The number of black male students in postsecondary education is dramatically lower than their female counterparts (Wood, 2011). Nearly 25 percent of black males leave college during their first year, and around 55 percent of black male students leave their institutions without obtaining their degree. There are many variables or risk factors contributing to the departure of these young men. First, the educational system has not served or treated black males well. In addition, many black families live in school districts where there are few academic offerings, out-of-date materials, and few black male teachers. These disparities lead to under preparation and inability to complete collegiate-level coursework. That is why it is vital to have a supportive infrastructure to assist with the stressors that many black males confront on a daily basis. A black male professor plays a significant role in retaining black male students through the usage of expert and referent power. According to French and Raven (1959), there are five bases of power, and of those powers, expert and referent power are veered together as an effective model. These two powers focus on an individual who is an expert in his or her field and one who is considered as a role model to others.
Upchurch, D.F. (2021), "The Usage of Personal Power When Collaborating with Black Male Scholars at a Historically Black College and University", Crosby, G.B., White, K.A., Chanay, M.A. and Hilton, A.A. (Ed.) Reimagining Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Great Debates in Higher Education), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 161-171. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80043-664-020211015
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