Index

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa

ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9, eISBN: 978-1-80071-322-2

Publication date: 11 June 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Nziku, D.M. and Struthers, J.J. (Ed.) Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80071-322-220211026

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Access to government procurement opportunities (AGPOs)
, 220

Achievement motivation theory
, 215–217

Action research (AR)
, 194

intervention
, 203

Action team (AT)
, 201

Advanced economies
, 19, 21, 61

Africa
, 74, 82–83, 124, 195

Africa-focussed reports
, 135

GEM surveys
, 130

IP programmes in
, 268

RoSCA type in
, 278

sub-Saharan
, 122

women in
, 83, 87

youth dying in
, 216

Agriculture
, 29, 40–41, 49–53, 221, 267, 294–296

development
, 297–298

sector
, 298, 310

Algeria

economy and business context
, 295–296

soft commodities market
, 298–300

Amoral familism
, 63

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
, 323

Association
, 72, 323

Asymmetric approach
, 91–92

Backward linkages
, 272

Behavioural economics
, 91

loss aversion
, 91–95

tournament effects
, 95–96

British University of Egypt (BUE)
, 280

Broker–buyer relationship
, 304–306

agriculture development
, 297–298

in Algeria
, 294

Algeria’s economy and business context
, 295–296

Algeria’s soft commodities market
, 298–300

Algerian soft commodities imports
, 300–302

B2B relationships
, 307

brokerage challenges
, 306–309

cereals market
, 302

ease of doing business
, 297

hydrocarbon-based economy
, 296

political context
, 296

regulated cereal market
, 302–303

soft commodities trading
, 303–304

Capacity building on performance of women enterprise
, 107–108

Cereals market
, 302

Commodities markets
, 303

Community-based organisations (CBO)
, 208

Conflict
, 196

resolutions
, 63

and SV
, 196–198

Conflict transformation (CT)
, 197–198

SE as CT approach
, 199–200

SE in CT
, 207

Constructivist grounded theory
, 123

Context
, 6–7, 16, 317, 331

African
, 4, 6, 21, 59

Algerian
, 176

of broker–buyer relationships
, 11

institutional
, 255

Nigerian
, 67

principal-agent
, 44

Control of corruption (CC)
, 9, 44, 232–233

Corona virus disease
, 215

Correlation analysis of variables
, 327

Critical discourse analysis (CDA)
, 8, 123

Cultural

changes in environment
, 174

cultural-specific networks
, 64

differences
, 20–21

distortion
, 242

diversity of people
, 3

dynamics
, 41

institutions
, 19

reproduction
, 105

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
, 248

Developing countries
, 7, 10, 28, 30, 73, 82–83, 87, 97, 234, 316

businesses in
, 17

entrepreneurial activities in
, 18

tax in
, 334

Diversity
, 31, 175

degree of
, 47

of narratives
, 66

Durbin and Watson test
, 326

Dutch Disease
, 184

Eastern Industrial Zone (EIZ)
, 261

Economic action
, 66

Economic activities
, 181

African cultural context
, 7

embeddedness and
, 19–20

Economic development
, 16, 103

in Africa
, 9–11

aspects
, 5

contradictions of entrepreneurship and
, 21–24

criticism of models
, 185

industrial parks as instruments of
, 263–270

linking entrepreneurship and
, 17–19

lowest levels
, 3

Economic factors
, 106–107

Economic growth and governance in Africa

counter argument
, 242–243

data analysis
, 235–238

decline in governance
, 238–240

PSOs
, 233, 234, 241

traditional outsourcing
, 241–242

VFM
, 240

Economic growth/development
, 16–17

contradictions of
, 21–24

entrepreneurship and
, 17–19

Economies

African
, 5

factor-driven
, 21

low-income
, 262

mature
, 68

productive
, 12

of scale
, 10, 268

stages of
, 21

Efficiency-driven economies
, 21

Embeddedness
, 60

and economic activities
, 19–20

Nigerian SMEs
, 61–63

social
, 19

theory
, 64

Emerging economies
, 63, 252–254, 260

Enterprise in Africa
, 5–7

Entrepreneur
, 16, 20, 30, 61–62, 86–87, 107, 136, 175–177, 180, 199

Entrepreneurial situation
, 16

Entrepreneurship
, 15, 16

activities in African countries
, 23, 25

business regulations
, 29

business venture/measuring performance
, 26–28

contradictions of
, 21–24

economic activities
, 19–20

and economic development
, 17–19

in economic growth
, 24

inadequate capital
, 30

infrastructural capacity
, 29

me-too syndrome
, 28

necessity entrepreneurship
, 20–21

opportunity-driven Entrepreneurship
, 20–21

stages of economies
, 21

unemployment
, 28

Entrepreneurship enablers
, 180

globalisation
, 181

policy programmes
, 181–182

social change
, 182–183

Entrepreneurship in Africa
, 3, 5–7, 122

academic literature
, 127, 150–167

African youth employment
, 124–125, 133–135

allegories of young people
, 130–132

data collection
, 126

essentialism of
, 130–132

GEM
, 123–8, 145

GEM Literature Coding Tree
, 129

journal abbreviations
, 167–171

national reports
, 146–149

specialist reports
, 149

textual outputs
, 126

theory and CDA
, 127–128

youth employment challenge
, 135–139

Entrepreneurship Policy Framework (EPF)
, 48

Expected utility theory
, 87, 91–92

Exporting
, 21, 60

enterprises
, 260

entrepreneurial activities
, 61

firms
, 255

role of networks in SME
, 63–64

‘Factor-driven’ economies
, 21

Family and kinship
, 73

trust in
, 67–68

Farm entrepreneurship (FE)
, 40, 41

empirical studies on
, 43

Farmers training centres (FTC)
, 45

Female entrepreneurship in Africa
, 82

barriers facing
, 84–86

behavioural economics
, 91–96

PA taxonomy
, 88–90

reasonable gain and affordable loss
, 91

social networks among
, 86–87

SWT with P-A concept
, 87, 91

Financial performance
, 317

ability-to-pay approach theory
, 318

adjusted net income and
, 318–319

correlation analysis of variables
, 327

data analysis
, 323–324

firm age and
, 320

firm liquidity and
, 319–320

income tax and
, 320–322, 331–332

multivariate analysis
, 327–330

practical implication
, 333–334

research design
, 322

research limitation
, 334

sample size and sampling techniques
, 322–323

social implication
, 333

staff feeding
, 320–322

test of assumptions
, 324–326

‘Fly-by-night’ buyers
, 308

Foreign direct investments (FDI)
, 174, 179, 260, 316

Gender entrepreneurship in Africa
, 7–9

Geographical locations
, 18, 24, 31

Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI)
, 50

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)
, 4, 16, 44, 83–84, 122, 123–124

definitions of entrepreneurship
, 125–126

Global Entrepreneurship Programme
, 182

Global value chains (GVCs)
, 4, 260

Globalisation
, 180–182

benefits of
, 254

economic
, 181

hyper-globalisation
, 265

Goodness-of-fit test
, 325

Governance indicators (GIs)
, 9, 44, 232

Government effectiveness (GE)
, 9, 44, 232–233

Government of Rwanda
, 316

Graduate Enterprise Academy (GEA)
, 215

activities-driven strategic partnerships
, 224–225

beneficiaries
, 223

business categories and numbers
, 221

MKU’s
, 215, 218–221

STEP Programme at
, 222–223

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 18, 176, 232, 296

Group borrowing
, 7, 96

High self-control (HSC)
, 284

Homogenous group
, 66

Horizontal approach
, 47

Hotel age and financial performance
, 320, 329, 331–332

Hotel liquidity
, 319–320

‘Hotels Give to Get’ principle
, 318, 331

Hydrocarbon-based economy
, 296

Hyper-globalisation
, 265

Impact analysis theory (IAT)
, 8, 174

Income tax
, 320–322

IncubMe
, 182

Indigenous

entrepreneurs
, 28

institutions
, 60–61, 66, 73

and local theory
, 4

market associations
, 74

Nigerian SMEs
, 66

Industrial parks (IPs)
, 259

in clustering
, 268–269

development impact of
, 270–272

in Ethiopia’s Industrialisation Agenda
, 261–263

as instruments of economic development
, 263

as instruments of regional development policy
, 269–270

investment mobilization
, 263–264

manufactured exports in era of GVCs
, 264–266

role of
, 266–268

Informal entrepreneurship
, 248–252

Informal rules
, 61, 74

Informality in Africa
, 246, 248

Information seeking
, 85–86

Innovation-driven economies
, 21

Institutional capital
, 86

‘Institutional drivers of firms’ registration
, 247–248

Institutions and firm registration in Africa

empirical analysis
, 250

informal entrepreneurship
, 248–250

informality in Africa
, 246, 248

‘institutional drivers of firms’ registration
, 247–248

OLS model of determinants
, 253

primary equation
, 251

probit model
, 252

public policymakers
, 255–256

selection equation
, 251, 252

Instrumental networks
, 86

Intermediaries
, 67–68, 294

financial
, 106

unlicenced and unregulated
, 175

International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
, 130, 134

International Labour Office/Organization (ILO)
, 123, 176, 247

International trade
, 22, 61

Interviews
, 25, 45, 66

Kenya
, 7, 8, 103–104, 219, 278

Law courts
, 69

Least developed countries (LDCs)
, 40, 261

Legal mechanisms
, 62

Legitimacy
, 22, 63–64

Lending factors
, 107

Loss aversion
, 91, 91–95

Low self-control (LSC)
, 284

Macro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs)
, 50

Managerial constraint factors
, 107

Manufacturing
, 40, 181, 221, 318

activities
, 260

economic importance
, 246

employment opportunities in
, 263

IP-based manufacturing activities
, 271

MSMEs
, 53, 66

sector
, 267

Markets
, 6, 17, 19, 29, 310

foreign
, 69

formal national and international
, 52

international
, 263

lack of formal
, 51

rural
, 42

West African
, 66

Me-too syndrome
, 25–28

Members of Parliament (MPs)
, 205

Mentoring
, 103, 219–220, 223, 242

Micro and small enterprises (MSEs)
, 107, 278

Micro-finance institutions (MFIs)
, 106

Middlemen
, 67

Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
, 106

Moderate self-control (MSC)
, 284

Mount Kenya University (MKU)
, 8, 213, 215

GEA
, 215, 218–221

Multiple case studies
, 64, 66, 74

Multivariate analysis
, 327–330

Narratives
, 64, 66

development
, 123

inter-related discursive
, 133

patriarchal
, 182

policy
, 122

National Gender and Development Policy
, 103

National Women’s Policy
, 103

Necessity entrepreneurship
, 20–21, 177

Network relationships, Nigerian SMEs
, 61–63

Networking
, 44, 48, 86, 203

export
, 69

personal relationship and
, 309

Networks
, 6, 60–62, 304

capital
, 86

family and kinship
, 67

farmers
, 45

Ghanaian
, 64

horizontal trust
, 234

informal
, 74, 87

in SME exporting
, 63–64

social
, 19, 30, 60, 86

Nigeria
, 5–6, 24–25, 27–28, 45–46, 60–61, 64, 67–71, 73–74, 85, 106, 213, 268

Nigerian SMEs
, 60

contracts and personal trust in exporting SME networks
, 68–69

embeddedness
, 61–63

entrepreneurial action
, 64

network relationships
, 61–63

networks in SME exporting
, 63–64

participant exporting SMEs
, 65

semi-structured interviews
, 66

trade associations
, 69–72

trust
, 61–63

trust in family and kinship
, 67–68

Non-farm entrepreneurship (NFE)
, 40–41

empirical studies on
, 43

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
, 104

Norton Town Council (NTC)
, 204

Office Algerien Interprofessionnel des Cereales (OAIC)
, 303

One size fits all approach
, 6, 8, 48

Opportunity-based approach
, 8, 174

Opportunity-driven entrepreneurship
, 20–21

Ordinary least squares (OLS)
, 250, 253

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 102

Other developing countries (ODCs)
, 41

Perception
, 26, 45, 118, 304, 316

Personal networks
, 68, 86

Persons living with disabilities (PLWDs)
, 220

‘Picking winners’ strategy
, 47

Policy programmes
, 181–182

Principal-Agent paradigm (P-A paradigm)
, 7, 81, 83

Private Sector Federation (PSF)
, 316

Prize spread
, 95–96

Process attributes
, 51

Process theory
, 105

Product attributes
, 51

Prospect theory
, 91–92

Psychic distance
, 63

Public service organisations (PSOs)
, 233–234

Public–private partnerships (PPPs)
, 48, 97

Qualitative study
, 6, 24, 60, 74, 288

Quantitative methods
, 64, 74

Rational choice theory
, 104

Regulated cereal market
, 302–303

Resource curse
, 184

Respondents
, 10, 26, 66, 68–69, 92–93, 96, 101, 110–114, 116–117, 279, 283–284, 286–289

Return on asset (ROA)
, 316

Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (RoSCAs)
, 10, 277–278

data description and characteristics
, 280–284

in Egypt
, 279–280

participation and self-control
, 284–286

participation and social preferences
, 286–288

participation and trust
, 288–289

Rule of law (RL)
, 232–233

Rural enterprises
, 42

inter-sectoral linkages within
, 41–42

success
, 54

Rural entrepreneurship
, 40–41 (see also Youth entrepreneurship)

economic activities in rural areas
, 53–54

empirical studies on barriers to
, 46

policies in countries of SSA
, 48

policies to supporting
, 47–48

smallholders and domestic and foreign companies
, 51–53

in SSA
, 42

stylised facts on
, 54

subsistence farming
, 48–51

transforming barriers to enablers
, 42–46

Rwanda Development Board (RDB)
, 316

Rwanda taxation
, 317

Sanctions
, 62–63, 66

Self-control
, 284–286

Semi-structured interviews
, 66

Seven-year programme
, 50

Skills-based self-employment entrepreneurship strategy
, 135–137

Small and Medium Enterprises Agency Act of 2015
, 50

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
, 6, 18, 47–48, 60, 102 (see also Nigerian SMEs)

owner-manager
, 61

Social capital
, 86–87, 207–208

Social change
, 182–183

Social entrepreneurship (SE)
, 8, 183, 193–194

as CT approach
, 199–200, 207

Social factors
, 106–107

Social injustice transformation model
, 200

Social networks among women entrepreneurs
, 86–87

Social value orientation (SVO)
, 279

Socio-economic context
, 6, 93–94

Socio-economic processes, youth participation in
, 194–196

Socio-economic relations
, 64

Soft commodities

Algeria’s soft commodities market
, 298–300

imports
, 300–302

trading
, 303–304

Staff feeding
, 320–322

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
, 323

STEP Programme at GEA
, 222–223

STEP-4-Youth programme (STEP 4Y programme)
, 223

Strength of weak ties (SWT)
, 7, 81–82

with P-A concept
, 87, 91

Structural violence (SV)
, 194, 197

addressing
, 204–205

conflict and
, 196–198

Students Training for Entrepreneurial Promotion (STEP)
, 218

Sub-Saharan African (SSA)
, 6, 22, 40, 83

Subsistence farming
, 40, 48–51

System theory
, 105

Technical factors
, 106

Thematic analysis
, 66

Thematic Apperception Tests (TATs)
, 217

Themes
, 3, 25–26, 60, 66, 126, 129–130

Total entrepreneurial activity (TEA)
, 125

Tournament effects
, 7, 95–96

Transaction attributes
, 51

Transformative paradigm
, 201

Trust
, 61–63

in family and kinship
, 67–68

Nigerian SMEs
, 61–63

RoSCAs participation and
, 288–289

violation
, 197

Unemployment intervention in Africa

achievement motivation theory
, 215–217

GEA at MKU
, 217–218

GEA model
, 222–227

MKU’s GEA
, 215, 218–221

UNESCO’s Education
, 214

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
, 3, 21, 40

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
, 48

United Republic of Tanzania (URT)
, 40

Variance inflation factor (VIF)
, 325

Weak ties
, 81–82

West Africa
, 60–61, 63, 66–70

Women empowerment
, 103

accessibility of credit
, 106–107

capacity building on performance of women enterprise
, 107–108

conceptual framework
, 104–105

correlation analysis
, 114–115

criticism of theories
, 105–106

demographic characteristics
, 110–112

description of data analysis procedures
, 110

description of research instruments
, 110

effects of gender enterprise fund
, 112–114, 116–117

effects of WEDF loans
, 106, 114, 117

multiple regression analysis
, 115–116

rational choice theory
, 104

research design and methodology
, 109–110

review of theories
, 105

women enterprise on household livelihoods
, 108–109

women-owned SMEs
, 118

Women Enterprise and Development Fund (WEDF)
, 7, 104–105

Women Enterprise Fund (WEF)
, 103

Women’s entrepreneurship
, 82, 102

World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES)
, 246

World Economic Outlook (WEO)
, 247

Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)
, 44

‘Youth bulge’
, 124

Youth Enterprise Development Fund
, 103

Youth entrepreneurship
, 174 (see also Female entrepreneurship in Africa; Rural entrepreneurship)

in Algeria
, 187

barriers to entrepreneurship
, 177

bureaucratic obstacles
, 179

criticism of models of economic development
, 185

economic development
, 184

and economic growth for Algeria
, 186

enablers
, 180–183

foreign direct investments
, 179

gender considerations
, 179–180

soft skills
, 180

venture capital
, 178–179

youth engagement and employment
, 175–177

Youth participation in socio-economic processes
, 194–196

Youth unemployment in Africa
, 7–9

Zimbabwe, SV transformation model
, 193–194

action plan
, 204

addressing SV
, 204–205

AR intervention
, 203

conflict and SV
, 196–198

CT
, 197–198

limitations and considerations
, 208

outcomes of tested solutions
, 205–206

research approach
, 202

SE as CT approach
, 199–200

SE in peace building
, 206–208

social injustice transformation model
, 200

study area and sampling approach
, 201–202

SV transformation model
, 200–201

transformative paradigm
, 201

youth participation in socio-economic processes
, 194–196

Prelims
Part A: Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Africa
Chapter 1: Introduction to Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa: The Way Forward
Chapter 2: Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Africa: A Paradox
Chapter 3: Rural Farm and Non-farm Based Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
Chapter 4: Trust in Nigerian SMEs Exporting to West African Market
Part B: Gender Entrepreneurship and Youth Unemployment in Africa
Chapter 5: Female Entrepreneurship in Africa: Relationships between SWT and P-A Theory, Behavioural Economics Insights
Chapter 6: Effects of Gender Enterprise on Women Empowerment in Eldoret – Kenya
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship in Africa: Explaining Why it Became a Primary Solution to Youth Unemployment?
Chapter 8: Challenges of Algeria’s Economic Development: A Youth Entrepreneurship Perspective
Chapter 9: Using Social Entrepreneurship to Reverse Barriers to Socio-economic Youth Participation: An Example from Zimbabwe
Chapter 10: Unemployment Intervention in Africa: A Case Study on Mount Kenya University’s Graduate Enterprise Academy
Part C: Economic Development (Governance and Institutions) in Africa
Chapter 11: Economic Growth and Governance in Africa: Are They Compatible?
Chapter 12: Institutions and Firm Registration in Africa
Chapter 13: Industrial Parks in Ethiopia: Newcomer Advantages
Chapter 14: RoSCAs in Africa: The Case of Egypt
Chapter 15: Algeria’s Economy and Soft Commodities Market: An Analysis of Broker–Buyer Relationship
Chapter 16: Income Tax and Financial Performance of the Hotel Industry in Rwanda
Index