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Extended Data Analysis*

Torben Juul Andersen (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark)

A Study of Risky Business Outcomes: Adapting to Strategic Disruption

ISBN: 978-1-83797-075-9, eISBN: 978-1-83797-074-2

Publication date: 29 September 2023


This chapter takes a closer look at outliers and extreme outliers identified in the data derived from a complete case treatment of missing values in the European and North American datasets and consistently observe significant negatively skewed distributions with high excess kurtosis across all industries. We then plot the density functions for return on assets (ROA) across different industries in the two datasets and find pervasive observations in the tails where negative returns and outlying observations constitute a frequent and recurring phenomenon. We analyze the persistency of outliers and find noticeable percentages of outlying over- and underperformers hovering around 3–6% dependent on industry context. We further analyze potential size effects associated with extreme negative skewness but do not find that (even sizeable) elimination of extreme values reduce the phenomenon. Finally, we analyze the percentage of firm observations that must be eliminated to reach at distributions that fulfill the characteristics of a normal distribution and reach at a substantial percentage of around 5–10% dependent on industry. To conclude, the often-assumed normally distributed performance outcomes are typically wrong and discards the substantial number of outliers in the samples.



Andersen, T.J. (2023), "Extended Data Analysis*", A Study of Risky Business Outcomes: Adapting to Strategic Disruption (Emerald Studies in Global Strategic Responsiveness), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 47-65.



Emerald Publishing Limited

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