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Copyright © 2022 Raheel Nawaz and Khydija Wakil. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited
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Concepts, Practices and Management Framework
Staffordshire University, UK
National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan
United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China
Emerald Publishing Limited
Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK
First edition 2022
Copyright © 2022 Raheel Nawaz and Khydija Wakil.
Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited.
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-1-80382-042-2 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-80382-041-5 (Online)
ISBN: 978-1-80382-043-9 (Epub)
To Daniyal, life wouldn't mean much without you!
(Professor Raheel Nawaz)
To late Professor Ghulam Abbas Anjum, my first research mentor who encouraged me to pursue visual pollution research
(Dr Khydija Wakil)
We have eyes, and we're looking at stuff all the time, all day long, and I just think that whatever our eyes touch should be beautiful, tasteful, appealing, and important. We need to emphasise the responsibility that designers and illustrators have towards the people they create things for; Whether it's a coffee cup, or a poster, or a book illustration, or a typeface, it has to be designed in such a way that it is not trashy, and doesn't pollute your eyes. We have so much pollution out in the air. Our eyes are being polluted. We have visual pollution out there, and I have a very strong sense about that.
Eric Carl (2014)
List of Figures
|Human Interaction with Urban Environments.
|Historical Emergence of Visual Pollution as a Subject.
|Visual Pollution in Different Geographical Contexts; the Clutteredness of Hanging Wires Increases from Developed to Developing Countries. The Sensitivity of the Residents to Clutter is Also Relational. Braidwood Australia; Lahore, Pakistan (Left to Right).
|A Contrasting View on the Presence of Complex and Different Character of Visual Pollution from Developed and Developing Countries. Braidwood, Australia; Rawalpindi, Pakistan (Left to Right).
|Common Visual Pollution Objects.
|Word-Cloud Representation of the Visual Pollution Objects from Literature.
|Visual Pollution Objects and Their Presence in a Developing Country Context.
|Publications per Year; Containing ‘Visual Pollution’ in the Title.
|Visual Pollution-Related Publications per Country (1970–2021).
|Content-Based Classification of Visual Pollution-Related Publications.
|Spatial Spread of Case Studies Presented in Chapter 2.
|Snapshot of the Visual Pollution Assessment Tool.
|Visual Pollution Assessment Calculator.
|Location Map of the Study Area in the Regional Context.
|Study Area Limits.
|Single-Line Road Network in the Study Area.
|City Limits Under Different Controlling Authorities.
|Union Council Boundaries in the Study Area.
|Map Showing the Distribution of the Study Area into Urban Blocks.
|Screenshot Showing the Block Level Landuse Distribution.
|Distribution of Sampled Nodes for Visual Pollution Assessment.
|Average Visual Pollution Index for Various Categories of Urban Phenomena.
|Visual Pollution Distribution with Respect to Area Type.
|Histogram of Visual Pollution Distribution vs. Area Type.
|Visual Pollution Distribution Across the Economic Status of the Area.
|Histogram of Visual Pollution Distribution vs. Economic Status.
|Visual Pollution Distribution Across Controlling Authorities.
|Histogram of Visual Pollution Distribution vs. Controlling Authorities.
|Visual Pollution Distribution with Respect to the Land Uses.
|Histogram of Visual Pollution Distribution vs. Land Uses.
|Scaled Symbols Representation of Presence of VPOs.
|Node Level Visual Pollution Score.
|Average VP Score Generalised at Union Council Level.
|UC Level VPI Viz-à-viz Nodal VPI.
|Heat Map of Visual Pollution in the Study Area.
|Visual Pollution Control and Management Framework.
List of Boxes
|Visual Pollution Objects Identification Process
|Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index
|Suggestions for labelled datasets
|ABC of Visual Pollution
List of Tables
|Classification of VPOs in Major VPO Groups.
|Frequency Analysis of the Published Material on ‘Visual Pollution’ (Nov 2021).
|Thematic Details of the Research on Visual Pollution.
|Difference of Approach to Handle Visual Pollution Between Developed and Developing Countries.
|List of Studies Containing Components Like Visual Pollution Assessment.
|Spatial Data Layers and Sources.
|Average of the Cumulative Score of VPOs and VPI Across Various Urban Phenomena.
|Descriptive Statistics of VPI for Area Type, Economic Status and Controlling Authority.
|Descriptive Statistics of VPI for Various Land Uses.
|Average of Cumulative Score of VPOs and VPI.
|Opportunities and Challenges of Modern Technologies for Visual Pollution Assessment.
List of Acronyms
Analytical Hierarchy Process
City District Government
Defence Housing Authority
Gross Domestic Product
Geographic Information System
Human Development Index
Keyhole Markup Language
Open Data Kit
Open Street Maps
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
Rawalpindi Development Authority
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
Tehsil Municipal Administration
United States of America
Visual Impact Assessment
Visual Pollution Assessment
Visual Pollution Index
Visual Pollution Object
About the Authors
Professor Raheel Nawaz PFHEA, is currently serving as the Pro Vice-Chancellor (Digital Transformation) at Staffordshire University, where he provides strategic leadership and management of the University's continuing digital transformation agenda and leads transformative action across the University to deliver enhanced academic experience. Prior to that he held two substantive roles at Manchester Metropolitan University. As the Director of Business Transformations Research Centre, he led nearly 200 researchers specialising in digital transformation, analytics, industry 4.0, transforming markets and transforming places. As the Director of Digital Technology Solutions, he led Met's award-winning cross-faculty Digital Degree Apprenticeships portfolio delivering UG/PG programmes to nearly 900 apprentices from 70-plus leading technology employers. He was also the founding Head of the Apprenticeships Research Unit and the Text & Data Mining Lab at Manchester Met. Professor Nawaz is a renowned expert in industry-academia co-creation, especially for high-impact work integrated programmes like Degree Apprenticeships. He has advised on the establishment and launch of such programmes in Spain, New Zealand, Canada and Pakistan. He has addressed the Westminster Education Policy Forum twice and has recently been commissioned by the QAA to systematically analyse the Degree Apprenticeships pedagogies across English universities and advise the sector on best academic practices. Professor Nawaz is also a leading researcher in Artificial Intelligence and Digital Education. He holds several adjunct professorships and scientific directorships across Asia and North America. He sits on the boards of research and charitable organisations like the National Centre for Artificial Intelligence (Pakistan), TechSkills (UK) and NTF (UK), and has advised national policy organisations including the Prime Minister's Task Force on Science and Technology (Pakistan). He has authored over 150 peer-reviewed research articles and his career grant capture stands at over £14 million. He has graduated 19 PhD students so far. According to Google Scholar, he is among the top-10 most cited scholars in the world in the fields of Digital Transformations, Applied Artificial Intelligence and Educational Data Science. In the past, he has held senior leadership positions in the private further and higher education sector and was an army officer before that.
Dr Khydija Wakil is a professional Urban Planner and a Researcher in the fields of built environment, urban design and visual quality of the urban neighbourhoods and areas. She has a PhD in Urban Visual Pollution from the National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan. She is currently working as the Chief Executive Officer at City Pulse Pvt. Ltd, an urban planning consulting firm in Pakistan. She is an emerging international expert on visual pollution, and her research on conceptualisation of visual pollution and related assessment mechanisms has been published in leading journals and conferences. She has written several public engagement pieces on the topic as well and is a leading activist and ambassador for managing visual pollution.
We would like to thank the following colleagues and friends for their valuable input in refining the manuscript.
Dr Muhammad Qadeer ul Hussnain
Mr Paul Thompson
Dr Abdul Waheed
Mr Inam Ul Haq
Dr Jamal Uddin Thaheem
Dr Muhammad Fayyaz
Dr Afia Zubair Raja