Jennifer Murray Dr (Edinburgh Napier University, UK)
Iniobong Enang Dr (Coventry University, UK)

Conceptualising Risk Assessment and Management across the Public Sector

ISBN: 978-1-80043-693-0, eISBN: 978-1-80043-692-3

Publication date: 26 January 2022


Murray, J. and Enang, I. (2022), "References", Conceptualising Risk Assessment and Management across the Public Sector, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 97-110.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Jennifer Murray and Iniobong Enang. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited

Adams, 1995 Adams, J. (1995). Risk. London: UCL Press.

Ahmeti and Vladi, 2017 Ahmeti, R. , & Vladi, R. (2017). Risk management in public sector: A literature review. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(5), 323329.

Althaus, 2005 Althaus, C. E. (2005). A disciplinary perspective on the epistemological status of risk. Risk Analysis, 25(3), 567588.

Andretta, 2014 Andretta, M. (2014). Some considerations on the definition of risk based on concepts of systems theory and probability. Risk Analysis, 34(7), 11841195.

Arrow, 1974 Arrow, K. J. (1974). Essays in the theory of risk-bearing (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.

Asenova and Stein, 2014 Asenova, D. , & Stein, B. (2014). Assessing the social and community risks of council spending cuts in Scotland. New York, NY: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Audit Commission, 2001 Audit Commission . (2001). Worth the risk: Improving risk management in local government. London: Audit Commission.

Australian Government, 2021 Australian Government . (2021). Covid-19 vaccination. Retrieved from

Axinn, 1966 Axinn, S. (1966). Fallacy of the single risk. Philosophy of Science, 33(1/2), 154162.

Barnlund, 1970 Barnlund, D. C. (1970). A transactional model of communication. In J. Akin , A. Goldberg , G. Myers , & J. Stewart (Eds.), Language behavior: A book of readings in communication (pp. 4361). The Hague: Mountain & Co.

Bartlett et al., 2007 Bartlett, J. , Chapman, R. , Schuster, A. , & Williams, G. (2007). Management of risk 2007 edition: Guidance for practitioners (office of government commerce). Norwich: The Stationary Office.

Bazerman and Moore, 2013 Bazerman, M. H. , & Moore, D. A. (2013). Judgment in managerial decision making. Upper Saddle River, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Berenbaum, 2021 Berenbaum, M. R. (2021). On COVID-19, cognitive bias, and open access. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(2), e2026319118.

Borins, 2001 Borins, S. (2001). The challenge of innovating in government. Washington, DC: IBM Center for the Business of Government.

Bostrom, 2003 Bostrom, A. (2003). Future risk communication. Futures, 35, 553573.

Breakwell, 2007 Breakwell, G. M. (2007). The psychology of risk. London: Cambridge University Press.

Bromley and Segerson, 2012 Bromley, D. W. , & Segerson, K. (2012). The social response to environmental risk: Policy formulation in an age of uncertainty. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.

BS EN 31010, 2010 BS EN 31010 . (2010). Risk management: Risk assessment techniques (IEC/ISO 31010:2009).

Burleson, 2007 Burleson, B. R. (2007). Constructivism: A general theory of communication skill. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 105128). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Cambridge Dictionary, 2020 Cambridge Dictionary . (2020). Risk.

Castel, 1991 Castel, R. (1991). From dangerousness to risk. In G. Burchell , C. Gordon , & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 281298). Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

CDC, 2021 CDC . (2021). People at increased risk and other people who need to take extra precautions. Retrieved from

Chapman, 2021 Chapman, D. (2021). ISO 3100–Avatar simulation training. Retrieved from

Chapman, 2011 Chapman, R. J. (2011). Simple tools and techniques for enterprise risk management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

CIIA, 2015 CIIA . (2015). Risk management. Retrieved from

Clemen and Winkler, 1999 Clemen, R. T. , & Winkler, R. L. (1999). Combining probability distributions from experts in risk analysis. Risk Analysis, 19(2), 187203.

Coleman, 2021 Coleman, C. (2021). Promising indications in the journey of the Mental Health Pathway collaboration between police and health in Scotland. Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 6(2), 8082.

Coleman, 2002 Coleman, J. L. (2002). Risks and wrongs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Collins Dictionary, 2020 Collins Dictionary . (2020). Risk.

Connolly et al., 2020 Connolly, J. , Barnes, J. , Guerra, J. , & Pyper, R. (2020). The facilitators and barriers of interagency working in the context of European public sector reform. Contemporary Social Science, 15(5), 533547.

Copas, 1999 Copas, J. (1999). Statistical modelling for risk assessment. Risk Management, 1, 3539.

COSO, 2004 COSO . (2004). Enterprise risk management-integrated framework. Retrieved from

Cowley et al., 2013 Cowley, S., Bliss, J., Mathew, A., & McVey, G. (2013). Effective interagency and interprofessional working: Facilitators and barriers. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 8(1), 3039.

Cox, 2008 Cox, L. A. J. (2008). What's wrong with risk matrices? Risk Analysis, 28(2), 497512.

Cox, 2009 Cox, L. A. J. (2009). Game theory and risk analysis. Risk Analysis, 29(8), 10621068.

Crawford and Stein, 2004 Crawford, M. , & Stein, W. (2004). Risk management in UK local authorities: The effectiveness of current guidance and practice. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 17(6/7), 498512.

Dale, 2015 Dale, S. (2015). Heuristics and biases: The science of decision-making. Business Information Review, 32(2), 9399.

Danziger et al., 2011 Danziger, S. , Levav, J. , & Avnaim-Pesso, L. (2011). Extraneous factors in judicial decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(17), 68896892.

De Neys, 2006 De Neys, W. (2006). Dual processing in reasoning: Two systems but one reasoner. Psychological Science, 17(5), 428433.

Department of Health, 2021 Department of Health . (2021). COVID-19 vaccination programme phased plan. Retrieved from

Dillon and Wals, 2006 Dillon, J. , & Wals, A. E. (2006). On the danger of blurring methods, methodologies and ideologies in environmental education research. Environmental Education Research, 12(3–4), 549558.

Douglas, 2003 Douglas, M. (2003). Risk acceptability according to the social sciences. East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Drennan, 2007 Drennan, L. T. , & McConnell, A. (2007). Risk and crisis management in the public sector. London: Routledge.

Dror, 2018 Dror, I. E. (2018). The paradox of human expertise: Why experts get it wrong. In N. Kapur , A. Pascual-Leone , & V. S. Ramachandran (Eds.), The paradoxical brain (pp. 177188). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Duell and Steinberg, 2019 Duell, N. , & Steinberg, L. (2019). Positive risk taking in adolescence. Child Development Perspectives, 13(1), 4852.

Edwards, 1954 Edwards, W. (1954). The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 380.

Eiser and van der Pligt, 2015 Eiser, J. , & van der Pligt, J. (2015). Attitudes and decisions. East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Enang, 2019 Enang, I. J. (2019). Transforming Scottish school education services: How are associated social risks produced and managed? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland.

Enang, 2021 Enang, I. J. (2021). Interview with Dr Iniobong Enang. Retrieved from

Enang et al., 2020 Enang, I. , Asenova, D. , & Bailey, S. J. (2020). Identifying influencing factors of sustainable public service transformation: A systematic literature review. International Review of Administrative Sciences. doi:10.1177/0020852319896399

Enang et al., 2021 Enang, I., Murray, J., Dougall, N., Aston, E., Wooff, A., Heyman, I., & Grandison, G. (2021). Vulnerability assessment across the frontline of law enforcement and public health: A systematic review. Policing and Society. doi:10.1080/10439463.2021.1927025

Ene and Dobrea, 2006 Ene, C. N. , & Dobrea, R. (2006). Adapting risk management principles to the public sector reforms. Administraţie Şi Management Public, 6, 126130.

Epstein, 1994 Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49(8), 709.

European Commission, n.d. European Commission . (n.d.). EU vaccines strategy. Retrieved from

Evans, 2003 Evans, J. S. B. (2003). In two minds: Dual-process accounts of reasoning. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 7(10), 454459.

Evans and Feeney, 2004 Evans, J. S. B. , & Feeney, A. (2004). The role of prior belief in reasoning. In J. P. Leighton & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of reasoning (pp. 78102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evans and Over, 2013 Evans, J. S. B. , & Over, D. E. (2013). Rationality and reasoning. East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Ewald, 1991 Ewald, F. (1991). Insurance and risk. In G. Burchell , C. Gordon , & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 197210). Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Falkirk Council, 2021 Falkirk Council . (2021). CRM policy. Retrieved from

Fernandez et al., 2018 Fernandez, S. , Koma, S. , & Lee, H. (2018). Establishing the link between representative bureaucracy and performance: The South African case. Governance, 31(3), 535553.

Fischhoff, 1995 Fischhoff, B. (1995). Risk perception and communication unplugged: Twenty years of process. Risk Analysis, 15(2), 137145.

Flaus, 2013 Flaus, J. M. (2013). Risk analysis: Socio-technical and industrial systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Fone and Young, 2000 Fone, M. , & Young, P. C. (2000). Public sector risk management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Foucault, 1991 Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell , C. Gordon , & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 87104). Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gabriel and Williamson, 2010 Gabriel, K. I. , & Williamson, A. (2010). Framing alters risk-taking behavior on a modified Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) in a sex-specific manner. Psychological Reports, 107(3), 699712.

Government of Canada, 2021 Government of Canada . (2021). Vaccines for COVID-19: How to get vaccinated or register. Retrieved from

Gray, 1989 Gray, B. (1989). The pathways of my research: A journey of personal engagement and change. Behavioral Science, 25(4), 383398.

Green and Johnson, 2015 Green, B. N., & Johnson, C. D. (2015). Interprofessional collaboration in research, education, and clinical practice: Working together for a better future. The Journal of Chiropractic Education, 29(1), 110.

Guo and Jee, 2020 Guo, E. , & Jee, C. (2020). How the US, UK, and China are planning to roll out vaccines. Retrieved from

Hall, 1973 Hall, S. (1973). Encoding and decoding in the television discourse (pp. 86398). CCCS Selected Working Papers, 2. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.

Hallsworth et al., 2018 Hallsworth, M. , Egan, M. , Rutter, J. , & McCrae, J. (2018). Behavioural government: Using behavioural science to improve how governments make decisions. London: The Behavioural Insights Team.

Hamlyn, 1995 Hamlyn, D. W. (1995). Epistemology, history of. In T. Honderich (Ed.), The Oxford companion to philosophy (pp. 242245). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hansson, 1996 Hansson, S. O. (1996). What is philosophy of risk? Theoria, 63(1–2), 169186.

Hartley et al., 2013 Hartley, J., Sørensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2013). Collaborative innovation: A viable alternative to market-competition and organizational entrepreneurship. Public Administration Review, 73(6), 821830.

Heider, 1958 Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York, NY: Wiley.

Heilbrun et al., 1999 Heilbrun, K. , Dvoskin, J. , Hart, S. , & McNeil, D. (1999). Violence risk communication: Implications for research, policy, and practice. Health, Risk & Society, 1(1), 91106.

Heilbrun et al., 2000 Heilbrun, K. , O'Neill, M. , Strohman, L. K. , Bowman, Q. , & Philipson, J. (2000). Expert approaches to communicating violence risk. Law and Human Behavior, 24, 137148.

Hester and Gray, 2018 Hester, N. , & Gray, K. (2018). For Black men, being tall increases threat stereotyping and police stops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(11), 27112715.

Hillson and Murray-Webster, 2005 Hillson, D. A. , & Murray-Webster, R. (2005). Understanding and managing risk attitude. Aldershot: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Hillson and Murray-Webster, 2007 Hillson, D. A. , & Murray-Webster, R. (2007). Understanding and managing risk attitude. Aldershot: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Hilton, 2008 Hilton, D. (2008). Emotional tone and argumentation in risk communication. Judgment and Decision Making, 2(1), 100110.

Hilton et al., 2008 Hilton, N. Z. , Carter, A. M. , Harris, G. T. , & Sharp, A. J. B. (2008). Does using nonnumerical terms to describe risk aid violence risk communication? Clinician agreement and decision making. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 171188.

HM Treasury, 2004 HM Treasury . (2004). The orange book: Management of risk-principles and concepts. Retrieved from

Hogarth, 2001 Hogarth, R. M. (2001). Educating intuition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Holton, 2004 Holton, G. A. (2004). Defining risk. Financial Analysts Journal, 60(6), 1925.

Hood and McGarvey, 2002 Hood, J. , & McGarvey, N. (2002). Managing the risks of public-private partnerships in Scottish local government. Policy Studies, 23(1), 2135.

Hood and Miller, 2009 Hood, C. , & Miller, P. (2009). Public service risks: What's distinctive and new? Risk and Public Services, 1(1), 23.

Hopkin, 2012 Hopkin, P. (2012). Fundamentals of risk management: Understanding evaluating and implementing effective risk management (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.

Hopkin, 2014 Hopkin, P. (2014). Fundamentals of risk management: Understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page.

Hopkin, 2018 Hopkin, P. (2018). Fundamentals of risk management: Understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. London: Kogan Page.

Hymans, 2008 Hymans, M. (2008). How personal constructs about “professional identity” might act as a barrier to multi-agency working. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24(4), 279288.

IRM, 2002 IRM . (2002). A risk management standard. The Institute of Risk Management. Retrieved from

IRM, 2018a IRM . (2018a). From the cube to the rainbow double helix: A risk practitioner's guide to the COSO ERM frameworks. Retrieved from

IRM, 2018b IRM . (2018b). Standard deviations: A risk practitioners guide to ISO 31000. Retrieved from

IRM, n.d. IRM . (n.d.). What is enterprise risk management? Retrieved from

Isen, 1993 Isen, A. M. (1993). Positive affect and decision making. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 261277). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

ISO 31000, 2018 ISO 31000 . (2018). Risk management. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved from

ISO Guide 73, 2009 ISO Guide 73 . (2009). Risk management-vocabulary. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved from

ISO/IEC Guide 73, 2002 ISO/IEC Guide 73 . (2002). Risk management-vocabulary-guidelines for use in standards. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved from

Johnston and Houston, 2018 Johnston, K. , & Houston, J. (2018). Representative bureaucracy: Does female police leadership affect gender-based violence arrests? International Review of Administrative Sciences, 84(1), 320.

Jones, 2007 Jones, I. F. (2007). The theory of boundaries: Impact on interprofessional working. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(3), 355357.

Kadvany, 1997 Kadvany, J. (1997). Varieties of risk representations. Journal of Social Philosophy-Augusta, 28, 123143.

Kahneman, 2011 Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Kassem et al., 2019 Kassem, M. A. , Khoiry, M. A. , & Hamzah, N. (2019). Using probability impact matrix (PIM) in analyzing risk factors affecting the success of oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 14(3), 527546.

Kelley, 1967 Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 192238). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Knight, 1921 Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, uncertainty and profit. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Kogan and Wallach, 1964 Kogan, N. , & Wallach, M. A. (1964). Risk taking: A study in cognition and personality. New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart & Winston.

Korteling et al., 2018 Korteling, J. E. , Brouwer, A. , & Toet, A. (2018). A neural network framework for cognitive bias. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1561.

Langlands, 2004 Langlands, A. (2004). The good governance standard for public services—A report by the independent commission on good governance in public services. London: Office for Public Management and Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy.

Lapsley, 2009 Lapsley, I. (2009). New public management: The cruellest invention of the human spirit? Abacus, 45(1), 121.

Lechanoine and Gangi, 2020 Lechanoine, F. , & Gangi, K. (2020). COVID-19: Pandemic of cognitive biases impacting human behaviors and decision-making of public health policies. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 613290.

Li, 2007 Li, T. M. (2007). Governmentality. Anthropologica, 49(2), 275281.

Litwack et al., 2006 Litwack, T. R. , Zapf, P. A. , Groscup, J. L. , & Hart, S. D. (2006). Violence risk assessments: Research, legal, and clinical considerations. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Lupton, 2013 Lupton, D. (2013). Risk. London: Routledge.

Margolis, 1997 Margolis, H. (1997). Dealing with risk: Why the public and the experts disagree on environmental issues. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Maynard, 1994 Maynard, M. (1994). Methods, practice and epistemology: The debate about feminism and research. In M. Maynard & J. Purvis (Eds.), Researching women's lives from a feminist perspective. London: Routledge.

McClatchey et al., 2019 McClatchey, K. , Murray, J. , Chouliara, Z. , Rowat, A. , & Hauge, S. R. (2019). Suicide risk assessment in the emergency department: An investigation of current practice in Scotland. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 73(4), e13342.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2020 Merriam-Webster Dictionary . (2020). Risk.

Meterko and Cooper, 2021 Meterko, V. , & Cooper, G. (2021). Cognitive biases in criminal case evaluation: A review of the research. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. doi:10.1007/s11896-020-09425-8

Ministry of Health, 2021 Ministry of Health . (2021). COVID-19: The vaccine rollout. Retrieved from

Mironenko and Sorokin, 2018 Mironenko, I. A. , & Sorokin, P. S. (2018). Seeking for the definition of “culture”: Current concerns and their implications. A comment on Gustav Jahoda's article “critical reflections on some recent definitions of “culture”. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 52(2), 331340.

Mohr et al., 2010 Mohr, P. N. , Biele, G. , & Heekeren, H. R. (2010). Neural processing of risk. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(19), 66136619.

Monahan, 1993 Monahan, J. (1993). Limiting therapist exposure to Tarasoff liability: Guidelines for risk assessment. American Psychologist, 48, 242250.

Murray, 2016 Murray, D. (2016). Is it time to abandon suicide risk assessment? BJPsych Open, 2(1), e1e2.

Murray, 2010 Murray, J. (2010). Influencing clinical judgement: The role of attribution in violence risk assessment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland.

Murray et al., 2014 Murray, J. , Charles, K. E. , Cooke, D. , & Thomson, M. E. (2014). Investigating the influence of causal attributions on the HCR-20 when it is used as a checklist compared to its use in the worksheet format. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13, 817.

Murray and Ritchie, 2020 Murray, J., & Ritchie, P. (2020). Cross-disciplinary evidence interpretation: Breaking down the barriers. Event created and hosted on behalf of the Evidence and Investigation Network of the Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland, January 13.

Murray and Thomson, 2010 Murray, J. , & Thomson, M. E. (2010). Clinical judgement in violence risk assessment. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 2010(1), 128149.

Murray et al., 2011 Murray, J. , Thomson, M. E. , Cooke, D. J. , & Charles, K. E. (2011). Influencing expert judgment: Attributions of crime causality. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 16(1), 126143.

Myerson, 1991 Myerson, R. (1991). Game theory: Analysis of conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

NAO, 2000 NAO . (2000). Supporting innovation; managing risk in government departments. London: The Stationary Office.

National Research Council, 1989 National Research Council . (1989). Improving risk communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NICE, 2011 NICE . (2011). Self-harm in over 8s: Long-term management (NICE Guideline No. 133). Retrieved from

Nickerson, 1998 Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2(2), 175220.

NORSOK, 2010 NORSOK . (2010). Standard Z-013, risk and emergency preparedness analysis (3rd ed.). Lysaker: Standards Norway.

Nygren et al., 1996 Nygren, T. E. , Isen, A. M. , Taylor, P. J. , & Dulin, J. (1996). The influence of positive affect on the decision rule in risk situations: Focus on outcome (and especially avoidance of loss) rather than probability. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 66(1), 5972.

O'Reilly, 1998 O'Reilly, P. (1998). Harnessing the unicorn: How to create opportunity and manage risk. Hampshire: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Osborne and Brown, 2011 Osborne, S. P. , & Brown, L. (2011). Innovation in public services: Engaging with risk. Public Money & Management, 31(1), 46.

Oxford English and Spanish Dictionary, 2020 Oxford English and Spanish Dictionary . (2020). Risk.

Pearson and Nelson, 2000 Pearson, J. , & Nelson, P. (2000). An introduction to human communication: Understanding and sharing. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Peters, 2020 Peters, U. (2020). What is the function of confirmation bias? Erkenntnis. doi:10.1007/s10670-020-00252-1

Public Health England, 2021 Public Health England . (2021). Promotional material: COVID-19 vaccination first phase priority groups. Retrieved from

Public Health Wales, 2021 Public Health Wales . (2021). Chapter 14a-COVID-19-SARS-CoV-2. Retrieved from

Quinlivan et al., 2014 Quinlivan, L. , Cooper, J. , Steeg, S. , Davies, L. , Hawton, K. , Gunnell, D. , & Kapur, N. (2014). Scales for predicting risk following self-harm: An observational study in 32 hospitals in England. BMJ Open, 4, e004732.

Quirk, 2006 Quirk, M. (2006). Intuition and metacognition in medical education: Keys to developing expertise. New York, NY: Springer.

Rahim et al., 2015 Rahim, S. R. M. , Mahat, F. , Nassir, A. M. , & Yahya, M. H. D. H. J. (2015). Re-thinking: Risk governance? Procedia Economics and Finance, 31, 689698.

Rajbhandari and Snekkenes, 2018 Rajbhandari, L. , & Snekkenes, E. (2018). Utilizing game theory for security risk assessment. In S. Rass & S. Schauer (Eds.), Game theory for security and risk management. Static & dynamic game theory: Foundations & applications (pp. 319). Basesl: Birkhäuser, Cham.

Reeves et al., 2018 Reeves, S. , Xyrichis, A. , & Zwarenstein, M. (2018). Teamwork, collaboration, coordination, and networking: Why we need to distinguish between different types of interprofessional practice. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 32(1), 13.

Roser et al., 2020 Roser, M. , Ritchie, H. , Ortiz-Ospina, E. , & Hasell, J. (2020). Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Retrieved from

Roth, 2010 Roth, L. T. (2010). The moral construction of risk. In S. Hitlin & S. Vaisey (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of morality (pp. 469484). New York, NY: Springer.

Rychlik and Rydé n, 2006 Rychlik, I. , & Rydén, J. (2006). Probability and risk analysis: An introduction for engineers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Sadgrove, 2016 Sadgrove, K. (2016). The complete guide to business risk management. London: Routledge.

Sasse, 2018 Sasse, T. (2018). Government must tackle bias in decision making. Retrieved from

Satya-Murti and Lockhart, 2015 Satya-Murti, S. , & Lockhart, J. (2015). Recognizing and reducing cognitive bias in clinical and forensic neurology. Neurology: Clinical Practice, 5(5), 389396.

Scottish Government, 2009 Scottish Government . (2009). Risk management. Retrieved from

Scottish Government, 2014 Scottish Government . (2014). Social Care (Self-directed support) (Scotland) Act 2013: Statutory guidance. Retrieved from

Scottish Government, 2021 Scottish Government . (2021). COVID-19 vaccination programme priority list: FOI release. Retrieved from

Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Shannon, C. , & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Shapira, 1995 Shapira, Z. (1995). Risk taking: A managerial perspective. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Singh, 1986 Singh, J. (1986). Performance, slack, and risk taking in organizational decision-making. Academy of Management Journal, 29(3), 562585.

Singh et al., 2014 Singh, J. P. , Desmarais, S. L. , Hurducas, C. , Arbach-Lucioni, K. , Condermarin, C , … Otto, R. K. (2014). International perspectives on the practical application of violence risk assessment: A global survey of 44 countries. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13(3), 193206.

Sloman, 1996 Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 3.

SSSC, 2017 SSSC . (2017). What is a risk worth taking? Retrieved from

Stanovich and West, 2000 Stanovich, K. E. , & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(5), 645665.

Supper et al., 2015 Supper, I., Catala, O., Lustman, M., Chemla, C., Bourgueil, Y., & Letrilliart, L. (2015). Interprofessional collaboration in primary health care: A review of facilitators and barriers perceived by involved actors. Journal of Public Health, 37(4), 716727.

Tansey and O'Riordan, 1999 Tansey, J. , & O'Riordan, T. (1999). Cultural theory and risk: A review. Health, Risk & Society, 1(1), 7190.

Tay et al., 2016 Tay, S. W. , Ryan, P. , & Ryan, C. A. (2016). Systems 1 and 2 thinking processes and cognitive reflection testing in medical students. Canadian Medical Education Journal, 7(2), e97e103.

TBS, 2004 TBS . (2004). Archived–integrated risk management implementation guide. Retrieved from

Thompson, 1986 Thompson, P. B. (1986). The philosophical foundations of risk. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 24(2), 273286.

Torfing, 2016 Torfing, J. (2016). Collaborative innovation in the public sector. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Trimpop, 1994 Trimpop, R. M. (1994). The psychology of risk-taking behavior. Amsterdam: North Holland Elsevier Science BV.

Tversky and Kahneman, 1973 Tversky, A. , & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), 207232.

Tversky and Kahneman, 1974 Tversky, A. , & Kahneman, D. (1974). Heuristics and biases: Judgement under uncertainty. Science, 185(4157), 11241130.

United States Government Accountability Office, 2005 United States Government Accountability Office . (2005). Risk management: Further refinements needed to assess risks and prioritize protective measures at ports and other critical infrastructure. Retrieved from

Van Duijvenvoorde and Crone, 2013 Van Duijvenvoorde, A. C. , & Crone, E. A. (2013). The teenage brain: A neuroeconomic approach to adolescent decision making. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(2), 108113.

Vig and Bruer, 1982 Vig, N. J. , & Bruer, P. J. (1982). The courts and risk assessment 1. Review of Policy Research, 1(4), 716727.

Villa et al., 2016 Villa, V. , Paltrinieri, F. , Khan, V. , & Cozzani, V. (2016). A short overview of risk analysis: Background and recent developments. In N. Paltrinieri & F. Khan (Eds.), Dynamic risk analysis in the chemical and petroleum industry: Evolution and interaction with parallel disciplines in the perspective of industrial application (pp. 312). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Waring and Glendon, 1998 Waring, A. E. , & Glendon, A. I. (1998). Managing risk. London: International Thomson Business Press.

WEF, 2021 WEF . (2021). Global risks horizon. Retrieved from

Wharton, 1992 Wharton, F. (1992). Risk management: Basic concepts and general principles. In J. Ansell & F. Wharton (Eds.), Risk: Analysis, assessment and management (p. 5). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Wong and Lockie, 2018 Wong, C. M. L. , & Lockie, S. (2018). Sociology, risk and the environment: A material-semiotic approach. Journal of Risk Research: Society for Risk Analysis Australia and New Zealand ‘Bringing People into Risk Analysis’, 21(9), 10771092.

Wood, 2020 Wood, J. (2020). People in these countries think their government did a good job of dealing with the pandemic. Retrieved from

Woods, 2009 Woods, M. (2009). A contingency theory perspective on the risk management control system within Birmingham City Council. Management Accounting Research, 20(1), 6981.

Wucker, 2021 Wucker, M. (2021). Cognitive bias and risk management. Retrieved from