Crowding effect
, 158

Crowding out effect hypothesis
, 158

Current accounts (CAs)
, 54

balance/GDP
, 66

Data

balance
, 64–66

characteristics
, 19

definition
, 29

missing
, 20–21

sources
, 20

sources
, 29

Debt relief
, 66–68

Democracy
, 102, 173

deficit
, 123

PS indicator
, 103–105

voice and accountability
, 102–103

Developing countries

estimated panel data models for
, 134, 142–145

heterogeneity of panel data models for
, 164–165

relationship between economic growth and public health expenditure
, 166

Developing economies
, 35

Development
, 5–7

Diversification
, 74–75

Drinking water
, 93–96

Dynamic panel data (DPD)
, 22

East Asian countries (EAS)
, 19

Econometric techniques
, 21–23

Economic development
, 5–7, 169

Economic growth and development
, 7

Economic growth pattern

in sub-Arab groups
, 43–44

in whole region
, 40–43

Economic infrastructure
, 161

Economic policies adoption
, 42

Economic reforms
, 76, 173–175

aggregated indicators of
, 24–38

programmes
, 99, 115

Economic stabilisation

external stability indicators
, 63–70

macroeconomic stability indicators
, 54–63

Economic stabilisation policies
, 115

Economic stability
, 53–54

Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Country Data
, 20

Economy diversification structure
, 77–80

Education sector reform
, 90–91

Electricity
, 93–96

Empirical model
, 17–19

configuration
, 127

principal components
, 24

Endogenous growth theory. See New growth theory

Estimated panel data models

for ACs
, 142–154

for advanced economies
, 128–134

for developing countries
, 134–142

Estimation approaches
, 21–23

European countries (ECS)
, 19

European sovereign debt crisis
, 77

Evolution of Arab reform
, 46–48

Exchange rates
, 57–59

Explanatory variables
, 17–18

definition and sources of data
, 29

Export Concentration Index
, 78, 158

Export Diversification Index
, 78

External debt-to-exports of goods and services
, 68

External debts
, 54

External demand
, 45–46

External stability
, 129, 134, 156–157

reform indicators
, 16, 26

External stability indicators
, 63–64. See also Macroeconomic stability indicators

current account balance/GDP
, 66

debt relief
, 66–68

external debt-to-exports of goods and services
, 68

international reserves
, 68–70

international trade and CA balance
, 64–66

total Arab exports by subregions
, 65

total reserves in months of imports
, 69

External stabilization
, 121

External sustainability
, 53–54

F-statistics
, 127

Financial liberalisation
, 75–77

Financial reforms
, 71–72

Fixed effect
, 23, 127–128, 142

Fixed Telephone Subscriptions
, 97

Foreign direct investment (FDI)
, 20, 42, 44, 62, 73–75, 134

Formal social security
, 176

Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM)
, 22–23

Global recession
, 42

Governance
, 160–162

in ACs
, 100–102

aggregated indicators of
, 24–38

gap
, 100

indicators
, 17, 28, 100

Government effectiveness (GE)
, 105–109, 161

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
, 5, 17, 53, 73, 40, 128

Growth
, 6–7

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
, 19, 43, 116, 118, 156

Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCCC)
, 81, 105, 109

governance effectiveness factor
, 173

Hausman test
, 21, 23, 128

Health expenditures
, 89–90

Health sector reform
, 87–90

Heterogeneity of panel data models
, 127–128

for ACs
, 165–166

for advanced economies
, 163–164

for developing countries
, 164–165

Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter)
, 40n1

Human capital
, 86–87, 134, 158–159

aggregated indicators of
, 24–38

education sector reform
, 90–91

health sector reform
, 87–90

indicators
, 17, 27, 87

research and innovation
, 91–92

Inclusive development framework for Arab Reform
, 169–170

economic reform
, 173–175

influential factors
, 176–177

political and institutional reform
, 170–173

social reform
, 175–176

Inclusive institutions
, 101

Indebted Poor Country (HIPC)
, 69

Industrial Research Institute report (IRI report)
, 91

Ineffectual reform plan
, 123

Inequality
, 82–86

Infant mortality rates
, 88–89

Inflation
, 55–56

relationship with unemployment
, 122

Information and communication technology (ICT)
, 93, 96–97

Innovation
, 91–92

Institutional reform
, 170–173

Institutions
, 171–172

in ACs
, 100–102

indicators
, 28

Instrumental Variable technique (IV technique)
, 21

Internal stabilisation
, 121

Internal stability
, 129

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
, 67, 115, 157

International reserves
, 68–70

International trade
, 64–66

Internet Protocol (VoIP)
, 97

Kafala system
, 86

Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin test (KMO test)
, 25

Knowledge
, 8

Knowledge-based economy
, 9

Lacklustre performance in fighting poverty
, 83

Lagrange Multiplier test (LM test)
, 21, 128

Large-scale corruption
, 112

Latin America countries (LCN)
, 19

Least Square Dummy Variable technique (LSDVC technique)
, 23

Levin–Lin–Chu test (LLC test)
, 21

Life expectancy at birth
, 89–90

Low-Income Countries (LICs)
, 19, 54–55, 63, 79, 89, 101, 102

Macroeconomic fragility
, 120–122

Macroeconomic instability
, 129, 134, 146

Macroeconomic stability
, 154–156

reform indicators
, 16, 18, 25

relationship with structural reform
, 117

Macroeconomic stability indicators
, 54–55. See also External stability indicators

budget balance
, 62

consumer price index
, 56

exchange rates
, 57–59

prices and inflation
, 55–56

public debt
, 63

public finance indicators
, 59–63

unemployment
, 56, 58

MENA region
, 85

Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
, 160

Mobile telephony
, 97

Modern economic development theories
, 7

neoclassical theory
, 7–8

new growth theory
, 8–9

NIE theory
, 5, 9

underpinning theory of research
, 9–10

Modified operationalisation of model
, 19

Monetary policy
, 174

Natural resources abundance
, 170

Neoclassical School
, 8

Neoclassical theory
, 7–8

New growth theory
, 8–9

New Institutional Economics Theory (NIE Theory)
, 5, 9

Next-generation networks (NGNs)
, 97

Non-resource-rich countries
, 43

North American (NAC)
, 19

OECD countries
, 20–21

Oil dependence ‘resource curse’
, 119–120

Oil production
, 177

Oil wealth
, 105

Open access society
, 101

Overstaffing
, 108

Panel data methods
, 21

Panel unit-root test
, 21

Physical infrastructure
, 92–93, 159–160

aggregated indicators of
, 24–38

basic infrastructure facilities
, 93–96

ICT
, 96–97

indicators
, 17, 28, 94

Political conflict
, 124–125

Political reform
, 170–173

Political stability (PS)
, 146, 161

indicator
, 103–105

Pooled OLS regression
, 128

Population growth rate
, 170

Poverty
, 82–86

Power concentration
, 108

Prices
, 55–56

Production productivity frontier (PPF)
, 12

Public administration capacity
, 105

government effectiveness
, 105–109

Public debt
, 62–63, 155

Public debt-to-GDP ratio
, 62

Public expenditure
, 61

Public finance indicators
, 59–63

Public infrastructure
, 92

Public revenues
, 59–60

Public-choice theory
, 7

Quality of life
, 6

Rational fiscal policy
, 174

Reform
, 16

policy
, 169

Reform programme impact on economic growth
, 127

panel estimated results
, 128–162

testing heterogeneity of panel data
, 127–128

Regulatory Quality (RQ)
, 108–109

Regulatory quality complement
, 173

Research
, 91–92

approach
, 15–17

theoretical model of
, 10–12

underpinning theory of
, 9–10

Research and development (R&D)
, 8

Resource abundance
, 177

Resource-poor, labour-abundant countries (RPLA countries)
, 19, 72, 74–75, 79, 87, 89, 92, 102, 116, 118, 120

Resource-poor subgroups
, 54

Resource-rich, labour-abundant countries (RRLA countries)
, 43, 54–56, 63, 58, 69, 74, 87, 101, 102

Resource-rich, labour-importing countries (RRLI countries)
, 19, 43, 55–56, 58, 69, 74, 76, 87, 89, 102

Rule of Law (RL)
, 109–111

Sanitation
, 93–96

Small-scale corruption
, 112–113

Social aspects of Arab Reform

human capital
, 86–92

inequality
, 82–86

physical infrastructure
, 92–97

poverty
, 82–86

Social benefit-cost analysis
, 160

Social infrastructure
, 161

Social reform
, 81, 175–176

Social spending
, 176

Solow growth model
, 17

Solow residual or ignorance of neoclassical growth theory. See Total factor productivity (TFP)

Solow–Swan model
, 8, 10

Sponsorship system
, 86

Stabilisation
, 53

Stagflation
, 121

State of Law
, 109

control of corruption
, 111–114

rule of law
, 109–111

State variables
, 17, 154

Structural adjustment

policies
, 115

programs
, 70

strategies
, 115

Structural Adjustment Plan (SAP)
, 67

Structural reforms
, 71, 157–158

aggregate structural reform indicator
, 72–73

economy diversification structure
, 77–80

financial liberalisation
, 75–77

foreign direct investment
, 73–75

indicators
, 16–17, 27

relationship with macroeconomic stability
, 117

strategies
, 177

Sub-Arab groups

economic growth pattern in
, 43–44

GDP per capita growth for
, 43

GDP per capita growth for
, 50

Sub-Saharan Africa countries (SSF)
, 19

Tax policy
, 176

Tax reforms
, 60

Technology
, 18n2

Theoretical basis

development
, 5–7

growth
, 6–7

modern economic development theories
, 7

Theoretical model of research
, 10–12

Total Arab exports by subregions
, 65

Total factor productivity (TFP)
, 10–12

Total investment
, 44

Tourism
, 61–62

Transparency
, 174

‘Trickle-down’ effect
, 7

Two-stage least squares regression analysis (2SLS regression analysis)
, 21

UNCTADstat
, 20

Unemployment
, 56, 58, 155–156

relationship with inflation
, 122

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
, 20

Value added tax (VAT)
, 56

Violent conflicts
, 95

Voice and accountability (VA)
, 102–103

Vulnerable institutions
, 122–123

Wars
, 95

World Bank
, 67, 115

World Development Indicators (WDI)
, 20

World Health Organisation (WHO)
, 88, 158

World Inequality Report
, 84

World Statistical Database
, 20

Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGIs)
, 20, 99, 101