Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry

ISBN: 978-1-83867-542-4, eISBN: 978-1-83867-541-7

Publication date: 10 June 2021


(2021), "Prelims", Szende, P., Dalton, A.N. and Yoo, M.(M). (Ed.) Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xxii.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title Page

Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry

Title Page

Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry



Oxford Brookes University, UK


Hospitality Leadership Academy, USA



California State Polytechnic University Pomona, USA

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2021

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

Reprints and permissions service


No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-83867-542-4 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-83867-541-7 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-83867-543-1 (Epub)


List of Tables and Figures xi
About the Editors xv
About the Authors xvii
Preface xxi
1 Understanding Service Operations Strategy by Alec N. Dalton and Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo 1
1. What Is “Service”? 3
1.1. Definition of Service 3
1.2. Dimensions of Services 3
1.3. The Service Package 7
2. Hospitality Decisions and Processes 8
2.1. Service Concepting 8
2.2. Service-profit Chain 9
3. The Strategic Service Vision 11
3.1. Elements of the Strategic Service Vision 11
4. Operations Strategy for Hospitality Services 13
4.1. Competitive Dimensions of Operations Strategies 15
2 Designing Service Experiences by Peter Szende and Alec N. Dalton 23
1. Components of Guest Experiences 24
1.1. Product 25
1.2. Process 27
1.3. People 29
1.4. Physical Evidence 30
1.5. Place 31
1.6. Promotion 32
1.7. Price 32
2. Designing Guest Experiences 33
2.1. Analyzing the Experiential World of the Customer 34
2.2. Building the Experiential Platform 34
2.3. Designing the Brand Experience 34
2.4. Structuring the Customer Interface 35
2.5. Engaging in Continuous Innovation 35
3. Modeling and Visualizing Guest Experiences 35
3 Designing Service Environments by Vanja Bogicevic and Hyeyoon Choi 45
1. Location Decisions 47
1.1. Selecting a Location 47
1.2. Site Selection Criteria 48
2. Data Requirements for Layout Decisions 50
2.1. Capacity Planning 51
3. Facility Layout 53
3.1. Space Allocation Strategies 53
3.2. Process Flow Analysis 55
4. Additional Workflow Considerations 58
4.1. Customer and Delivery Routes 58
4.2. Americans with Disabilities Act and Ergonomics 59
4.3. Planning for Expansion 60
5. Ambience Design 61
5.1. Colors and Finishes 61
5.2. Lighting 61
5.3. Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment 62
4 Forecasting Demand by Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo and Sybil Yang 71
1. Hospitality Demand and Supply 73
1.1. Characteristics of Hospitality Demand and Supply 73
1.2. Managing Demand 74
1.3. Managing Supply 74
2. Forecasting 75
2.1. What Is Forecasting? 75
2.2. Forecasting Factors 76
2.3. Forecasting Methods 76
2.4. Sample Business Analytics Tools for Forecasting 83
3. Yield Management 85
3.1. What is Yield Management 85
3.2. Basic Yield Management Math 86
3.3. Yield Management Benefits 87
3.4. Yield Management Applications 87
5. Inventory Control by Miguel Bendrao Baltazar and Yuan Li 95
1. Inventory Control and Space Optimization 96
2. Inventory Management and Planning 98
2.1. Allocating Capacity Among Different Customer Groups 99
2.2. Main Products and Ancillary (or Complementary) Products and Services 99
2.3. Overbooking 100
3. Management and Principles of Space Inventory 102
3.1. Inventory-based Restrictions 102
3.2. Strategic Pricing 103
3.3. Strategic Capacity Inventory with Displacement Analysis 104
3.4. Principles of Distribution Channels Management 106
6 Managing Supply Chains by John Bancroft and Di Li 117
1. Hospitality Supply Chain Management 118
1.1. Overview of Hospitality Supply Chain Management 118
1.2. Supply Chain Risk and Disruption 119
2. Sourcing 120
2.1. What Is Procurement and Sourcing 120
2.2. Selecting Suppliers 122
2.3. Managing Suppliers 124
3. Managing Inventory 125
3.1. The Role and Scope of Inventory Management 125
3.2. Optimizing Inventory Management 127
3.3. Alternative Methods for Managing Inventory 133
7 Organizing Staff by Suzanne Markham Bagnera and Peter Szende 143
1. Labor Productivity 144
1.1. Understanding Productivity 144
1.2. Payroll Expenses 145
1.3. Labor Hours 146
2. Standards 146
2.1. Service Standards 146
2.2. Productivity and Economic Standards 147
2.3. Labor Standards and Staffing Models 148
2.4. Attrition 149
3. Labor Strategies 151
3.1. Lodging Labor Strategies 151
3.2. Food and Beverage Labor Strategies 152
4. Effective Planning of Labor Scheduling 153
4.1. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) 153
4.2. Scheduling 153
4.3. Flexible Schedule Techniques 154
4.4. Lateral Service 155
4.5. Managing Scheduling Challenges and Real-time Decision Making 156
4.6. Labor investment 156
8 Managing Capacity and Waits by Alec N. Dalton and Andrew M. Daw 167
1. Capacity and Constraints 168
2. Queueing 170
2.1. Fundamentals of Queueing Theory 170
2.2. Common Mathematical Models for Queueing 173
3. Psychology of Waiting 177
4. Managing Queues 178
4.1. Moderating Capacity 178
4.2. Moderating Demand 181
9 Measuring Quality by Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo and Alec N. Dalton 189
1. Understanding Service Quality 191
1.1. Dimensions of Service Quality 191
1.2. Service Quality Gap Model 191
2. Quality Assurance for Measurement 193
2.1. Surveying 194
2.2. SERVQUAL 194
2.3. Customer Engagement 196
2.4. Net Promoter Score 197
2.5. Auditing, Inspecting, and Mystery Shopping 197
2.6. Alternative Tools and Methods 198
3. Quality Assurance for Management 199
3.1. Internal Accountability 199
3.2. External Accountability 199
3.3. Performance Improvement 200
3.4. Ideation and Innovation 200
4. Service Failures and Recovery 200
4.1. Causes of Guest Problems 200
4.2. Consequences of Guest Problems 201
4.3. Resolution of Guest Problems 202
10 Improving Effectiveness and Efficiency by Susan L. Hyde and Paul J. Bagdan 211
1. Total Quality Management 212
2. Lean Six Sigma 213
2.1. Lean 213
2.2. Six Sigma 218
2.3. Blending of Lean and Six Sigma 220
2.4. Statistical Process Control 220
2.5. Implementing Lean Six Sigma 221
2.6. Developing a Lean Six Sigma Toolbox 222
2.7. Applying Lean Six Sigma 222
3. Business Analytics 230
4. Change Theory and Management 231
4.1. Change Is Natural 231
4.2. Motivators and Hindrances of Change 232
4.3. Other Pitfalls to Change 232
4.4. Guidelines to Implement Change Management 233
5. Project Management 233
5.1. Five Processes of Project Management 233
5.2. Unique Aspects of Projects 234
5.3. Project Formation 234
Index 243

List of Tables and Figures

Chapter 1. Understanding Service Operations Strategy
Fig. 1. The Service Process Matrix. Source: Adapted from Schmenner (1986, p. 25). Copyright 1986 by the Sloan Management Review Association. 4
Fig. 2. The Service Nature Matrix. Source: Adapted from Katzan (2008, p. 19). Copyright 2008 by the Harry Katzan. 5
Fig. 3. The Service Delivery Matrix. Source: Adapted from Katzan (2008, p. 20). Copyright 2008 by the Harry Katzan. 5
Fig. 4. The Service Availability Matrix. Source: Adapted from Katzan (2008, p. 21). Copyright 2008 by the Harry Katzan. 6
Fig. 5. The Service Demand Matrix. Source: Adapted from Katzan (2008, p. 22). Copyright 2008 by the Harry Katzan. 6
Fig. 6. A Sample Service Concept for Starbucks. 9
Fig. 7. The Service-Profit Chain. 10
Fig. 8. The Strategic Service Vision for Starbucks. 12
Chapter 2. Designing Service Experiences
Table 1. Examples of Moods and Outcomes. 27
Table 2. Mex-Tex Tortilla Shoppe Service Delivery Exercise. 38
Table 3. Stages and Common Fail Points of Dining Experiences. 41
Fig. 1. Forms of Experience Admission. Source: Adapted from Pine and Gilmore (2011, p. 102). 33
Fig. 2. Sample Service Blueprint for a Fast-Food Restaurant. 37
Chapter 3. Designing Service Environments
Table 1. Space Allocation per Guestroom for Different Hotel Types. 54
Table 2. Space Allocation for Hotel Spaces for Different Hotel Types. 55
Table 3. “Build-Your-Own” Restaurant Process Times. 56
Table 4. Daily Flow of Resort Guests Between Outdoor Amenities. 57
Table 5. Guestroom Mix for Different Hotel Types. 60
Table 6. The Winds hotel breakfast buffet process times. 63
Table 7. Demand data and brand hotel standards for guestroom mix. 64
Fig. 1. Balancing Product-Oriented Layout. 56
Fig. 2. Planning Resort Amenities Using Operations Sequence Analysis. 58
Fig. 3. ADA Space Clearance. Source: Adapted from US Department of Justice (2010, September 15). 59
Fig. 4. Floor Plan of the Riviera’s Lobby. 65
Chapter 4. Forecasting Demand
Table 1. Internal and External Factors for Forecasting. 76
Table 2. A Summary of Forecasting Models. 77
Table 3. Multiple Regression Result Example. 78
Table 4. Naive Approach Forecast Example. 79
Table 5. N-Period Moving Average Forecast Example. 80
Table 6. Weighted Moving Average Forecast Example. 81
Table 7. Exponential Smoothing Forecast Example. 82
Table 8. Hotel A Weighted Moving Average Forecast. 88
Table 9. Max Hotel Exponential Smoothing Forecast. 89
Table 10. Kensington Hotel Monthly Data. 89
Table 11. Kensington Hotel Regression. 91
Fig. 1. Demand Relative to Supply. 73
Fig. 2. Comparison of Time Series Forecasting Methods. 82
Chapter 5. Inventory Control
Table 1. RevPATI Measures for Various Hospitality Industries. 98
Table 2. Ancillary Products and Services in Some Revenue Management Industries. 100
Table 3. Rate Fence Examples in the Hospitality Industry. 104
Table 4. Overall Booking for a 500-Room Hotel. 109
Table 5. Rooms Left to Sell for a 200-Room Hotel. 109
Table 6. Rooms Left to Sell for a 200-Room Hotel With Room-Type Overbooking. 110
Fig. 1. “Pickup,” Pace Report or Reservations Booking Cycle. 97
Chapter 6. Managing Supply Chains
Table 1. Sample Evaluation Scoring and Weighting Model Using a Decision Matrix. 123
Table 2. Food Shop Inventories Information. 132
Table 3. Wine Selling Price and Sale Volume. 135
Table 4. Supplier Selection Tool. 136
Table 5. Information on Welcome Boxes. 137
Fig. 1. Fresh Produce Supply Chain. 119
Fig. 2. Pure Products Versus Pure Services. Source: Adapted from Slack, Brandon-Jones, and Johnston (2016). 121
Fig. 3. Inventory Profile. Source: Adapted from Slack and Brandon-Jones (2019). 127
Fig. 4. Comparison of Order Plans. Source: Adapted from Slack and Brandon-Jones (2019). 128
Fig. 5. Plot of EOQ. 129
Fig. 6. ABC Analysis Curve. 131
Fig. 7. ABC Analysis Curves Comparison. 132
Fig. 8. Development of ERP System. 134
Chapter 7. Organizing Staff
Table 1. MPR Calculation Example. 152
Table 2. Room-Type Detail. 158
Table 3. Revenue Forecast. 160
Table 4. Four-Phase Reopening Plan Per Day. 163
Fig. 1. Sample Brand Hotel Productivity Standards for Rooms Division. 147
Fig. 2. Sample Brand Hotel Productivity Standards for Food and Beverage Division. 148
Fig. 3. Staffing Model at the Bistro. 150
Fig. 4. Partial Housekeeping Schedule for Bayles Royal Hotel. 159
Fig. 5. Hotel Labor Standard Sample. 162
Chapter 8. Managing Capacity and Waits
Fig. 1. The Relationship Between Design, Effective, and Actual Capacity Levels. Source: Adapted from Greasley (2006, p. 239). 169
Fig. 2. Comparing Strategies for Capacity Management. 180
Chapter 9. Measuring Quality
Table 1. SERVQUAL Questionnaire Items. 195
Table 2. CE11 Questionnaire Items. 196
Table 3. SERVQUAL Questionnaire Mean Scores. 204
Table 4. Different Types of Costs for a Casual Dining Restaurant. 205
Fig. 1. The Service Quality Gap Model. Source: Adapted from Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985, p. 44). 192
Fig. 2. Common Types of Service Failures. Source: Adapted from Chase and Stewart (1994, pp. 35–44, cited in Bordoloi, Fitzsimmons, & Fitzsimmons, 2018). 201
Chapter 10. Improving Effectiveness and Efficiency
Table 1. The Seven Original Wastes of Lean. 214
Fig. 1. The 5S. Adapted from Hirano (1995). 215
Fig. 2. Sample Process Flowchart With Swim Lanes, Showing the Seating of Guests in a Restaurant. 215
Fig. 3. Sample Five Whys Analysis for Housekeeping Inventory Issues. 216
Fig. 4. Sample Cause-and-Effect Diagram Showing Causes of a Linen Shortage. 217
Fig. 5. The DMAIC Process. 219
Fig. 6. A SIPOC Example Involving Hotel Laundry Operations. 219
Fig. 7. Baseline Data of Housekeeping Scores From a Guest Satisfaction Survey. 220
Fig. 8. Decision Matrix Used to Determine an Optimal Choice Among Options. 223
Fig. 9. Typical Lean Six Sigma Project Types. Source: Adapted from five Lean Six Sigma project types (2018, March 23). Retrieved from 223
Fig. 10. A SIPOC Diagram Summarizing the Housekeeping Operation in the Case Study. 224
Fig. 11. Housekeeping Satisfaction Scores (From Guest Surveys), Averaged per Month per Room Attendant. 225
Fig. 12. Sorted Housekeeping Satisfaction Scores (From Guest Surveys), Averaged per Month per Room Attendant. 225
Fig. 13. Illustration of In-Control and Out-of-Control Guestroom Floors Based on Housekeeping Satisfaction Scores From a Guest Satisfaction Survey. 226
Fig. 14. An Ishikawa Diagram Depicting Issues Identified Within the Housekeeping Case. 227
Fig. 15. Initial Brainstorming Ideas Sourced for the Housekeeping Case. 229
Fig. 16. A Sample Prioritization Matrix, Which Can Help Sort Brainstorm Ideas. 229
Fig. 17. Revised Brainstorming Ideas Related to the Housekeeping Case. 230
Fig. 18. Basic Objectives of Business Analytics in the Hospitality Industry. 231
Fig. 19. A Graphical Overview of Business Analytics in Hospitality, With Examples of Possible Data Sources and Decision Applications. Source: Adapted from Kothari and Kothari (2017). 232
Fig. 20. Organizational Outcomes When Attempting Change With and Without Key Elements. Source: Adapted from Knoster (1991). 234
Fig. 21. The Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) Cycle. 235

About the Editors

Dr. Peter Szende has over 25 years of management experience in the hospitality industry. His European experience includes a variety of organizations such as Mövenpick, Hilton International, the InterContinental Group, and an independent Château hotel. For more than eight years, he was employed by Four Seasons Hotels & Resorts in North America.

He is currently a Programme Lead in Hospitality Management at Oxford Brookes Business School. He was formerly a Professor of the Practice in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University, where he also served as the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. He has been awarded a Fulbright Scholar grant in 2014.

Alec N. Dalton, CRDE, CHIA, inspires operational excellence through service science. After operating five luxury hotels with companies including The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company and Walt Disney Parks & Resorts, he now leads quality management programs for Marriott International’s global portfolio of nearly 7,500 hotels. He is also Co-Founder and Principal of the Hospitality Leadership Academy, a consultancy offering service-oriented management consulting. In addition to this textbook, he co-authored the first two international best sellers in the series Customer Experience. In 2018, Hotel Management Magazine named him to the “30 Under 30” list of rising hospitality executives. He graduated from Boston University with dual bachelor’s degrees from the Questrom School of Business and the School of Hospitality Administration.

Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo, PhD, is an Associate Professor at The Collins College of Hospitality Management in California State Polytechnic University Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona). Her area of specialty is Hospitality Marketing and teaches Hospitality Marketing Management, Hotel/Resorts Sales, Advertising, and Promotions, Social Media Marketing, and Revenue Management. Prior to her academic career, she worked in various marketing departments, such as Strategic Marketing, Direct Marketing, Database Marketing, and Loyalty Marketing as a marketing analyst at companies including The Ritz Carlton and The Venetian Resort Las Vegas. She received her PhD, MSc of Hospitality Management from UNLV.

About the Authors

Paul J. Bagdan, PhD, is a Full Professor at the College of Hospitality Management at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, RI. He has taught both undergraduate and graduate courses in strategy, operations, guest service, technology, and contemporary issues for over 20 years. He also teaches courses in the College of Business and in the College of Online Education, where he combines hospitality industry experience with higher education, research, and publication. He has authored numerous chapters, texts, and articles in the areas of hospitality management. He also consults and presents on these topics nationally and internationally.

Suzanne Markham Bagnera, PhD, is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the School of Hospitality at Boston University. Her doctorate is from Iowa State University and her MBA, BS, and AS from Johnson & Wales University. She is the co-author of the textbook, Human Resource Management in Hospitality Cases. Additionally, she has authored seven chapters in the new edition of the Hospitality and Tourism Management Program textbook by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. She is also the principal and managing director of Hospitality Leadership Academy, a consulting firm specializing in customer service and leadership training.

Miguel Bendrao Baltazar holds a master’s degree in management in hospitality from Cornell University School of Hotel Administration (USA). He brings 14 years of international hospitality management work experience, including general management positions. After his master’s, he became fully dedicated to hospitality higher education in Portugal, Switzerland, Spain, and Puerto Rico. He has 16 years of teaching, administrating, and advising experience in public and private prestigious international hospitality management schools. For 10 years, he has been a Lecturer at James Madison University Hart School of Hospitality, Sport, and Recreation Management Harrisonburg, where he teaches Revenue Management and Overview of the Hospitality Industry.

John Bancroft is a Senior Lecturer in Operations Management at Oxford Brookes University. He has previously held positions in WMG, University of Warwick as Senior Teaching Fellow in Supply Chain, and at Coventry University as a Lecturer. He teaches predominately in the fields of Supply Chain Management and Operations Management across both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. His research interests are in the fields of health-care operations management and sustainable supply chain management.

Vanja Bogicevic is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Hospitality Marketing at the NYUSPS Jonathan M. Tisch Center of Hospitality. She earned a PhD in Consumer Sciences from the Ohio State University, an MS in Hospitality Administration Management from the College of Hospitality & Tourism Leadership, University of South Florida, and an MArch in Architecture and Urban Planning from the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Her research explores the role of design, service technologies, and virtual reality on consumer behavior in the hospitality, tourism, and travel industries. Her professional practice is in interior design, architectural visualization, and design consultancy.

Hyeyoon Choi, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Restaurant, Hotel, and Tourism program at Ohio University. She received her doctoral degree in Hospitality Management from The Ohio State University. Her research has a customer-behavior orientation in the hospitality industry, including operations management and hospitality and tourism marketing. She has presented at numerous national and international conferences and received two best paper awards – TOSOK International Tourism Conference held in Korea, 2016, and ApacCHRIE Conference held in China, 2018. In addition, she has published in numerous journals, including International Journal of Hospitality Management and Journal of Service Management.

Andrew M. Daw is an Assistant Professor of Data Sciences and Operations in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. He studies the interactions within operations, and his research interests include service systems, stochastic models, and contagion processes. Prior to joining USC, he completed his PhD in the School of Operations Research and Information Engineering at Cornell University.

Susan L. Hyde is the Director of Quality Assurance and Performance at Crystal Cruises. She is responsible for developing quality processes and project management. Previously, she led a performance improvement team for The Ritz-Carlton and other Marriott International Luxury Brands across the United States: her team facilitated over 100 projects annually at six brands. They used quality sciences to elevate voice of the customer metrics. Prior to The Ritz-Carlton, she worked at Norwegian Cruise Line developing and managing the quality management systems and brand standards and achieving ISO 9001 certification. She earned a bachelor of science degree in hospitality from the University of Nevada Las Vegas and then an MBA from the University of Miami.

Di Li, PhD, is a Senior Teaching Fellow (Senior Lecturer) in International Business at WMG, the University of Warwick. Previously, she is a Lecturer in Supply Chain Management at Birmingham City University, as well as the course leader of MSc in Global Business Operations. She conducts research, teaching, and projects in the fields of supply chain and operations management, and international business. Her interested research dimensions include global supply network design (reshoring and offshoring, manufacturing locations), supply chain in industry 4.0, sustainability, supply chain resilience, reversed FDI, international operations strategy, decision making and optimization, etc.

Yuan Li is an Assistant Professor in Hospitality Management at the Hart School of Hospitality, Sport, and Recreation Management of James Madison University. She has a PhD degree in Business Administration from Virginia Tech and a master’s degree in Hospitality and Tourism Management from Purdue University. She has published research papers in several hospitality and tourism journals such as Tourism Management, International Journal of Hospitality Management, and Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. Her industry experience includes a front office manager and an assistant revenue manager role at a hotel and various other roles in the restaurant and golf industries.

Sybil Yang, PhD, is an Associate Professor and Director of the Innovation & Entrepreneurship Program for the Lam Family College of Business at San Francisco State University. She has served as an operations and revenue management consultant to organizations including Gaylord Hotels (now a part of Marriott International), Disneyland, and Harrah’s Resorts. Prior to her career in academia, she was an investment banker with Salomon Smith Barney, and a venture capital analyst for the firm Skipstone Ventures, LLC. She received her PhD, MBA, and Master of Hospitality Management from Cornell University and her bachelor’s in finance and accounting from the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley.


Welcome to the first edition of Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry. This introductory textbook provides students with fundamental techniques and tools for analyzing and improving operational capabilities within any hospitality organization.

Understanding hospitality operations is not easy. Services are intangible, highly variable, not transportable, and perishable. In addition, hotels, restaurants, and similar experiences involve more customer touchpoints and are significantly less productive than manufacturing sectors – and even other service industries like retail and professional services. As a result, hospitality operations often require specialized analytical frameworks and tools.

Traditionally, hospitality management programs have offered hotel and restaurant operations courses. These courses focus on industry-specific techniques for managing the service operations of a facility (i.e., how a hotel is organized, how to use a restaurant point-of-sale information systems, etc.) instead of incorporating concepts and tools for general operations management (i.e., how to assess and improve quality, how to procure supplies, etc.).

Intense competition in a fast-paced global hospitality scene requires organizations to determine the best, most efficient ways to improve services in terms of cost, quality, and innovation. As the COVID-19 crisis unfolded globally, hospitality organizations across the world additionally proved that risk and crisis readiness are necessary for business continuity and managerial success.

To address these challenges, we perceive that hospitality operations courses are gradually transitioning into – or being supplemented with – more traditional operations management courses, with embedded applications spanning hotels, restaurants, cruise lines, casinos, and other experiential services. We foresee that these courses will become increasingly critical in the curricula of academic hospitality management programs, as well as in operations management education programs that want to offer exploratory courses specific to this exciting industry.

Our book introduces some critical decision areas in which hospitality managers are involved, in chapters written by an assemblage of leading scholars and seasoned professionals – industry experts alike. Fundamental quantitative analytical tools are highlighted to support decision making, as are key theories and frameworks for managerial success. The wide range of pedagogical features will accommodate a variety of teaching and learning styles. Our streamlined approach focuses on key concepts in order to leave room for additional content, such as case studies, simulations, or other class activities. Further, each chapter of this textbook offers a self-contained view of a specific aspect of hospitality operations management, providing the greatest instructional flexibility.

We present this book and wish the reader – students, instructors, and industry practitioners alike – success with operations management in the hospitality industry.

Dr. Peter Szende

Alec N. Dalton, CRDE, CHIA

Dr. Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo