Duignan, P. and Duignan, P. (2020), "Navigating the Future of Learning: The Role of Smart Technologies", Leading Educational Systems and Schools in Times of Disruption and Exponential Change: A Call for Courage, Commitment and Collaboration, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83909-850-520201012Download as .RIS
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2020 Patrick A. Duignan
The OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation produced a report in 2016, titled, Innovating Education and Educating for Innovation: The Power of Digital Technologies and Skills. This report presented a comprehensive coverage of the potential of smart technologies in education and recommended uses for a variety of such technologies in schools. Several of the issues on technological disruption and pedagogical reform in schools identified in this report address challenges to educational reform discussed throughout this book and key chapters in the report have special relevance for leaders of educational innovations and reform. These chapters include: Chapter 1: ‘The innovation imperative in education’; Chapter 3: ‘Digital technologies in education’, and Chapter 4: ‘The potential of technology-supported learning’. A number of dimensions of technologically inspired reform for education are identified and discussed in Chapter 4 of the report, which addresses key contemporary challenges and opportunities for educators who focus on school and classroom-level pedagogical transformation.
The report’s conclusions indicated that introducing digital technology into education for technology’s sake does not materially improve results because educational reforms need to place ‘… teaching practice rather than technology in the driving seat’ (Report, p. 89). For the most part, they claimed, recent reform attempts characterised by increasing access to a variety of interactive technologies in the classroom, as well as an increasing push for greater accountability, are the ‘wrong drivers’ of reform (Fullan, 2019a). In several countries, educational reform movements have not ‘… been accompanied by appropriate strategies to improve pedagogy and teaching practices, [or effective] professional development for teachers [or] the provision of excellent software and courseware’ (Fullan, 2011 in OECD Report, 2016, p. 90). The right drivers to achieve educational and pedagogical improvement, even reform, focus on:
[…] the teaching-assessment nexus, social capital to build the profession, pedagogy matching technology, and developing system synergies [as these drivers] work directly on changing the culture of teaching and learning [and] embed both ownership and engagement in reforms for students and teachers. (Fullan in OECD Report, p. 90)
The report also provided a detailed analytical description of Hewlett Packard’s (HP’s) Catalyst Initiative as one way to change the educational landscape to facilitate the successful interdisciplinary implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in secondary and tertiary education. The report identified a number of effective models that emerged from the HP Initiative – the 5 models most relevant for our discussion here were numbered 6–10 in the report:
Educational gaming offers ‘… a promising model to enhance student learning in STEM education, not just improving content knowledge, but also motivation, thinking and creativity’ (Report, pp. 91–92). Educational gaming promotes:
learning by doing, which enables students to learn about complex topics by allowing them to (repeatedly) make mistakes and learn from them;
student learning by enhancing their subject-specific knowledge and deep learning skills;
greater student engagement and motivation in various subjects and education levels, gaining more skills and capabilities when they construct games themselves; and
students’ thinking skills through finding new ways around challenges and enhancing problem solving;
Online laboratories: whether remote or virtual, they enhance technology-supported teaching and learning by allowing students ‘… to simulate scientific experiments and, through remote access, use real laboratory equipment from a distance through the internet’ (p. 92). They concluded that online laboratories can offer students flexible and lower-cost access, as well as better learning opportunities (p. 94).
Collaboration through technology: collaboration enhances students’ ‘… interaction, engagement, learning and thinking skills, in addition to increasing the flexibility and diversity of their educational experience’ (p. 94). The report advised educators and policymakers to consider technology as ‘… a way to increase collaborative learning – including over long distances between different cultures’ (p. 96). This global reach can be facilitated by ‘… creating platforms for international collaboration among schools, classes, teachers and students. Collaboration can be supported by tools such as cloud computing, video conferencing, or online platforms’ (p. 96).
Realtime formative assessment: smart technologies can significantly facilitate frequent interactive assessment of students’ progress and understanding, and aims ‘… to support student creativity by engaging them in their learning, while instantaneous feedback to their teacher informs subsequent instruction’ (p. 98).
Aligning a skills-based curriculum with technology: while the development of skills-based curricula is increasing in a number of countries, their impact on actual teaching and learning depends on the availability of adequately aligned support systems, including ‘… facilitative technology, which can measure complex skills, such as reasoning or problem solving, through measures such as essays, blogs or virtual learning environments’ (HP Catalyst Initiative in Report, p. 100, italics added by this author for emphasis).
The report concluded that the creative use of technology changes classroom practices and that specific Catalyst projects ‘… offer examples of technology-supported education that provide wider ranges of experimentation and learning-by-doing than are possible without technological support’ (p. 100). Gaming provides a way for greater experimentation with online laboratories, whether remote or virtual, and it facilitates relatively low-cost flexible access to experiential learning. It can also ‘… allow increased study time, and offer access that is not restricted to a specific timetable or location’ (p. 100). Online and remote technologies, including laboratories, can be used to ‘… complement the resources available on site and enhance teachers’ and students’ teaching and learning opportunities’ (p. 100).
A key conclusion from the report is that the nature of the pedagogy counts more than the supporting technology, because the real effectiveness of technology in the teaching and learning environment comes from the quality and effectiveness of the pedagogy that it supports. Realtime-technology-assisted formative assessment allows teachers to observe the quality of students’ learning and facilitates teachers using this information quickly in their teaching. In order to meet these pedagogic challenges, however, teachers need adequate professional development because:
[…] a common barrier to adopting new teaching models and resources is lack of formal teacher training, peer learning and more. Teachers also simply need time to integrate new technology-enhanced educational models into their pedagogy. (p. 110)
In addition, the rapid development of sophisticated interactive and connected technologies by Microsoft, IBM and Apple, and of Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities by Google, Oxford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), can have a highly positive influence on education and schooling if used creatively. Google claims that AI can meaningfully improve people’s lives and that the biggest impact will come when everyone can access it. It constitutes an area of computer science that emphasises the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans, even simulating human intelligence processes.
Educating in the future will increasingly require educators to prepare students for an AI world (Tucker, 2017a). A joint educational project report by the New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education and Melbourne University, titled, Future Frontiers: Education for an AI World, edited by Loble, Greenhaune, and Hayes (2017), presented a collection of research-based essays on possible futures in education and the potential implications for creative technology use in schools. The editors concluded from a collection of essays developed for the project that:
[…] successive revolutions in agriculture, industry and communications have created an ecology where human ingenuity and autonomy are augmented by artificial intelligence (AI) [and] each day, with every new breakthrough in science and technology, it is becoming clear that we are racing towards a future with immense potential to drive productivity and improve standards of living across our community. (p. v)
They cautioned, however, that in order to reach this potential, it is important that education systems and schools are ‘… adequately resourced and appropriately flexible to ensure that the next generation of students have the requisite skills to thrive in a rapidly changing world’ (p. v). In the report, the NSW Government commits itself to ‘… ensuring that education – from the earliest years through to higher education and beyond – best prepares citizens to navigate an AI-augmented world’ (p. v). The Hon. Rob Stokes MP, Minister for Education in NSW, stated in the report that:
I am proud of how the Education for a Changing World initiative puts New South Wales at the forefront of thinking about the implications of AI for education. I warmly thank the leading academics and thinkers who have authored these essays. This collection challenges us to think deeply about how education responds to a fast-changing world and encourages us to pursue greater innovation across the education system. (Report, 2017, pp. v–vi)
The pace of AI developments around the world is astounding and in her introduction to the report, Leslie Loble recounted the details of how on the 15 March 2016, a Korean man named Lee Sedol, a grandmaster in the ancient East Asian game of Go, and one of the greatest players in history was devastated and in tears because he had just lost 4–1 in a match series against an opponent named AlphaGo, an AI programme developed by DeepMind, a Google subsidiary. Noble reported that she was astounded to learn that AI capability had progressed so far and so quickly:
As I read this, I put it together with other pieces of recent evidence on the phenomenal accuracy of today’s language translation programs compared to just a few years ago; Siri, with its sense of humour; the sudden arrival of self-driving cars; the maturing of facial recognition as a corporate product and a tool of government; the intrusion of computers into intellectual professions like law and financial management; and the experiment where two AI programs invented their own language to communicate. It was at that point I realised artificial intelligence isn’t coming. It’s here. (p. x)
She explained the complexity involved in creating the AlphaGo programme:
Its designers had employed “artificial neural networks” – computing systems inspired by the arrangement of neurons in the human brain – that gave it the capacity for unsupervised learning. Nobody programmed AlphaGo for victory, nor for its surprising and innovative moves. Instead, the machine played millions of games against itself to develop and refine a strategy. AlphaGo had taught itself to achieve an intellectual feat that only a few dozen humans on the planet can approach. (pp. ix–x, italics in original)
In the Future Frontiers document, Loble et al. (2017) reported that because of the results of this contest, she suddenly, found critical questions about education coming into sharper focus, including, in:
[…] the unimaginable world that today’s children will face when they leave school, what will they need to know? What skills and values will they need to lead rich and fulfilling lives? In a world where many of the tasks that make up their parents’ jobs will be done by machines, what will our students need to draw on from their school education to thrive? (p. x)
She cautioned, however, that:
[…] if we wait for education to evolve at its usual slow pace in response to change it will be too late. When today’s kindergartener is of prime working age and supporting a family, machine intelligence will have penetrated nearly every facet of daily life and corner of the workplace. (p. x)
For students to thrive in such challenging workplaces of the future, she claimed ‘… they will need to be knowledgeable, curious, dedicated and nuanced learners, equipped with the skills that will enable them to hold their place in the world of machines’ (p. xi).
Drawing on Luckin’s essay in the Future Frontiers Report, Loble suggested that:
[…] everyone needs to understand enough about AI to be able to work with its systems effectively so that AI and human intelligence augment each other and we benefit from a symbiotic relationship between the two. (p. xi)
Students, Luckin claimed, will need to be able to ‘… critically evaluate information, understand how machines make decisions, identify the choices coded into algorithms and spot the ethical implications of every technological development’ (p. xi).
These are daunting predictions for most educational leaders and teachers but like most of the other authors in the Future Frontiers Report, Scott sees an important role for AI to assist these educators and he makes the critical point that we ‘… have to start with education, not hardware’ (p. xvi). A key message from many of the authors of various essays in the Report is: ‘Don’t get seduced by the technology, start with learning’ (Report, p. xvi). The good news drawn from the conclusions in the Report is that ‘… used properly, AI offers a pathway to a goal long sought by the best teachers: learning customised for individual students and around individual subjects’ (Report, p. xvii). The evidence from the essays is clear: transformation in pedagogies and their supporting technologies ‘… can’t be technology-led. It can only happen in a culture of dynamic leadership, continuous self-refection, professional assessment, and feedback for and among teachers at the local level’ (p. xvii). Loble concluded that there is one crucial theme that emerged across these essays, that is, while reformers have to take the time to get it right, they need to push:
[…] past the slogans and the false divisions between ‘content people’ and ‘skills people’, or between ‘test people’ and ‘project people’. To grab the latest fad will set us back. We need to hold onto what works even as we seek reform. (p. xvii)
In Chapter 2 of the report, Tucker summarised the key lessons from the contributors, by stating that in the future:
[…] many more students will need strong cognitive skills, much deeper knowledge and much more sophisticated skills in general, if they are going to be partners to increasingly intelligent agents and not be put out of work by them in the near to intermediate term. (Report, p. 34)
He claimed that education in the future will be decisive in determining the future of humanity and suggested that ‘… answering the question of what it means to be human has never been more urgent’ (p. 34). He urged educators and educational leaders to transform schooling in ways that will prepare students for a world that is constantly and rapidly changing and assist them better understand and appreciate the emerging nature of work that is being influenced, even transformed, before their eyes by intelligent technology. He cautioned that:
[…] if we fail at this task, it may only be a matter of time before the machines and a very small technological elite are deciding these issues, and we are not likely to be happy with their decisions. (p. 35)
In 2017, the Department of Education NSW commissioned Marc Tucker to write a major paper on educating students for a challenging future for their Occasional Paper Series, Education: Future Frontiers, Educating for a Digital Future: The Challenge. Marc is the President of the National Centre of Education and the Economy, Washington, DC, and a Visiting Distinguished Fellow at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. In the commissioned paper, he provided an incisive analysis of the relationships between humans and intelligent machines now and into the future. He, especially, addressed the possibility of new sophisticated technologies robbing humans of their jobs:
It is not a law of nature that the introduction of new technologies will put a lot of people out of work in the short term, but will then create just as many new jobs that are even better in the long term. What is distinctive about these technologies is that they incorporate the very thing that makes us so different from any other thing animate or inanimate on earth: high intelligence. It is now becoming clear that intelligent agents already exceed human capacity in some domains of intelligent behaviour. The only question is whether they have the potential to exceed humans in all domains of human intelligence, and, if they do, how long it will take to get there. (p. 10)
Tucker advised that we must deliberately reshape, even redesign, our education systems and schools so that:
[…] many more students will [develop] strong cognitive skills, much deeper knowledge and much more sophisticated skills, if they are going to be partners to increasingly intelligent agents and not put out of work by them in the near to intermediate term. (p. 12)
They will need to develop strengths:
[…] where the intelligent agents are, at least for the time being, relatively weak – in areas like creativity, imagination, and the whole range of social, emotional and communication skills that will be the necessary complements to intelligent agents. (p. 12)
He concluded his essay by recommending that we provide for a greatly enhanced development of ‘… students’ communication, social and emotional skills and, more broadly, their character …’ (p. 12). Above all, they will increasingly be challenged about ‘… what it means to be human and what we value about being human’ (p. 12). Scott, in Chapter 5 of Future Frontiers Report by Loble et al., acknowledged that while we cannot predict the future and the skill requirements of employees of the future:
[…] we do know the type of learners that we want to develop through schooling – students who are critical and reflective, open to a lifetime of learning and re-learning, who are comfortable with change and have empathy and a global outlook. (p. 98)
Tucker (2017b) published a second commissioned discussion paper, Education, Future Frontiers – The Implications of AI, Automation and 21st Century Skills, for the NSW Department of Education. In it he addressed the possible impact on education of developments in automation and AI. In the introduction, he stated:
There’s been much written about the profound impact that technological advances will have on the way we live and work. Developments in automation and new frontiers in artificial intelligence (AI) are predicted to fundamentally alter the nature of society and work by 2040. The kindergarten students who entered the school gate for the first time in 2017 will be graduating by 2030. These students and the 8 million young people [in NSW, Australia] estimated to finish school over the next two decades will be the workers of 2040. While it is difficult to imagine the world and the way we will work in 2040, it is this world for which these students must be prepared. (p. 2)
Tucker’s discussion paper predicted that, given the dynamic effects of changes in the future, schools will need to equip young people with ‘… enduring capabilities and skills to harness the opportunities of technological change’ (p. 2). Many examples of the emerging impact of AI and advanced automation across industries are presented in this discussion paper; these examples paint a picture of a future based on innovations that are already happening. A number of them are briefly discussed here because they provide us with strong indicators of some of the exciting technological developments and trends that are currently emerging. (p. 4):
IBM Watson – an open, multi-cloud platform that lets you automate the AI lifecycle – made headlines when it diagnosed a rare form of cancer faster and more accurately than doctors.
The LA Times generated attention when it published a story about an earthquake in the USA, written entirely by algorithm.
Peer-to-peer models in insurance and financial lending are using bots and machine learning to generate quotes and approve requests without the need for human brokers.
Contract law, legal research and accounting are already experiencing increased automation of what were considered high-skilled tasks.
Advances in cognitive computing, which combines natural language processing and machine learning, will enable people to ask their smart computer to undertake specific tasks that are not pre-programmed and which, currently, involve significant human labour to analyse data, synthesise research and model outcomes.
Automated pharmacy systems have been launched in two US hospital medical centres, where robots dispense individual medications.
Domino delivered its first pizza by drone in 2016. Developments in drones and self-driving vehicles are expected to fundamentally alter transport logistics.
AI-based platforms, including games and simulations, are being used as recruitment tools and for training, including in military settings.
The profound changes ahead in the nature of work and in its supporting intelligent technologies require approaches to education that will enhance the capabilities and proficiency of all students in order to cope, never mind thrive, in this exciting new world. Tucker’s Education, Future Frontiers (2017b) discussion paper recognised the challenges involved in responding creatively to such technological changes by highlighting the fact that it is difficult to predict exactly the skills workers will require in two decades time.
Nevertheless, there is an emerging view that young people, in addition to strong literacy, numeracy, content knowledge, and technical skills, will require ‘… both cognitive and non-cognitive skills – in particular problem solving, critical thinking, digital literacy, collaboration and communication’ (p. 10). He suggested that the demands in the future for highly specialist skills will require schools ‘… to be talent incubators, and even talent factories. It is not enough to identify talent in our schools anymore; we have to create it’ [Dylan Wiliam, Institute of Education, University of London, quoted on page 10 of Tucker’s (2017b) Discussion Paper]. Despite criticisms by many educational commentators that reform of education is too slow, too piecemeal and lacking in cutting-edge research, there are emerging signs indicating that a new era in education is unfolding.
Prince et al. (2018) developed a 10-year forecast for KnowledgeWorks on education, titled, Navigating the Future of Learning: Forecast 5.0: A New Era Unfolding. KnowledgeWorks has a vision to change the education culture in the USA to better prepare each student for future success through personalised learning. The authors of Forecast 5.0 concluded that numerous expected changes have the potential to influence education over the course of the next decade, both positively and negatively. They are confident that educators can respond to these expectations in creative ways by regarding these changes as opportunities, not just challenges (See also Vehar, 2015 for the best ways of leading innovations). Parents and educators, they claimed, need to take the lead in ways that ‘… will support the healthy development of young people, enable effective lifelong learning and contribute to community vitality over the coming decade and beyond …’ (p. 17). In parallel, educational institutions and educators will need to embrace the following opportunities with both hands (from Forecast 5.0):
Design for equity: new educational practices, programmes, structures and roles will be required to help dismantle inequitable systems that marginalise some students and communities based on race, gender, income or ability (p. 28).
Prioritise human development: educators will need to provide increasing opportunities for student-centred approaches and stakeholders will need to keep learners’ fundamental human needs at the centre of their decisions (p. 28).
Distinguish between efficiency and transformation: educators operate in an environment where increased efficiency is often touted as system transformation; while increased efficiency will be an important aim, it should not be confused with transformation (p. 29).
Develop new terms and conditions for technology use: educators will need to create new ethical frameworks for new technology tools in order to provide better privacy protection, including unbiased data systems, transparent algorithms, and equitable access to high-quality technology solutions that enable students to take ownership of their learning (p. 30).
Identify your organisation’s role in social generation: educators are ideally placed to understand and respond to their community’s needs and aspirations, while schools can contribute positively to social cohesion and community well-being (Forecast 5.0, p. 3, italics by this author for emphasis).
The authors of Forecast 5.0 concluded that upcoming changes and opportunities offer a chance for education institutions, community organisations, students and families to:
[…] put human fulfillment and people’s mutual well-being at the centre of learning. Redefining human agency … will enable critical education institutions … to navigate the uncertainties on the horizon in intentional ways, leading the way toward a bright future for everyone. (p. 31)
Anderson et al. (2017) produced a futures-oriented research-based report, titled, The Paradigm Shifters: Entrepreneurial Learning in Schools, for the Mitchell Institute, University of Victoria, Australia. It was a robust, collaborative research project involving credentialed researchers, expert advisors and educational specialists. Partners in the research and the report included the New South Wales (NSW) Secondary Principals’ Council (NSWSPC); the Victorian Association of State Secondary Principals (VASSP); and the Mitchell Institute, Victoria University – which aims to improve the connection between evidence and policy reform – promoting the principle that high-quality education, from the early years through to early adulthood, is fundamental to individual wellbeing and to a prosperous society. This collaboration sprang from the work and advocacy of international scholar, Professor Yong Zhao (Foundation and Distinguished Professor in the School of Education, University of Kansas). Twenty-one government secondary schools joined the initiative which ran from May 2016 to May 2017. They committed to creating the conditions, or to extend what they already had in place, ‘… to develop young people who are more entrepreneurial-minded’, by applying three principles in their local contexts:
Develop more personalised education experiences, so each person can pursue passions and talents to excel in unique ways.
Engage in creative and entrepreneurial product-oriented learning experiences that can, in authentic ways, benefit local and global communities.
Cultivate and prototype new approaches, processes and or products in teaching and learning. (p. 10)
These principles, Yong Zhao argued, can bring about a paradigm shift in schooling, which is better suited for times when students are ‘… creators and co-creators of their futures [and] active partners in the initiative’ (Zhao reported in Anderson et al., 2017, p. 10). Students were, therefore, given the opportunity to be in the ‘… driving seat, pursuing their strengths and passions, identifying and solving problems worth solving or of value to others …’ (p. 10). The schools contributed funding towards their participation in the initiative and accessed support and mentoring from their membership of a state-based network, which included a network coordinator and opportunities to participate ‘… in regular professional learning workshops attended by students, teachers and often school leaders’ (p. 10). The research sought to identify and understand the conditions that help, limit or prevent the development of entrepreneurial-minded young people.
In all, 19 of the 21 schools in the initiative accepted the invitation to participate in the research – 10 in NSW and 9 in Victoria. There were four different groups of research participants: students, teachers, school leaders, and network coordinators who were both former principals. The students and teachers interviewed were ‘… those best-placed to comment, as they were in their school’s core group or “action team”, with the teacher member(s) also responsible for coordinating the school’s involvement’ (p. 11). Data were collected using three methods: interviews; two short questionnaires (one for teachers and one for students); and a documentary analysis of ‘artefacts’. The data provided insights into:
[…] the different ways in which schools’ starting points, contexts and strategic priorities influenced their decisions on why and how to participate in this initiative as part of a learning network, as well as their interpretation and implementation of the three guiding principles. (p. 11)
In their research-based and futures-oriented report, The Paradigm Shifters, Anderson et al. (2017) suggested a number of key characteristics of entrepreneurial learning for the consideration of educational and pedagogical reformers. Key conclusions were:
Entrepreneurial learning requires ways of grouping skills and capabilities to position secondary students for success. It aims to cultivate mindsets and capabilities needed to identify and respond to new opportunities and problems, through creating artefacts for authentic audiences, real-world learning and iterative experimentation (Lackéus, 2015, in Report, p. 9).
The demand for graduates with capabilities such as creativity, critical thinking and advanced problem solving, collaboration and communication skills, is unprecedented and continuing to grow (Foundation for Young Australians 2016; World Economic Forum 2016; OECD 2016, referenced in Report, p. 9).
Australian schooling needs a paradigm shift because globalisation and technology are transforming the world; mastery of knowledge and test-taking skills are no longer enough to succeed (Zhao, reported in Anderson et al., 2017, p. 9).
Entrepreneurial education, student engagement and related programmes, suggest schools could consider a range of ways to pursue and embed entrepreneurial learning, and to enhance student participation and engagement. (p. 13).
These four suggestions apply not only to entrepreneurial learning but to many of the educational innovations at the school and pedagogical challenges discussed in this book. OECD Secretary-General, Angel Gurría, in an OECD (2019b) report, OECD Employment Outlook: The Future of Work, offered positive and encouraging words to educational leaders and reformers on how they can transform education at government and system levels:
The key message of this OECD Employment Outlook is that the future of work is in our hands and will largely depend on the policy decisions countries make. It will be the nature of such policies, our ability to harness the potential of the unprecedented digital and technological change while coping with the challenges it poses, which will determine whether we succeed or fail. (From the Foreword to the report by Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General)
It would appear that the future of work and the education required to deliver this future is in our hands. Let’s start on this exciting journey of learning! We need to collaborate intelligently and professionally so that we can create a future of our own making. A number of conclusions from this chapter can inform us to professionally navigate this learning journey:
Introducing digital technology into education for technology’s sake does not materially improve results because educational reformers need to place pedagogy rather than technology in the driving seat.
Educators should remind themselves that the nature of the pedagogy counts more than the supporting technology because the real effectiveness of technology in teaching and learning environments comes from the quality and effectiveness of the pedagogy that it supports. A lesson from relevant research is, ‘don’t get seduced by the technology, start with learning’.
The transformation in pedagogies and their supporting technologies can only happen in a culture of dynamic leadership, continuous self-refection, professional assessment and feedback for and among leaders and teachers at the local level.
Students and teachers will need to be better prepared for the onslaught of AI because the pace of AI developments around the world is accelerating.
In the future many more students will need strong cognitive skills, much deeper knowledge and more sophisticated skills in general, if they are going to be partners to increasingly intelligent agents, and not be put out of work by them.
In order to meet future pedagogic challenges, teachers will need enabling professional development because a common barrier to adopting new teaching models and technological resources is lack of relevant teacher training, peer learning and targeted professional learning experiences.
While we cannot predict the future and the skill requirements of employees of the future, we do know the type of learners that we want to develop through schooling – students who are critical and reflective, open to a lifetime of learning and re-learning, are comfortable with change, and have empathy and a global outlook.
To meet future educational challenges, there is a need to bring about a paradigm shift in schooling, which is better suited for times when students are creators and co-creators of their futures and active partners in reform initiatives.
- Chapter 1: Disruptive Environments with Leadership Challenges and Opportunities
- Chapter 2: Disruptive Environments Impact People’s Lives and Work
- Chapter 3: Traditional Leadership Approaches Can Be a Liability in Times of Disruption
- Chapter 4: Societal Support for Ethical, Moral and Authentic Leadership
- Chapter 5: Successful Leadership within Technologically Smart Environments
- Chapter 6: Schools as Vibrant Communities of Learning
- Chapter 7: Shaping the Future of Education
- Chapter 8: Re-energising Education, Including Teachers’ Professional Judgements
- Chapter 9: Lessons from Successful Educational Transformations Internationally
- Chapter 10: Preparing Today’s Students for Tomorrow’s World
- Chapter 11: Navigating the Future of Learning: The Role of Smart Technologies
- Chapter 12: Transforming Education and Schooling: Where to from Here?