Prelims

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa

ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9, eISBN: 978-1-80071-322-2

Publication date: 11 June 2021

Citation

(2021), "Prelims", Nziku, D.M. and Struthers, J.J. (Ed.) Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xxvii. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80071-322-220211022

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited


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Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa

Title Page

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa

EDITED BY

DINA M. NZIKU

University of the West of Scotland, UK

JOHN J. STRUTHERS

University of the West of Scotland, UK

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2021

Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited

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ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-322-2 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80071-324-6 (Epub)

Dedication Page

To my parents, brothers, sisters and all striving entrepreneurs out there.

Dina Modestus Nziku (PhD)

Contents

List of Tables and Figures xi
List of Abbreviations xv
About the Editors xix
List of Contributors xxiii
Foreword xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
Part A: Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Africa
Chapter 1: Introduction to Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa: The Way Forward
Dina Modestus Nziku and John Struthers 3
Chapter 2: Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Africa: A Paradox
Ernestine N. Ning 15
Chapter 3: Rural Farm and Non-farm Based Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
Dina Modestus Nziku and John Struthers 39
Chapter 4: Trust in Nigerian SMEs Exporting to West African Market
Kingsley Obi Omeihe, Isaac Amoako and Veronika Gustafsson 59
Part B: Gender Entrepreneurship and Youth Unemployment in Africa
Chapter 5: Female Entrepreneurship in Africa: Relationships between SWT and P-A Theory, Behavioural Economics Insights
John Struthers and Dina Modestus Nziku 81
Chapter 6: Effects of Gender Enterprise on Women Empowerment in Eldoret – Kenya
Christine Jeptoo Sawe 101
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship in Africa: Explaining Why it Became a Primary Solution to Youth Unemployment?
Stephen Hunt 121
Chapter 8: Challenges of Algeria’s Economic Development: A Youth Entrepreneurship Perspective
Abderrezak Osmani and Ahmed Beloucif 173
Chapter 9: Using Social Entrepreneurship to Reverse Barriers to Socio-economic Youth Participation: An Example from Zimbabwe
Hillary Jephat Musarurwa 193
Chapter 10: Unemployment Intervention in Africa: A Case Study on Mount Kenya University’s Graduate Enterprise Academy
Phelista Wangui Njeru and Mwangi Peter Wanderi 211
Part C: Economic Development (Governance and Institutions) in Africa
Chapter 11: Economic Growth and Governance in Africa: Are They Compatible?
Eman Elish and John Adams 229
Chapter 12: Institutions and Firm Registration in Africa
Abbi M. Kedir and Joseph Baricako 243
Chapter 13: Industrial Parks in Ethiopia: Newcomer Advantages
Taffere Tesfachew 259
Chapter 14: RoSCAs in Africa: The Case of Egypt
Dina Rabie 277
Chapter 15: Algeria’s Economy and Soft Commodities Market: An Analysis of Broker–Buyer Relationship
Reda Emir Rebbah and Ahmed Beloucif 293
Chapter 16: Income Tax and Financial Performance of the Hotel Industry in Rwanda
Omar Habimana and Côme Nahimana 315
Index 337

List of Tables and Figures

Tables

Table 2.1. Entrepreneurial Activities in African Countries (GEM 2017). 23
Table 2.2. Data Collected from Uganda, 2020. 26
Table 2.3. Data Collected from Cameroon, 2020. 27
Table 2.4. Data Collected from Nigeria, 2020. 27
Table 3.1. Empirical Studies on FE and NFE in SSA. 43
Table 3.2. Key Empirical Studies on Barriers to Rural Entrepreneurship within SSA. 46
Table 4.1. Profile of Participant Exporting SMEs. 65
Table 4.2. Selected Responses about Contracts. 70
Table 5.1. P-A Taxonomy. 88
Table 6.1. Sampling Distribution Table. 110
Table 6.2. Correlation Analysis Results on Relationship between the Independent Variables and Dependent Variable. 114
Table 6.3. Multiple Regression Analysis between Dependent Variable and Independent Variables. 116
Table 7.1. GEM Academic Literature. 139
Table 8.1. Development of Economic Theories. 184
Table 8.2. Criticism of Models of Economic Development. 185
Table 9.1. Action Plan to Carry Out the Proposed Solutions. 204
Table 9.2. Outcomes of the Tested Solutions. 205
Table 10.1. GEA Business Categories and Their Numbers. 219
Table 10.2. GEA’s Activities-driven Strategic Partnerships, Partners’ Nationalities, and Sources of Funding by May 2020. 222
Table 12.1. Probit Model Predicting the Probability of Firm Non-registration at Start-up. 250
Table 12.2. OLS Model of Determinants of the Number of Years Spent Unregistered. 251
Table 14.1. Views on Bank Interest by RoSCA Participation. 283
Table 15.1. Soft Commodities Imports (Algeria). 299
Table 15.2. Type of B2B Relationships in Soft Commodities Trading. 307
Table 16.1. Sampled hotels as classified by Rwanda Development Board. 323
Table 16.2. Measurement of Income tax and Financial performance. 324
Table 16.3. Test of Normality between Income tax and Financial performance. 325
Table 16.4. Collinearity statistics on Income tax and Financial performance. 325
Table 16.5. Durbin and Watson Test for correlation in Financial Performance. 326
Table 16.6. Homoscedasticity test between Income Tax and Financial Performance. 326
Table 16.7. Heteroskedasticity test between income tax and financial performance. 326
Table 16.8. Pearson Correlations analysis of Income Tax and Financial Performance. 327
Table 16.9. General Regression Model Results. 330

Figures

Fig. 5.1. Loss Aversion. 92
Fig. 7.1. GEM Impact Pathway. 124
Fig. 7.2. Analysis Approach Questions. 128
Fig. 7.3. GEM Literature Coding Tree. 129
Fig. 7.4. Word Frequency in GEM Global Reports. 130
Fig. 7.5. Example of Youth Framings in GEM Literature. 132
Fig. 8.1. Youth Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth for Algeria. 186
Fig. 9.1. SV/Social Injustice Transformation Model. 200
Fig. 10.1. The GEA Model. 218
Fig. 11.1. 43 African Countries – Proportionate Changes in GE, RL and CC 1996–2018. 233
Fig. 11.2. 128 Non-African Countries – Proportionate Changes in GE, RL and CC 1996–2018. 234
Fig. 11.3. 43 African Countries – Change in GE, RL and CC by Country 1996 versus 2018. 235
Fig. 11.4. Relation between Trust and Achieving Value for Money in PSOs. 238
Fig. 11.5. Improving Value for Money in PSOs Over Time. 239
Fig. 13.1. FDI Inflow to East Africa. 265
Fig. 14.1. Percentage of RoSCA and Non-RoSCA Participants by Job Type. 282
Fig. 14.2. Percentage of RoSCA Participation Incentive by Job Type. 283
Fig. 14.3. Distribution of Self-control Levels for Employees and Students. 285
Fig. 14.4. Percentage of RoSCA Participants Per Self-control Level and by Job. 285
Fig. 14.5. Social Preferences in Percentages of Every Job Type. 287
Fig. 14.6. Social Preferences of RoSCA Participants in Percentages of Every Job Type. 288
Fig. 15.1. Algerian Foreign Currency Exchange (2014–2019) (Unit Million USD). 297
Fig. 15.2. Main Soft Commodities Imported to Algeria in 2018 (USD Million). 300
Fig. 15.3. Main Soft Commodities Imported to Algeria (2002–2020) (Metric Tonnes). 301
Fig. 15.4. Algeria Import of Milk Powder 2002–2019 (Metric Tonnes). 301
Fig. 15.5. Wheat Imports, Production, Consumption and Exports in (1,000 MT) in Algeria (1960–2019). 302
Fig. 15.6. Linkage Between Key Players. 305
Fig. 16.1. Relationship between Income taxes and Financial performance model 2019. 322

List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
SSA Sub-Saharan African
GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
RoSCAs Rotating Savings and Credit Associations

Chapter 2

GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa

Chapter 3

SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
URT United Republic of Tanzania
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
LDCs least developed countries
ODCs other developing countries
WGI Worldwide Governance Indicators
FTC farmers training centres
SME small and medium enterprise
PPPs public–private partnerships
EPF Entrepreneurship Policy Framework
MSMEs macro, small and medium enterprises

Chapter 5

SWT strength of weak ties
P-A principal-agent
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa

Chapter 6

WEDF Women Enterprise and Development Fund
WEF Women Enterprise Fund
SMEs small and medium enterprises
NGOs non-governmental organisations
MFIs micro-finance institutions
MSEs micro and small enterprises
MDG Millennium Development Goal

Chapter 7

AEO African Economic Outlook
APS Adult Population Survey
CDA critical discourse analysis
DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
GEM Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
IDRC International Development Research Centre
ILO International Labour Organisation
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
TEA total entrepreneurial activity
UN United Nations
UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Chapter 8

IAT impact analysis theory
GDP gross domestic product

Chapter 9

AR action research
AT action team
CBO Community-based organisation
CT conflict transformation
MP Member of Parliament
NTC Norton Town Council
SE social entrepreneurship
SV structural violence

Chapter 10

MKU Mount Kenya University
GEA Graduate Enterprise Academy
STEP students training for entrepreneurial promotion
TATs thematic apperception tests
AGPOs access to government procurement opportunities
PLWDs persons living with disabilities

Chapter 11

GIs governance indicators
GE government effectiveness
RL rule of law
CC control of corruption
PSOs public sector organisations
GDP gross domestic product

Chapter 12

WBES World Bank Enterprise Survey
WEO World Economic Outlook
ILO International Labour Office
DRC Democratic Republic of Congo
OLS ordinary least squares

Chapter 13

GVC global value chains
FDI foreign direct investment
LDC least developed countries
EIZ Eastern Industrial Zone
PVH Phillips-van-Heusen Corporation

Chapter 14

RoSCAs Rotating Savings and Credit Associations
SVO social value orientation
BUE British University of Egypt
LSC low self-control
HSC high self-control
MSC moderate self-control

Chapter 15

MMT million metric tonnes
GDP gross domestic product
OAIC Office Algerien Interprofessionnel des Cereales
B2B business-to-business

Chapter 16

ROA return on asset
RDB Rwanda Development Board
PSF Private Sector Federation
FDI foreign direct investment
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
ANOVA Analysis of Variance
VIF variance inflation factor

About the Editors

Editors Biographies

Dina M. Nziku (PhD) is a Lecturer, Researcher and Director for Research and Publications in the Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED) at the University of the West of Scotland, UK. She is the Lead of Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Entrepreneurship Thought Leader at Women Economic Imperative (WEI). Her research focusses on women entrepreneurship.

John J. Struthers is a Professor and Director of the Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED) University of West of Scotland. In recent years his research has focused on commodity price volatility in developing countries. Among his numerous publications he co-edited a book in 2018: Logistics and Global Value Chains in Africa: Impact on Trade and Development. In 2015, he was appointed as Honorary Consul for Ethiopia in Scotland and in 2018 he was appointed as Chancellor of Mount Kenya University.

Authors Biographies

John Adams is a Doctoral Supervisor at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. His research includes economic development and he has published numerous papers in this and related areas of economics.

Isaac Amoako is an Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship at Coventry University, UK. His current research interests are: entrepreneurship and SMEs management, trust, institutions and entrepreneurship/small business management in Africa. He is the author of Trust, Institutions, and Managing Entrepreneurial Relationships in Africa: An SME Perspective.

Joseph Baricako is an Economist at the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. He has contributed extensively in many areas of economics, for example, development, international economics, macroeconomics, economic geography, econometrics and regional integration. He has several journal publications and book chapters. Before joining the United Nations in 2006, he was a Professor of Economics and researcher in different universities.

Ahmed Beloucif is a Doctoral Supervisor for (DBA/PhD) in multidisciplinary areas at the University of the West of Scotland, UK. His current research interest expands to entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, corporate reputation and Islamic studies (finance, marketing and entrepreneurship).

Eman Elish is an Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at the British University in Egypt. Her research is focussed on growth and economic development and she has presented her work at numerous international conferences in Europe and the Middle East.

Veronika Gustafsson is an Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship at Uppsala University. Her home turf in entrepreneurship research is entrepreneurial cognition. Her research focusses on the cross-fertilisation of cognitive psychology, entrepreneurship theory in an entrepreneurial context. She is the author of Entrepreneurial Decision-making: Individuals, Tasks and Cognitions.

Omar Habimana holds a PhD in Finance, MBA and Bachelor degree’s in Economics. He is a Part-time Lecturer at Mount Kenya University and a Director at REVAS a research company. He is affiliated in the Rwandan tax advisory body and a member of the Rwandan private companies’ Board of Director.

Stephen Hunt is Research Manager at the Challenges Group, UK. His work focusses on demand-led solutions to active labour market integration of vulnerable groups, including youth. He has supported several organisations in youth employment activities across Africa, including DFID, IFAD, Mastercard Foundation and Standard Chartered Foundation.

Abbi M. Kedir is an Associate Professor/Senior Lecturer in International Business at the University of Sheffield, UK. He is an Applied Quantitative Economist with experience over 25 years in analysing and modelling development issues with a policy focus on African economies. His research interests include poverty, labour markets, urbanisation, entrepreneurship, trade, foreign direct investment and development finance.

Hillary Jephat Musarurwa is a Research Consultant at Practical Empowerment & Networking Youth Association, Zimbabwe. His research focusses on social inequalities and financial inclusion among youth, financial capability support, transformative service co-design, social innovation and youth empowerment in Africa.

Côme Nahimana holds a Master’s in Taxation and Bachelor’s Degree in Economics; he is currently a Tax Consultant and a member of the Tax Policy Committee in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning in Rwanda. He has worked for the Rwanda Revenue Authority as a Tax Auditor, Tax Collector and Investigator.

Ernestine N. Ning is an Early Career Researcher at the University of Edinburgh Business School, Scotland, UK. Her research is focussed on “Entrepreneurship and Innovation” with a keen interest in microfirms and family businesses.

Phelista Wangui Njeru is a Senior Lecturer at Mount Kenya University. Currently, she serves as a Head of the Economics Department of Mount Kenya University. She served as the Dean for School of Business and Economics in an acting capacity in the year 2016. She holds a PhD in Entrepreneurship Development and MBA in Entrepreneurship. She is an accredited trained trainer of trainers and a member of the Kenya Institute of Management. Her area of research interest includes entrepreneurship education, economic models, and small and medium enterprise development.

Dina Modestus Nziku (PhD) is a Lecturer, Researcher and Director for Research and Publications in the Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED) at the University of the West of Scotland, UK. She is the Lead of Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Entrepreneurship Thought Leader at Women Economic Imperative. Her research focusses on women entrepreneurship.

Kingsley Obi Omeihe is an Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship and Management Practice at the University of University of the West of Scotland, UK. He is the Chair of African Studies at the British Academy of Management. Kingsley is working on an ongoing study of endogenous institutional change focussing on networks and norms of entrepreneurs in West Africa.

Abderrezak Osmani is co-founder and led the UK Algeria Business Council (www.uk-algeria.org) as CEO and has been its’ President since 2010. Currently, he is studying for a PhD at the University of the West of Scotland and working on youth entrepreneurship and challenges to economic growth in Algeria. His research interest area is democratisation of youth entrepreneurship.

Dina Rabie is a PhD candidate at the University of Hamburg and an Assistant Lecturer at the British University in Egypt (BUE). She is the Director and Co-founder of the BUE Experimental and Behavioural Economics Laboratory. Her research focusses on individual decision making using behavioural and experimental economics methods.

Reda Emir Rebbah is a Soft Commodities Trader. With more than 20 years’ professional experience, he occupied positions as a country, regional manager and senior consultant of soft commodities for international companies. He is reading for a PhD at the University of the West of Scotland. His research interest is in the area of international trade of soft commodities.

Christine Jeptoo Sawe is a Lecturer of Business Administration (Strategic Management option) of Mount Kenya University, School of Business and Economics in the Department of Management. She has published a book entitled The Role of Organizational Culture on Schools' Academic Performance: A Case of St. Patrick's High School Iten in Kenya. She participates in community projects directed to self-help women groups. She has published in several refereed journals. She holds a PhD in Business Administration (Strategic Management option).

John Struthers is a Professor and Director of the Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED) University of West of Scotland. Among his numerous publications, he co-edited a book in 2018 “Logistics and Global Value Chains in Africa: Impact on Trade and Development” (Palgrave Macmillan). In 2015, he was appointed as Honorary Consul for Ethiopia in Scotland and in 2018 he was appointed as Chancellor of Mount Kenya University.

Taffere Tesfachew, PhD, is Senior Advisor, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, Ethiopia. Until 2017, he was the Director of the Division on Africa and Least Developed Countries, at UNCTAD, Geneva. He is an Economist and has authored and co-authored on a range of topics, including technological learning, investment, trade and industrial policy.

Mwangi Peter Wanderi is an Associate Professor of Physical Education and Sports at Mount Kenya University. For more than three decades, he has taught, and has undertaken research and community outreach works in two areas that he has inter-linked in his scholarly career, namely, physical education and sports and youth entrepreneurial promotion. He has served at Mount Kenya University in various capacities including the Director, Quality Assurance and Linkages, Principal, Corporate Affairs as well as Acting Vice-Chancellor.

List of Contributors

John Adams Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Isaac Amoako Coventry University, United Kingdom
Alistair Anderson University of Lancaster, United Kingdom
Joseph Baricako United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Ethiopia
Ahmed Beloucif University of the West of Scotland, United Kingdom
Eman Elish The British University in Egypt, Egypt
Veronika Gustafsson Uppsala University, Sweden
Omar Habimana Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Stephen Hunt Challenges Group, United Kingdom
Abbi M. Kedir University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Hillary Jephat Musarurwa Practical Empowerment & Networking Youth Association, Zimbabwe
Côme Nahimana Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning in Rwanda, East Africa
Ernestine N. Ning Early Career University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Phelista Wangui Njeru Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Dina Modestus Nziku University of the West of Scotland, United Kingdom
Kingsley Obi Omeihe University of the West of Scotland - United Kingdom
Abderrezzak Osmani Director General, Algeria Business Council, United Kingdom
Dina Rabie British University in Egypt, Egypt
Reda Emir Rebbah University of the West of Scotland, United Kingdom
Christine Jeptoo Sawe Mount Kenya University, Kenya
John Struthers University of the West of Scotland, United Kingdom
Taffere Tesfachew Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, Ethiopia
Mwangi Peter Wanderi Mount Kenya University, Kenya

Foreword

Alistair R Anderson

Situating Our Scholarship: African Entrepreneurship in Context

It is always pleasing to see new additions to our pool of knowledge about entrepreneurship and entrepreneuring in Africa. This diverse context offers so many opportunities to understand enterprise and to recognise how entrepreneurship can develop economies, places and people. Africa presents us with a rich tapestry of cultures, histories and people that are woven into the socio-economic fabric that shapes enterprise practice and outcomes. Like many western-based scholars, my own work has barely skimmed this surface. Yet, I recognise how African cultures and institutions shape enterprise and how mechanisms to support and encourage entrepreneurship must be adapted to suit local circumstances. Yet, I am impressed with the agility, adaptability and clever use of resources in how entrepreneurship is practiced. We need to share the delight of the many entrepreneurial success stories. Like so many African entrepreneurs, we need to see the bright side of their achievements, avoid dwelling on problems and realise how much we can learn.

Many of my colleagues and students have collected and used African entrepreneurs’ own narratives to shed light on entrepreneurial experiences. These tell us about how some face social and economic exclusion and formidable institutional barriers, but they also contextualise the ingenuity and resourcefulness that characterises so much of African enterprise. This ‘entrepreneurship in the raw’ may lack the glamour and glitz of high tech and fast growth, yet it signifies the micro power, the agency of entrepreneurship to make life better. It also signifies and even shows us entrepreneurship empowering the weaker members of our societies to help themselves when institutional support is absent. Each tiny, micro victory of survival, each instance of achievement and each example of improvement celebrates how African women and men employ entrepreneurship to work around and overcome the formidable obstacles of disadvantage.

However, we also know the weak explanatory power of importing theory from the affluent west. We recognise a pressing scholarly need to develop indigenous and local theory to celebrate and explain how entrepreneurship works in this continent; how we can foster, nurture and shape the change making mechanics of entrepreneuring. It is our academic responsibility to report and develop African theories of entrepreneurship that are inclusive, responsible and appropriate. It is not sufficient to glibly recite the mantra that entrepreneurship is the engine of the economy; for this to be true we need to know how and why. We need to know how African entrepreneurship can include the excluded; how growth can be promoted and enterprise encouraged. To do this, we need scholarship, good scholarship that explains the role and potential of entrepreneuring as integrated bottom up and inclusive development. This calls for much more than economic theory, it demands an understanding of context and practices and an appreciation of the many rich examples of the nature and practices of entrepreneurship that characterise African enterprise. Only then will we fully realise the potential and role for entrepreneurship as bottom up development that is socially integrated and inclusive. In turn, we can then apply these theories to develop better entrepreneurship outside the continent.

Engagement with practitioners seems a progressive way to develop solutions. This seems much better than any impassioned handwringing of we must do something for them. Learning what they do and how they do entrepreneurship; learning from practice is promising. Engagement, especially informed scholarly engagement, will show us how entrepreneurship works in these African contexts. Such engagement, close observation, careful thinking and appreciation will serve us well for understanding problems and for providing entrepreneurial solutions.

I alluded earlier to the rich socio-economic fabric that supports and shapes enterprise. The chapters in this book provide us with accounts of some of the wefts and insights into the weaves that form this African fabric. They offer examples, rich and informed examples of contexts and practices. We can learn and advance our scholarship from studying these chapters.

Acknowledgments

Editing this book has been harder than expected but also more rewarding than could ever have been imagined. Editing and writing this book would not have been possible without the support of parents, family and friends. Commencing this journey in a time of peace and harmony but then to be hit by the Coronavirus (Covid-19) global pandemic and lockdown, meant working from home became the norm for all of us.

We are very grateful to the entire team of chapter contributors and co-authors who despite the pandemic and lockdown worked diligently and revised their chapters in a timely fashion. This was very motivating and encouraging as we all worked to achieve the same goal.

Sincere appreciation goes to Prof. Alistair Anderson for taking the time to read the book and for providing a foreword for this edition. We are also very grateful to Prof. Leo Paul Dana for his helpful comments on the manuscript. Their advice and recommendations helped this book come to fruition.

To Niall, David, Sashikala, Sangeetha and the rest of the team at Emerald Publishing. Group who saw the novelty of this book and tirelessly provided the required support and guidance, from the original idea to organising the manuscript to designing the book cover, marketing and promotion of this edition.

Finally, a very special thanks to everyone in the Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development, School of Business and Creative Industries and the Director and all the team at the International Centre of the University of the West of Scotland.

Prelims
Part A: Enterprise and Entrepreneurship in Africa
Chapter 1: Introduction to Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa: The Way Forward
Chapter 2: Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Africa: A Paradox
Chapter 3: Rural Farm and Non-farm Based Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
Chapter 4: Trust in Nigerian SMEs Exporting to West African Market
Part B: Gender Entrepreneurship and Youth Unemployment in Africa
Chapter 5: Female Entrepreneurship in Africa: Relationships between SWT and P-A Theory, Behavioural Economics Insights
Chapter 6: Effects of Gender Enterprise on Women Empowerment in Eldoret – Kenya
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship in Africa: Explaining Why it Became a Primary Solution to Youth Unemployment?
Chapter 8: Challenges of Algeria’s Economic Development: A Youth Entrepreneurship Perspective
Chapter 9: Using Social Entrepreneurship to Reverse Barriers to Socio-economic Youth Participation: An Example from Zimbabwe
Chapter 10: Unemployment Intervention in Africa: A Case Study on Mount Kenya University’s Graduate Enterprise Academy
Part C: Economic Development (Governance and Institutions) in Africa
Chapter 11: Economic Growth and Governance in Africa: Are They Compatible?
Chapter 12: Institutions and Firm Registration in Africa
Chapter 13: Industrial Parks in Ethiopia: Newcomer Advantages
Chapter 14: RoSCAs in Africa: The Case of Egypt
Chapter 15: Algeria’s Economy and Soft Commodities Market: An Analysis of Broker–Buyer Relationship
Chapter 16: Income Tax and Financial Performance of the Hotel Industry in Rwanda
Index