Index

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies

ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7, eISBN: 978-1-80071-326-0

Publication date: 16 June 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Rezaei, S., Li, J., Ashourizadeh, S., Ramadani, V. and Gërguri-Rashiti, S. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 409-418. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80071-326-020211022

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Absolute necessity entrepreneurs
, 196

Absolutism
, 183

Adult Population Survey (APS)
, 361, 379

Afghanistan

business environment
, 214

data and variables
, 219–223

descriptive statistics
, 216–217

gross domestic product (GDP)
, 214

individual level
, 219–223

institutional level
, 225–227

motivational factors
, 215

organizational culture
, 214

population
, 214

psychological factors
, 215

restaurant
, 214–215

societal level
, 223–225

Afghanistan women chamber of commerce and industry (AWCCI)
, 227

Africa
, 229–230, 338

Aḥmad Shāh-e Qājār reign (1909–1925)
, 174–176

Amirkabir University of Technology
, 323

Bangladesh
, 356–357

Bartlette’s tests
, 216–218

Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS)
, 226

Bazaar economy
, 184

Behavioral/psychological approach
, 76

Big data
, 296

Blau index
, 63–65

Brazil
, 3–4, 8, 39, 84

business activity characteristics
, 205–207

economic sustainability
, 201

employers and self-employed
, 200–201

entrepreneurial activities
, 192–193, 202

labor market
, 197–200

National Register of Legal Entities
, 207–208

necessity vs. opportunity
, 193–197

self-employment
, 192, 204–205, 208

sociodemographic characteristics
, 203–204

types, entrepreneurs
, 194–196

variation patterns
, 202–203

Bulgaria
, 255, 285

Burt’s theory
, 270

Canada
, 320

Case study methodology
, 17

Chaotic absolutism
, 173–174

Chile women’s entrepreneurial activity
, 86

China
, 4, 80, 364, 367

Adult Population Survey (APS)
, 361

business activities
, 358–361

career experiences
, 112

chi-square
, 362

cultural values
, 119

descriptive analyses
, 363

economic development
, 357–358

emancipation perspective
, 121–122

entrepreneurial competencies
, 358–361

entrepreneurial resilience
, 122

formal and informal financing
, 42–43

gendered work ideology
, 119–121

gender inequity
, 112

gender role theory
, 42

generational culture
, 118–119

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)
, 357

global financial crisis
, 357

goodness-of-fit model
, 364

government policies
, 358

guanxi network
, 114–115

male-dominated entrepreneurial community
, 121–122

market-oriented economy
, 112

mass entrepreneurship
, 357–358

meso-level contextual influences
, 111

national entrepreneurial development
, 115–117

negotiations, women entrepreneurs vs. societal influences
, 121

preentrepreneurial work experience
, 113–115

regional culture
, 118

social networks
, 360

state-owned enterprises
, 113

transitional economies
, 358

Coding
, 254–255

Communication Theory of Resilience
, 122

Confirmatory factor analysis
, 222

Constitutional Charter
, 172–173

Constitutionalism
, 173–174

Constitutional Revolution
, 180–181

Content analysis
, 254–256, 268, 281

Context dependency

females’ access, entrepreneurial capital
, 376–377

institutional support
, 377–378

Contextual effect, country status

economic status
, 62

environmental quality
, 61

gender diversity variable
, 62–63

marginal benefit
, 63

Control variables
, 380

Corporate entrepreneurship

correlation variables
, 131, 133–134

ease of doing business
, 138

labor freedom predictive margins
, 136, 138

logistic regressions
, 133, 136

opportunity recognition predictive margins
, 133, 136–137

perceived skills predictive margins
, 133, 136–137

Corporate social responsibility
, 52

COVID-19
, 5, 7, 103, 106, 154, 310, 356

Creative destruction process
, 76

Crowdfunding
, 296, 327–328

Cultural context
, 232

Cultural-driven triangulation
, 184–186

Cultural factors
, 234

Culture sensitivity
, 223–224

Daneshvar, Nazanin
, 324–325

Data mining
, 254–255

Deinstitutionalization program
, 180

Digital imaging
, 296

Digital Immigrants
, 295–296

Digital Natives (DNs)
, 302–303

defined
, 295–296

entrepreneurial capacity (EC)
, 297

entrepreneurial intention (EI)
, 297, 304–305

Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
, 297

Digital Natives in Kuwait (DNK)
, 307–309

Digital Natives in Serbia (DNS)
, 307–309

3D printing
, 296

Dynamic endogeneity
, 51

Dynamic entity
, 335–336

Dynamic panel data (DPD) model
, 51, 54, 56, 59

Economic development status
, 50

Economic empowerment
, 396

Economic growth
, 3–4

The Education of Women
, 168–169

Efficiency-based economy
, 229–230

Emission reduction score (Emis. Score)
, 54, 58

Entrepreneurial activity
, 127–128

country-level factors
, 129–130

individual factors
, 127–128

Entrepreneurial capacity (EC)
, 297

Entrepreneurial capital
, 376–377

Entrepreneurial cognition
, 41–42

Entrepreneurial creativity
, 92

Entrepreneurial ecosystem, Iran
, 318

digital entrepreneurs
, 323–324

freelancers
, 319–320

Iran
, 319–321

qualitative research
, 322–323

start-up
, 320

teams
, 320

Entrepreneurial financing
, 42–43

Entrepreneurial growth
, 248

Entrepreneurial incentives
, 94–95

female entrepreneurship conditions
, 97–99

individual characteristics
, 97–99

need-driven entrepreneurship
, 95–96

prospect-driven entrepreneurship
, 95–96

support mechanism
, 97

Entrepreneurial intention (EI)
, 36, 41–42, 79, 297

Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ)
, 302–303

Entrepreneurial mindset (EM)
, 295–296, 302–303, 305–306

Digital Natives (DN)
, 304–305

factors
, 309–310

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)
, 179

Entrepreneurial performance
, 43–44

Entrepreneurial traits
, 223

Environmental performances
, 49–50

fixed effects (FEs)
, 59–60

gender diversity, developed/developing countries
, 62–63

Environmental sustainability
, 52

Environment, social, and governance (ESG) data
, 53

Equity investment
, 296

Ethiopia
, 270

European Union (EU)
, 356

Expectancy theory
, 374–375

Facebook
, 298

Factor-based economy
, 229–230

Family norms, Iran
, 238

Female Emirati entrepreneurs
, 14

entrepreneurial education
, 20

initiated product and process innovation
, 20–28

innovative vision
, 16, 19–21, 28

limitations
, 30

marketing innovations
, 28

networking
, 29

new technology
, 20

off-the-job training
, 28

organizational innovations
, 28

R&D
, 28

risk-taking attitude
, 29

women-owned SMEs
, 19–20

Female entrepreneurship
, 36, 39–41

behavioral/psychological approach
, 76

business and types
, 94

competencies
, 78–79

creative destruction process
, 76

entrepreneurial incentives. See also Entrepreneurial incentives
, 94–99

entrepreneurial talent
, 78

formal institution
, 80

GCC countries
, 99–103

informal institution
, 77

institutional economic theory
, 77

Kuwait
, 101–103

Latin America. See also Latin America
, 73–74, 80–81, 83, 86–87

noncapital demanding sectors
, 92–94

psychological traits
, 76–77

society and media
, 75

sociodemographic characteristics vs. entrepreneurial activity
, 74

total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA)
, 92–93

transaction costs
, 77–78

trends and challenges
, 94

Female networks
, 337–338

Female-owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
, 15–16, 18–19, 43–44

Female total entrepreneurial activity rate (TEA)
, 39

Feminist institutionalization
, 185–186

Fixed effects (FEs)
, 50

correlation matrix
, 54, 58

DPD model
, 54, 56, 59

emission reduction score
, 61

environmental performance
, 59–60

gender diversity
, 59–60

Hansen J-test
, 59, 61

profitability
, 61

statistics
, 54, 57

system-GMM estimator
, 56, 59

time-invariant country-specific effects
, 56

transmission mechanism
, 56

variables
, 54–56

Formal financing
, 43

France
, 286

Frontier markets
, 296

Gender asymmetries. See Female entrepreneurship

Gender Development Index (GDI)
, 36–38

Gender differences
, 301

Gender diversity
, 50, 66

environmental impact
, 51, 53

environmental performances, developed/developing countries
, 62–63

firms’ board of directors
, 53

fixed effects (FEs)
, 59–60

quality and intensity
, 53

Refinitive Eikon database
, 53

robustness analysis
, 63–65

Gendered social capital. See also Turkey
, 252–253

Gendered work ideology
, 119–121

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
, 36–38, 74

Gender equality
, 247–248, 254

Gender gaps
, 3–6, 329

entrepreneurship
, 300–302

Iran
, 229–230

Gender inequality
, 35–36, 112, 301, 329

Gender roles

China
, 112–113

developing countries
, 36–37, 40–41, 44

disadvantages, women entrepreneurs
, 44

entrepreneurial cognition
, 41–42

entrepreneurial financing
, 42–43

entrepreneurial performance
, 43–44

female entrepreneurship
, 36, 39–41

GDI
, 37–38

GEM
, 37–38

inequality
, 35–36

intention/entry/business
, 36

Germany
, 286, 320

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)
, 3–4, 92, 126, 229–230, 255, 322, 379

Adult Population Survey (APS)
, 361

China
, 357

necessity vs. opportunity
, 194

Global Innovation Index (GII)
, 103

Global Investable Market Indexes (GIMI)
, 296

Global financial crisis
, 356

business activities
, 358–361

China
, 357

COVID-19
, 356

entrepreneurial competencies
, 358–361

gross domestic product (GDP)
, 361–362

opportunity alertness
, 359

opportunity perception
, 361

Goodness-of-fit model
, 222, 364

Greece
, 359

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Afghanistan
, 214

global financial crisis
, 361–362

Growth ambitions
, 374–375, 378

Growth aspiration
, 382–383

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries
, 106

business in
, 100–101

economies
, 100

SMEs
, 99, 103

Hatami, Aseyeh
, 323

Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM)
, 373

Human capital
, 252–253, 302

perceived opportunities
, 128

skills
, 127–128

Human development index (HDI)
, 37

Hypotheses testing
, 381–382

Hypothesized model
, 378

India
, 4, 356–357

entrepreneurial intention
, 41–42

women’s social networks
, 43–44

Industrialization, Persian economy
, 179

Informal financing
, 43

Information and communication technology (ICT)
, 44

Inheritance
, 224

Initial coin offerings (ICOs)
, 327–328

Innovation. See also Female Emirati entrepreneurs
, 13–15, 17, 373–375, 378

female-owned SMEs
, 15–16

vision
, 20

Instagram
, 298, 307, 309

Institutional economic theory
, 77

Institutional Revolution
, 180

Institutional support
, 377–378

Institutional theory
, 17

Institutional triangulation
, 184, 186

Instrumental variable approach
, 51

International Monetary Fund
, 254

Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)
, 150–151

Iran
, 4, 317–318, 335–336

cultural context
, 232

customs and beliefs
, 327

entrepreneurial ecosystem
, 318–320

family norms
, 238

fear of failure
, 329

financial sanctions
, 230

funding
, 327–328

gender gaps
, 229–230

gender inequality
, 329

husband’s consent to work
, 239

masculine workplace
, 237

men’ manipulative behaviors
, 236

men’s sensitivity
, 239

Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor, and Social Welfare
, 234–235

networking activity
, 340

population
, 229–230

qualitative research
, 234–235

semitraditional society
, 238–239

sexual harassment
, 238

social expectations
, 327

social security
, 237–238

society’s perception
, 235–236

sociocultural circumstances
, 230

support networks
, 328–329

unemployment rate
, 229–230

women entrepreneurs
, 320–322

women entrepreneurship status
, 230, 232–234

women’s business activities
, 236

women’s responsibility, home
, 239

work–life balance
, 328

Iranian Businesswomen Association
, 340

IranSalary
, 323

Iraq
, 233

Japan
, 254

Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO)
, 216–218

Kauffman Foundation
, 302

Kazakhstan
, 255, 283

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)
, 392

Kosovo, work–life balance (WLB)
, 161–162

Albanian-speaking countries
, 160–161

challenges, women entrepreneurs
, 146, 149–150

daily business operations
, 148

data collection
, 154

demographic data
, 150, 154, 157

difficulties, women entrepreneurs
, 154, 156–157

economic development
, 146

family members, business operations
, 157–158

financial benefits
, 150

limitations
, 162

marital status
, 158, 160

organizational environment
, 149

qualitative approach
, 150–151

sampling
, 151

Kuwait
, 105–106, 295–296

business in
, 102–103

Digital Natives (DN)
, 304–306

gender split
, 308

population
, 101–102

social and economic developments
, 102

social media
, 303

Labor freedom
, 129

predictive margins, corporate entrepreneurship
, 136, 138

Labor market, Brazil

degree of formalization
, 198

female entrepreneurship
, 199–200

GEM
, 198

Gini coefficient
, 197

informal economy
, 199

social inequalities
, 198

unemployment rate
, 198

LagEmis. Score
, 54, 58

Latin America
, 3–4, 229–230

business regulatory environment
, 129–130

control variables
, 131–132

corporate entrepreneurship activity
, 126

corporate entrepreneurship correlation variables
, 131, 133–134

corporate entrepreneurship rate overview
, 131, 133, 136

dependent variables
, 131–132

emerging economies
, 127

entrepreneurial behavior
, 126

family-related factors
, 126

female entrepreneurship
, 73–74, 80–81, 83, 86–87

GEM data
, 126, 130, 140

gender role
, 126

human capital
, 127–128

independent variables
, 131–132

labor freedom
, 129

labour market
, 81, 83, 87

means and standard deviation
, 131, 133

part-time factors
, 126

total entrepreneurial activity correlation variables
, 131, 133, 135

women’s participation, working population
, 125

Latifi, Tabassom
, 325–326

Lebanon
, 240–241

Liberal feminist theory
, 139

LinkedIn
, 298

Liquidity
, 296

Luxemburg
, 286

Madagascar
, 39, 229–230

Male-dominated entrepreneurial community
, 121–122

Male total entrepreneurial activity rate (TEA)
, 39

MamanPaz
, 325–326

Market-oriented economy
, 112

Masculine business environments
, 236

Mass entrepreneurship
, 357–358

Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS)
, 44

MENA region, R&D investments and innovation
, 15

Men’ manipulative behaviors
, 236

Men’s sensitivity
, 239

Meta-analysis
, 254–255

Mexico
, 3–4, 39

Microenterprises
, 371–372

Microfinance
, 392–394

women empowerment nexus and
, 394, 396–397, 399

women household financing and
, 396–397

Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
, 240–241, 286–287, 296–297, 372–373

capital differentials
, 378

early-stage female entrepreneurs
, 373

innovation and growth ambitions
, 375–378

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)
, 254

Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor, and Social Welfare
, 234–235

Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD)
, 226–227

Moẓaffar-al-Din Shāh-e Qājār reign (1896–1907), constitutional revolution and women
, 172–173

Moḥammad-‘Ali Shāh-e Qājār reign (1907–1909)
, 173–174

Moḥammad Réżā Shāh-e Pahlavi reign (1941–1979)
, 179–181

Modern Persia, socio-historicism approach

absolutism
, 183

Aḥmad Shāh-e Qājār reign (1909–1925)
, 174–176

Bazaar economy
, 184

ecosystemic factors
, 184–185

feminist institutionalization
, 185–186

formal rules
, 167–168

Incumbent Islamic Republic (1979–Until Now)
, 181–183

informal constraints
, 167–168

institutional change
, 167–168

institutional history
, 167

institutional triangulation
, 184, 186

institution, definition
, 167–168

macro-level institutions
, 183

Moẓaffar-al-Din Shāh-e Qājār reign (1896–1907), constitutional revolution and women
, 172–173

Moḥammad-‘Ali Shāh-e Qājār reign (1907–1909)
, 173–174

Moḥammad Réżā Shāh-e Pahlavi reign (1941–1979)
, 179–181

Nāṣer al-Dīn Shāh-e Qājār reign (1848–1896), revolutionary will and women incubation
, 168–172

patriarchal gender contract
, 183–184

Persian identity and mentality
, 165–166

religio-conservative male-dominant culture
, 166–167

Réżā Shāh-e Pahlavi reign (1925–1941)
, 176–179

sex division, labor
, 184

social intention
, 166–167

sociopolitical economy
, 184–185

women domesticity
, 183–184

Motivational factors
, 217–218

MSCI Index
, 296

National Action Plan on Gender Equality
, 254

National entrepreneurial development
, 115–117

National Entrepreneurship Context Index (NECI)
, 233

National Expert Survey (NES)
, 379

Need-driven entrepreneurship
, 95–96

Neoliberal economic programs
, 83–84

Nāṣer al-Dīn Shāh-e Qājār reign (1848–1896), revolutionary will and women incubation
, 168–172

Netherland
, 286

Network composition
, 343–344

Networking. See Social networks

Network Visualization Co-occurrence Map
, 269

New technology-based firms (NTBFs)
, 319–320

Niknam, Nikoo
, 326

Nordics
, 372–373

capital differentials
, 378

early-stage female entrepreneurs
, 373

innovation and growth ambitions
, 375–378

North America
, 286–287

need-driven and prospect-driven entrepreneurship
, 95–96

NVIVO 10
, 18–19

Online reputation assessment
, 296

Open-source software
, 296

Opportunity-alertness
, 78–79, 359

Opportunity recognition
, 357

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 371–372

Organizational dynamics
, 248

Organizational innovation
, 16, 18–19

Pakistan
, 42–43, 403–404

data analysis
, 401–403

economic empowerment
, 396, 400

empowerment
, 400

familial empowerment
, 400

microfinance
, 392–394, 396–397, 399

monetary investment rate
, 393–394

nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
, 392–393

personal empowerment
, 400

political empowerment
, 396, 400

population
, 391–392

questionnaire instrument
, 399

social empowerment
, 396, 400

State Bank of Pakistan (SBP)
, 393–394

well-being
, 396

women empowerment nexus
, 394, 396–397

women household financing
, 396–397

Patriarchal cultural hegemony
, 183–184, 186

Persian carpet industry
, 176

Persian Constitutional Law
, 172

Persian oil nationalization
, 179–180

Philippines
, 3–4

Policymakers
, 5–6

Political empowerment
, 396

Preentrepreneurial work experience
, 113–115

Proletarianization
, 179

Prospect-driven entrepreneurship
, 95–96

protectionism policy
, 170

Proto-capitalistic behavior
, 175–176

Psychological factors
, 218

Qatar
, 39, 229–230, 240–241

Qājār dynasty
, 170–171

Regional gender equality
, 37

Re-institutionalization progra
, 180

Relative necessity entrepreneurs
, 195

Reliability test
, 218

Refinitive Eikon database
, 53

Resource allocation
, 374

Resource-based view (RBV)
, 16

Réżā Shāh-e Pahlavi reign (1925–1941)
, 176–179

Risk-propensity
, 78–79

Risk-taking behavior
, 52–53

Robustness analysis, gender diversity
, 63–65

Rogers’s model
, 17

Role-modeling
, 78–80

Root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA)
, 222

Rural Women Unit
, 254

Russia
, 285

Saudi Arabia
, 39, 229–230, 240–241

Saudi women entrepreneurs
, 101

Self-confidence
, 338, 357–359

Self-efficacy
, 78–79, 309

Self-employment
, 5, 85–86, 114, 200, 204–205, 208

Semitraditional society
, 238–239

Serbia
, 295–296

Digital Natives (DN)
, 304–306

gender split
, 308

social media
, 306

Sexual discrimination
, 236

Sexual harassment
, 238

Shayegh, Narges
, 325

Slovenia
, 346

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). See also Female Emirati entrepreneurs
, 6, 13–14, 18, 397–398

characteristics
, 18–19

COVID-19 pandemic
, 104, 106–107

female-owned
, 15–16

GCC countries
, 99, 103

implications
, 29–30

Small businesses’ innovation
, 14

Social acceptance
, 236

Social actors
, 375–376

Social capital
, 247–248, 302, 338

decision-making mechanisms
, 253

defined
, 248, 252

gendered
, 252–253

structural holes
, 270

women entrepreneurs and
, 253–254

Social embeddedness
, 373

Social empowerment
, 396

Social feminism
, 252–253

Socialized gender role
, 36–37

Social media
, 296–297, 300, 303

Social networking sites (SNSs)
, 298

Social networks
, 247–248, 345, 348, 376–377

advantages
, 345

China
, 360

context
, 339–340

data analysis
, 341

female’s businesses
, 339

network composition
, 343–344

networking challenges
, 344–345

research approach
, 341

role of networks
, 342–343

sample and data collection
, 341

women’s entrepreneurship
, 337–338

Social security
, 237

limitations
, 237–238

Society’s perception
, 235–236

Socioeconomic performance
, 248

South Asia
, 214

Southeast Europe
, 296

Spain
, 39, 283–284

Sri Lanka
, 240–241

State-owned enterprises
, 113

Sub-saharan Africa
, 95–96

Sweden
, 283–284

Switzerland
, 286

Syria
, 233

System-GMM estimator
, 51

Tata Consultancy Services
, 296–297

Tobacco Régie (1891–1892)
, 169

Total entrepreneurial activity (TEA)
, 3–4, 92–93, 95–96, 192, 340, 356–357

correlation variables
, 131, 133, 135

individual characteristics
, 97–99

logistic regressions
, 133, 136–137

Total establishing entrepreneurial activity (TEE)
, 192

Turkey
, 247, 249, 271, 280, 283–284, 320

bureaucratic procedures
, 251

cluster comparison
, 282

coding
, 254–255

content analysis
, 254–255, 281

education system
, 251

entrepreneurial behavior and attitudes
, 281–285

entrepreneurial framework conditions
, 285–287

entrepreneurial intention
, 41–42

factor analysis
, 249–250, 281

formal and nonformal education programs
, 251

gendered social capital
, 252–253

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)
, 255

limitations
, 287–288

male-dominated discourse
, 270–281

Network Visualization Co-occurrence Map
, 269

quantitative analysis
, 254–255

social capital
, 252–254

women entrepreneurship
, 249

women entrepreneurs problems
, 250–251

Twitter
, 298

UNEP’s Global Resources Outlook
, 51, 53

United Arab Emirates (UAE)
, 6, 13–16, 101

United Nations (UN)
, 393–394

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD’s)
, 324–325

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs)
, 7, 52, 92

United States
, 39, 356

Vafaey, Lena
, 326

Variance inflation factors (VIFs)
, 54

Venture capital (VC) funds
, 320

Vietnam
, 3–4

Village-level savings groups (VSLAs)
, 226–227

Voluntary entrepreneurs

developed environment
, 195

poor environment
, 195

White Revolution
, 180

Women domesticity
, 183–184

Women Economic Empowerment Rural Development program (WEE-RDP)
, 226–227

Women empowerment
, 44

Women engagement
, 3

Women household financing
, 396–397

Women insecurity
, 223–224

Women’s business activities
, 236

Work–life balance
, 328

World Bank
, 214, 254, 300, 392

World Economic Forum
, 233

Yemen
, 233

YouTube
, 307–309

Prelims
Part 1 Conceptual Understanding of Woman Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Chapter 1 Women Entrepreneurship Footprints: Some Introductory Reflections from Emerging Economies Prospects
Chapter 2 Entrepreneurship and Innovation Emancipation among Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries
Chapter 3 Gender Roles in Developing Countries and Women Entrepreneurs’ Intention/Entry/Business Engagement and Performance
Chapter 4 Gender Diversity, Environmental Performances, and the Role of Countries' Development Status
Part 2 Institutions, History, Culture as Catalysator or Blockage for Woman Entrepreneurship
Chapter 5 Female Entrepreneurship in Latin America and the Key Role of Informal Institutions in the Reproduction of Gender Asymmetries
Chapter 6 Women Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: With Focus on GCC and Kuwait
Chapter 7 Exploring Contextual Influences on Women's Everyday Entrepreneuring: A Case from China
Chapter 8 The Role of Gender and Institutional Factors for Entrepreneurs and Corporate Entrepreneurs in Latin American Countries
Chapter 9 Women Entrepreneurs and the Challenge of Work–Life Balance: Evidence from Kosovo
Chapter 10 The Institutional History of Women Entrepreneurship in Modern Persia: A Socio-historicism Approach
Chapter 11 Female Entrepreneurship à Brasileira: Entrepreneurship by Choice or Entrepreneurship by Force?
Chapter 12 Women Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: The Context of Afghanistan
Chapter 13 Cultural Challenges of Women Entrepreneurs in Iran
Chapter 14 Gendered Social Capital in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey
Part 3 Entrepreneurial Ecosystem and Female Digital Entrepreneurship
Chapter 15 Digital Natives' Entrepreneurial Mindset: A Comparative Study in Emerging Markets
Chapter 16 Entrepreneurial Ecosystem and Female Digital Entrepreneurship – Lessons to Learn from an Iranian Case Study
Chapter 17 Networking Activity of Female Entrepreneurs Over Time: An Exploratory Case Study on Female Entrepreneurs from Early-Stage to Establishment
Part 4 Early-stage Female Entrepreneurship, Drivers, and Outcomes
Chapter 18 Lessons from Global Financial Crisis: Human Capital and Business Activities among Nascent Women Entrepreneurs in China
Chapter 19 Innovation Amplifies Growth Ambitions of Early-Stage Female Entrepreneurs: More in Nordics, Less in MENA Region
Chapter 20 Empowering Women through Microfinance Banks in Rural Areas of Pakistan
Index