Purpose: This chapter proposes a number of measures for financial inclusion and financial exclusion.
Method: The author use ratio analysis and statistics to develop several indices of financial inclusion.
Findings: This chapter finds that there are several indices of financial inclusion that can contribute to inform policy making in the financial inclusion agenda.
Implications: The indices developed in this chapter can help policymakers toward designing better financial inclusion policies and can provide feedback and insight to policy makers to improve current financial inclusion policies.
Originality: The literature on financial inclusion and exclusion lacks a comprehensive index that measures the extent of financial inclusion and exclusion across countries. This chapter attempts to fill this gap by proposing some index or indicators of financial inclusion and exclusion.
Ozili, P.K. (2021), "Measuring Financial Inclusion and Financial Exclusion", Özen, E., Grima, S. and Gonzi, R.D. (Ed.) New Challenges for Future Sustainability and Wellbeing (Emerald Studies in Finance, Insurance, and Risk Management), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 411-427. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80043-968-920211022
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