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From Commerce to E-Commerce and Social Commerce: How Global? How Local?

Ramazan Nacar (Bursa Technical University, Turkey)
Kadir Ozdemir (Şırnak University, Turkey)

Industry 4.0 and Global Businesses

ISBN: 978-1-80117-327-8, eISBN: 978-1-80117-326-1

Publication date: 21 January 2022


Nowadays, the Internet usage rate is rising continuously with the impact of globalization which has led to a significant increase in the use of e-commerce and social commerce. Since the fast spread of Internet usage, globalization has affected all areas of life. Especially with the Covid-19 pandemic, lots of social, commercial, and economic transformations have occurred, and many activities transferred to online environment worldwide. However, in this period, people try to avoid physical contact, staying at home, and started to use e-commerce and social commerce more than before. Therefore, with Covid-19 pandemic, the structure and the relations of globalization, e-commerce, and social commerce has changed. In this regard, within the pandemic period, globalization is going through a great transformation, and, therefore, commercial activities have to be not only global-oriented but also local-oriented. Since many countries closed their borders to protect themselves, the pandemic period has turned into the global crisis which forced nations and companies to focus on the local environment. In this study, it is argued that advancements in Internet technologies affect globalization; globalization affects e-commerce and social commerce usage positively. But, with the discovery of social media platforms, e-commerce has shifted to customer-oriented social commerce, and this has turned people's tendency toward localization, not globalization, especially with the effect of Covid-19 pandemic period. Also, this study discusses how pandemic period changed globalization, e-commerce, and social commerce from global-oriented to local-oriented.



Nacar, R. and Ozdemir, K. (2022), "From Commerce to E-Commerce and Social Commerce: How Global? How Local?", Yakut, E. (Ed.) Industry 4.0 and Global Businesses, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 95-109.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Ramazan Nacar and Kadir Ozdemir. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited