Sedigheh Moghavvemi (University of Malaya, Malaysia)
Lee Su Teng (University of Malaya, Malaysia)
Huda Mahmoud (University of Malaya, Malaysia)

Reshaping the Future: The Phenomenon of Gig Workers and Knowledge-Economy

ISBN: 978-1-83753-351-0, eISBN: 978-1-83753-350-3

Publication date: 25 May 2023


Moghavvemi, S., Teng, L.S. and Mahmoud, H. (2023), "Prelims", Reshaping the Future: The Phenomenon of Gig Workers and Knowledge-Economy, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xi.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023 Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Lee Su Teng and Huda Mahmoud

Half Title Page

Reshaping the Future

Title Page

Reshaping the Future: The Phenomenon of Gig Workers and Knowledge Economy



University of Malaya, Malaysia


University of Malaya, Malaysia



University of Malaya, Malaysia

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2023

Copyright © 2023 Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Lee Su Teng, and Huda Mahmoud. Published under exclusive license by Emerald Publishing Limited.

Reprints and permissions service


No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-83753-351-0 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-83753-350-3 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-83753-352-7 (Epub)


About the Authors vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgement xi
Introduction 1
An Overview of the Gig Economy 2
Structure of the Book 5
Definitions and Terminology 5
References 6
Chapter 1: The Gig Economy Ecosystem 9
Trends in Gig Economy 11
Gig Economy 12
Categories of Gig Workers 13
Platforms 15
Evaluation System and Its Impact 16
Gig Economy Opportunities and Challenges 17
Economic Benefit 17
Business Perspectives 19
Skills/Lifelong Learning 21
Risk/Challenges 21
Legal Issues 23
Emotional Issues 24
Work Identity 25
Case Study: Indonesia 25
Internet Penetration/Digital Divide 27
Outlook for Indonesia 27
References 28
Chapter 2: Gig Workers versus Knowledge Workers 33
Types of Gig Workers 34
Not the Gig Economy, the Talent Economy 37
Professional Gig Worker/Knowledge Worker 38
Required Skills and Assets for the Future of Work 39
Gig Workers Create Knowledge 40
Informal Economy and Gig Economy 40
References 42
Chapter 3: Gig Workers and the Knowledge Economy 45
What is Knowledge Economy? 46
Knowledge Economy Characteristics 47
Transaction to the Knowledge Economy 47
Innovation and Entrepreneurship 51
Human Capital Dimension 51
Information and Communication Technology 52
Economic and Social Impact Dimension 52
Key Factors 53
Education 53
Intellectual Capital 54
Knowledge Management 54
Knowledge Economy Index 56
References 57
Chapter 4: The Future of Work, A Knowledge-based Gig Economy 61
Transferring to a Knowledge-based Gig Economy 63
Managing the Change 63
Managing Knowledge Workers and Professional Gig Workers 64
Workforce Trends and Digital Skills 66
Defining Professional Gig Workers 66
Digital Platforms/Platform Economy 67
Economic and Social Benefits 68
Managing Gig Workers Within Companies 68
References 70
Chapter 5: Managing Gig Workers in the Gig Global Ecosystem 73
Demand and Supply of Gig Workers 75
Preparing the Workforce for the Knowledge-based Gig Economy 76
Roadmap for the Knowledge-based Gig Economy 77
Case Study: Malaysia 82
Malaysian Gig Economy 82
Cons of a Gig Economy 83
Need to Regulate the Gig Economy 84
References 85
Index 87

About the Authors

Sedigheh Moghavvemi is an Associate Professor of Technology Management and Entrepreneurship at the Faculty of Business & Economics at the Universiti Malaya. Her work has circulated internationally. Her research experience includes business and management, technological capability in IR4.0, technology adoption, innovation management, smart tourism, and social media. She worked on different research and consultancies on entrepreneurship, marketing, and human resource, and the results were published in peer-reviewed journals.

Lee Su Teng, PhD has both academic and industrial experience. Her broad experience includes hands-on involvement in managing the full spectrum of HR, working with the human resources information systems, spearheading HR business contingency plans, and being the HR representative for an acquisition exercise. She has now moved on to her academic career with the Faculty of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia where she teaches human resources.

Huda Mahmoud is a Researcher with a Master's in Public Policy and Management (MPP). She has experience in various social policy and gender-centric research. She has edited several publications and is currently active in maritime research.

Corresponding author: Lee Su Teng


The rise of the gig economy has resulted in a new set of work expectations and attitudes. The growth of online labour platforms and the gig economy in low-income countries is viewed as an enabler of a new wave of online outsourcing, thus resulting in employment growth and poverty reduction (The Rockefeller Foundation, 2013; UNDP, 2016; World Bank, 2016).

Policy-makers and digital leaders should consider: how to prepare the workforce to produce knowledge, perform, and transform the country into a knowledge hub via gig workers and transform the economy into a knowledge economy and a destination for national and international clients looking for professional workers. This estimate is based on the growing number of gig workers and digital platforms worldwide.

Companies use freelancers for business activities such as customer support, learning and development, corporate website development, and support; however, most companies now prefer to have only a couple of regular employees in those functions and outsource the rest of the work to external experts.


The Rockefeller Foundation. (2013). Digital jobs: Building skills for the future. New York, NY: The Rockefeller Foundation.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2016). Human development report 2015: Work for human development. New York, NY: UNDP.

World Bank. (2016). World development report 2016: Digital dividends. Washington, DC: World Bank.


This research is supported by Universiti Malaya Special Grant: Book Publication (SG009-19SAH).