The New Generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, Differences, Digitalisation

ISBN: 978-1-80043-221-5, eISBN: 978-1-80043-220-8

Publication date: 23 October 2020


(2020), "Prelims", Gentina, E. and Parry, E. (Ed.) The New Generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, Differences, Digitalisation (The Changing Context of Managing People), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xvi.



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Copyright © 2020 Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title

The New Generation Z in Asia

Series Page

The Changing Context of Managing People

Series Editor: Professor Emma Parry, Cranfield School of Management, Swindon, UK

The past two decades have represented a time of unprecedented social, technological and economic change that has required a transformation in human resource management (HRM). Shifts in demographics, continued increases of women in the workforce and greater mobility across national borders have led to higher diversity in the workplace. Advances in technology, including social media, have enabled new ways of doing business through faster communications and vast amounts of data made available to all. Mobile technology with its ubiquitous connectivity has led to renewed concerns over work–life balance and extreme jobs. These and many other changes have seen evolving attitudes towards work and careers, leading to different expectations of the workplace and mean that existing ways of managing people may no longer be effective. This series examines in depth the changing context to identify its impact on the HRM and the workforce.

Titles include:

Conflict and Shifting Boundaries in the Gig Economy: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

Rebecca Page-Tickell and Elaine Yerby

Generations Z in Europe: Inputs, Insights and Implications

Christian Scholz and Anne Rennig

Managing Technology and Middle- and Low-skilled Employees: Advances for Economic Regeneration

Claretha Hughes, Lionel Robert, Kristin K. Frady and Adam Arroyos

Advances in the Technology of Managing People: Contemporary Issues in Business

Pamela A. Gordon and Julie A. Overbey

Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West

Matt Flynn, Yuxin Li and Anthony Chiva

Electronic HRM in the Smart Era

Tanya Bondarouk, Huub Ruël and Emma Parry

Work in the 21st Century: How Do I Log On?

Peter K. Ross, Susan Ressia, Elizabeth J. Sander and Emma Parry

Social Recruitment in HRM: A Theoretical Approach and Empirical

Analysis Ginevra Gravili and Monica Fait

Title Page

The New Generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, Differences, Digitalisation

Edited By

Elodie Gentina

IESEG School of Management, France

Emma Parry

Cranfield School of Management, United Kingdom

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2020

Copyright © 2020 Emerald Publishing Limited

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ISBN: 978-1-80043-221-5 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80043-220-8 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80043-222-2 (Epub)


Dedication vii
About the Contributors ix
Generations Z in Asia: Foreword xv
Part I: Generation Z in Asia: A Research Agenda
Chapter 1 Generation Z in Asia: A Research Agenda
Elodie Gentina
Part II: What the Experts Tell Us about East Asia
Chapter 2 Generation Z in China: Implications for Global Brands
Zhiyong Yang, Ying Wang and Jiyoung Hwang
Chapter 3 Generation Z in Hong Kong: Simple While Multi-tasking
Melannie Zhan
Chapter 4 Generation Z in Japan: Raised in Anxiety
Mototaka Sakashita
Chapter 5 Generation Z in Taiwan: Low Salaries, ‘Little Happiness’, and a Social-Media World in the Mix
Ryan Brading
Part III: What the Experts Tell Us about South Asia
Chapter 6 Generation Z in India: Digital Natives and Makers of Change
Shaheema Hameed and Meera Mathur
Chapter 7 Generation Z in Pakistan: Individualistic and Collectivist in Orientation
Ahmad Jamal
Part IV: What the Experts Tell Us about Southeast Asia
Chapter 8 Generation Z in Indonesia: The Self-Driven Digital
Zahrotur Rusyda Hinduan, Adilla Anggraeni and Muhamad Irfan Agia
Chapter 9 Generation Z in Vietnam: The Quest for Authenticity
Linh Hoang Nguyen and Hoa Phuong Nguyen
Chapter 10 Generation Z in Malaysia: The Four ‘E’ Generation
Fandy Tjiptono, Ghazala Khan, Ewe Soo Yeong and Vimala Kunchamboo
Part V: What the Experts Tell Us about Western Asia
Chapter 11 Generation Z in Turkey: A Generation with High Hopes and Big Fears
Berna Tarı-Kasnakoğlu, Meltem Türe and Yunus Kalender
Chapter 12 Generation Z in the United Arab Emirates: A Smart-Tech-Driven iGeneration
Nisreen Ameen and Amitabh Anand
Part VI: Generation Z in Asia: Patterns and Predictions
Chapter 13 Generation Z in Asia: Patterns and Predictions
Emma Parry
Index 201


Many researchers, teachers, and students who are part of the international scientific community probably once came across the name of Christian Scholz. As a university professor from Saarbrücken, Germany, his oeuvre covered various disciplines in social science, such as business-related human resource management, information management, and media management, conflating it with psychological, historical, and sociological references. Since 2014, when he started his topical journey with a seminal book (Wiley, 2014), he was one of the first international researchers profoundly focussing on the ‘Generation Z’, its characteristics, qualities, attitudes, preferences, and expectations towards employers and society. This focus on Generation Z directed his attention to Southeast Asia and its young generation ready to shape the future.

Through this book, I pay tribute to Christian Scholz who passed away 4 October 2019 at the age of 66. It would have never been written without the expertise and effort of Christian. In 2017, he brought together various researchers and young academics in a conference in Bangkok to discuss the particularities of the Generation Z in Asia. In his research, Christian pursued the idea that there is globally more than one type of Generation Z and that the cross-cultural differences could be identified. Based on our mutual interest, I made friends with Christian, and we both decided to bring our knowledge together in the first book on Generation Z in Asia. I would have very much loved to finalise it and celebrate its release together with him.

Christian Scholz was a researcher of great intellectual originality and his deep knowledge of Generation Z around the world – his research trips on this topic took him across Europe, America, Africa, and Asia that were reflected in further international publications, among them ‘Generation Z in Europe’ (Emerald, 2019) – made him a respected researcher in our academic community. Beyond that, he published far more than 20 scientific books and more than 670 journal articles.

In addition to his scientific competence which characterised him, to his great intellectual curiosity and to his immense and remarkable scholarliness, he was very sympathetic, friendly, pleasant, and generous. The academic community will always remember Christian Scholz with honour and gratitude.

Today, I dedicate this work to you, Christian!

Elodie Gentina

About the Contributors


Elodie Gentina is an Associate Professor of Marketing at IESEG School of Management in France. Her principal research interests lie in Generation Z and consumer behaviour/management. She is the author of two books on Generation Z (Dunod). She has published many articles on Generation Z in Journal of Business Research, Journal of Business Ethics, Information and Management, and Computers and Education. She regularly presents papers at international conferences, including Europe, United States, and Asia-Pacific. She is also the CEO E&G Consulting Group, specialising in Generation Z (Management). She acts as a consultant to numerous companies on management, Human Resource issues.

Emma Parry is a Professor of Human Resource Management and Head of the Changing World of Work Group at Cranfield School of Management in the United Kingdom. Her research interests focus on the impact of the changing context on work, the workplace, and the workforce, specifically the influence of national context, changing workforce demographics, and technological advancement. She has published several books and numerous peer reviewed articles in these areas, including several that focus on generational diversity. She is a Fellow of the British Academy of Management, an Academic Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, and an Honorary Fellow of the Institute for Employment Studies, as well as a Visiting Fellow at Westminster Business School.

Chapter Authors

Muhamad Irfan Agia is a Consumer Psychologist who holds a Master’s Degree in Economic and Consumer Psychology from Leiden University, Netherlands. He applies insights from psychology and behavioural economy to better understand consumer behaviour, decision-making, and behaviour change.

Nisreen Ameen is a Lecturer in Marketing at Royal Holloway, University of London. Her research interests include digital marketing, human–computer interaction, consumer behaviour, artificial intelligence enabled customers service, security and ethics of retailers use of consumers’ data, digital education, and e-business and technology adoption.

Amitabh Anand is an Assistant Professor at SKEMA Business School, Université Côte d’Azur, France. His research interests are in human behaviour in a multidisciplinary context and discovering new ways to perform scientific reviews and has won several awards in research. Furthermore, his works are published in leading management journals and he is also part of the editorial advisory/review board of Management Decision and Employee Relations.

Adilla Anggraeni is currently a Faculty Member of Binus Business School, Bina Nusantara University International Undergraduate Programme. She received her doctoral degree from the University of Indonesia. Her research interests include consumer behaviour, retail management, tourism marketing, and luxury branding. She has published several articles in International Journal of Business and Information Management, Pertanika Social Science, as well as International Journal of Online Marketing.

Ryan Brading is an Assistant Professor at the College of Management, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. During his PhD research in the Ideology of Discourse Analysis Programme, University of Essex, England, he was trained as a political scientist. He also learned business management skills during his postgraduate studies at Royal Holloway, University of London. His publications and research interests are about populist practices, student movements, youth’s apolitical attitude distrust of traditional party politics, and ambitions.

Shaheema Hameed is an Assistant Professor (Management), Banasthali Vidyapith, India. Her doctoral research focussed on the managerial competencies of the Generation Z. She has presented her research work in various national and international forums. Her areas of specialisation are human resource management, organisational behaviour, and business communication.

Zahrotur Rusyda Hinduan or Rosie is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Psychology Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. She received her PhD degree from the Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Her research areas focus on the behaviours of young people in work and health settings as well as the behavioural intervention. She has also demonstrated history of working in the higher education management.

Jiyoung Hwang is an Associate Professor of Marketing at Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States. She holds her PhD in Retailing and Consumer Studies from Ohio State University and MS in International Retailing from Michigan State University. Her research interests include the impact of cross-cultural consumer behaviours and global branding. She has published articles in European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Small Business Management, and Journal of Services Marketing, among others. She also wrote a book, The Future of Retail Business: How Technology Has Reshaped Consumption.

Ahmad Jamal is a Reader in Marketing and Strategy, and the Deputy Head of Section, Learning, and Teaching (Marketing) at Cardiff University Business School, United Kingdom. His research interests include exploring the interplay among culture, ethnicity and consumption in offline, and online digital contexts. His work has appeared in scholarly journals such as Journal of Business Research, European Journal of Marketing, or Information Systems Frontiers. He is the co-author for Routledge Companion to Ethnic Marketing. He has presented his work at many international conferences across the world.

Yunus Kalender is an undergraduate student in the Department of Business Administration, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey. He is continuing his education with specialisation on marketing and consumer behaviour. He intends to pursue his academic career in the same field. At the same time, he engages in assisting business projects by collecting and analysing data and guiding start-up firms build their marketing and branding plans. His main research interests include the interaction between and among consumers and markets. For instance, he is working on a research project on how consumers build romantic relationships or develop relationship habits by utilising consumption objects and services available on the market.

Ghazala Khan, PhD, is a Lecturer at Monash University Malaysia. She has over 23 years in tertiary education in Malaysia. She has won numerous teaching awards including the Best Lecturer Award for School of Business under the Monash University Student Association. Her research interests lie in Islamic marketing, consumer socialisation, and pedagogy. She has presented her work at numerous international conferences and published in international refereed journals, such as Journal of Islamic Marketing and International Journal of Business and Globalisation.

Vimala Kunchamboo, PhD, is a Lecturer at Monash University Malaysia in the Marketing Department. Her research interest focusses on consumer behaviour and marketing, specifically on areas related to sustainable consumption and self-identity. She has research manuscripts published in some of the top marketing journals and conferences such as Journal of Business Research and The Association of Consumer Research.

Meera Mathur is a Professor (Management) at MLS University, Udaipur, India. She has a vast teaching and research experience of over 20 years. Her research papers have been presented at various conferences and seminars and are published in reputed national and international journals. Her research interests are human resource management, consumer behaviour, and environmental sustainability.

Hoa Phuong Nguyen is a Lecturer in the Department of Publication and Distribution, Hanoi University of Culture, Vietnam. She has completed her Master in Management in University of Technology in Vietnam and has over 18 years of teaching experience. Her specialisation is applied mathematics and business strategy. She is active in consulting and training for various businesses in the nation. Her research area concerns market analyses and pricing methods for technology products in Vietnam. She has co-authored several ministry-funded applied research projects and book chapters for local university’s press.

Linh Hoang Nguyen is a Lecturer at Hanoi Open University, Faculty of Tourism, Vietnam. He has completed his Master in Management at IESEG School of Management and is currently pursuing his PhD degree in University of Lille, France. His doctoral dissertation addresses advertising efficiency in smartphone. His research interest lies in the behaviours of Vietnamese consumers in a modern context, especially in digital communication and green consumption. He has published in various international academic journals and presented his work at several international conferences, such as Young Consumers, OMEE, Macro Marketing Conference, and CERR.

Mototaka Sakashita is a Professor of Marketing at Graduate School of Business Administration, Keio University and Keio Business School, Japan. He obtained his PhD from Kobe University (Japan) in 2004 and worked at Sophia University (Japan) as an Assistant Professor from 2004 to 2007. He has been a Faculty Member at Keio University since 2007. He was a Research Fellow of the Retail Analytics Council at Northwestern University from 2015 to 2018, and has been a research affiliate of the Spiegel Digital & Database Research Center at Northwestern University since 2018. He serves as an editorial board of International Journal of Marketing & Distribution since 2019. His research interests include consumer behaviour, retail management, brand management, and integrated marketing communications.

Berna Tarı-Kasnakoğlu is an Associate Professor of Marketing at TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey. She is a Consumer Behaviour Researcher in Turkey. She obtained her PhD degree in Marketing from Bilkent University, where she focussed on the (medical) consumption of aesthetic surgery and qualitative research methodologies. Her research interests particularly focus on patient–consumer behaviour, co-creation, and service relationships.

Fandy Tjiptono is currently a Senior Lecturer at the School of Marketing and International Business, Victoria University of Wellington (VUW), New Zealand. Prior to joining VUW, he was an Academic Staff at Monash University Malaysia. His main research interest is consumer behaviour and marketing practices in Southeast Asia. His research has been published in several reputable journals such as Journal of Business Ethics, European Journal of Marketing, and Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, among others.

Meltem Türe is a Senior Lecturer in Marketing at Royal Holloway, University of London, United Kingdom. She received her PhD in Marketing from Bilkent University in Turkey. Her research interests involve sustainability and waste, value, ethical consumption, and ideology. She has published her work in journals such as Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Business Research, Consumption Markets & Culture, and Marketing Theory as well as in edited book chapters. She has been teaching marketing courses including marketing principles, consumer behaviour, ethical marketing, research writing, and marketing research at undergraduate and graduate levels.

Ying Wang is an Assistant Professor of Economics at the School of International Economics and Trade at Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, China. Her research focusses on culture and trade. Her work has appeared in prestigious academic journals in China, such as Journal of International Trade and Contemporary Finance and Economics. She also has published a monograph titled Research on the Cultural Trade Policy of China.

Zhiyong Yang is a Professor of Marketing and Department Head of the Department of Marketing, Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. His research focusses on consumer decision-making. His work has appeared in over 30 journals, including the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Research, and Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. His research has been funded by Statistics Canada, FQRSC Canada, and NSF China. He serves on the guest editorship and the editorial review boards of several reputed journals. He also received competitive research awards from Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, the University of Texas-­Arlington, and Cardiff University.

Ewe Soo Yeong is a Lecturer at Monash University Malaysia. Her specialties lie in consumer psychology and experimental research methods. Her current research interest is in consumer decision making, specifically irrational behaviour in decision making. Her other areas of research interest include information processing and message framing. Her multidisciplinary training in economics, finance and marketing is particularly useful when solving research problems. Her work has been published in respected journals such as Marketing Intelligence and Planning and Journal of Behavioral Finance.

Melannie Zhan is a Part-Time Lecturer. She received her PhD in Communication and MSocSc in Media Management at Hong Kong Baptist University. Her research areas mainly lie in the field of advertising, health communication, and strategic marketing communication. In particular, she examines the message framing effects, health communication campaigns, and motivational effectiveness relating to self-regulation. Her research publications are in PR magazine (Germany) and International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences. Before she joined academia, she worked in the advertising profession in Hong Kong for more than six years.

Generations Z in Asia: Foreword

Around 18 months ago I had the privilege of contributing both a chapter (on Generation Z in the UK), and the foreword, to a book on Generations Z in Europe, edited by Christian Scholz and Anne Renning. This book provided a useful and unique analysis of the characteristics of the younger generation in different European countries. For some time, I have been complaining about the tendency for both scholars and practitioners to take a universal approach to generations and to assume that the characteristics of generations are the same regardless of the country in which the generations that an author is discussing are based. It was therefore a delight to be part of a book that took a contextual approach to studying the characteristics of a particular generation. It was because of this experience that I jumped at the chance to co-edit this current text – on Generations Z in Asia – and to include this within my book series on The Changing Context of Managing People.

It is important to note, of course, that accepting this request was also tinged with sadness – a co-editor for this text was only needed because Professor Christian Scholz – who both conceptualised and started work on this text had been taken seriously ill, and later passed away. Having worked with Christian on the previous text, I feel compelled to recognise his passion for this topic and the enthusiasm that both got this manuscript moving and brought the first text to fruition. This book undoubtedly belongs to Christian (along with Elodie Gentina) –I see myself therefore as no more than a caretaker in seeing this book to its completion.

My personal involvement in editing this text – and the memory of Christian – means of course that I am particularly delighted to be able to introduce this new book as part of the series. The continent of Asia becomes increasingly dominant in the world landscape in relation to its economic growth, population size and growing influence on aspects such as technologies and fashion. With this in mind, it is important that we understand the characteristics of the Asian people both as consumers and employees. And yet, research in this area is still limited. In relation to generational differences, scholars have historically drawn on western models of generational groups with very few researchers exploring the attitudes and expectations of different age cohorts in Asia in particular. Not only does this book address that need, but it also goes one step further by considering the values and preferences of the younger generation in different countries and regions of Asia to examine the similarities and differences between those of different nationalities. Given the rich historical and cultural landscape within Asia, alongside differences in religion, economic climate and tradition, this provides a fascinating discussion of Generation Z in different Asian countries and the factors that have driven their values and expectations. I hope that you will enjoy this text as much as I have enjoyed editing and reading it.

Emma Parry

Series Editor