Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy

ISBN: 978-1-80043-181-2, eISBN: 978-1-80043-180-5

Publication date: 8 July 2021


(2021), "Prelims", Camgöz, S.M. and Ekmekci, Ö.T. (Ed.) Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xxxi.



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Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy

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Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy: Advances in Theory and Practice

Edited by

Selin Metin Camgöz

Hacettepe University, Turkey


Özge Tayfur Ekmekci

Hacettepe University, Turkey

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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First edition 2021

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ISBN: 978-1-80043-180-5 (Online)

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To our families and children-Idil Camgöz, Nil Camgöz and Alper Ekmekci-who made our lives special during precious time together.


It is noteworthy to acknowledge that the content of each chapter is the sole expression and opinion of its author(s) and not necessarily that of the publishers and editors. Therefore, neither the publisher nor the editors shall be liable for any expressions and opinions cited by the authors.

List of Figures

Figure 1.1. A More Holistic Conceptualization of Destructive Leadership Processes.
Figure 4.1. A Destructive Leadership Typology.
Figure 5.1. Psychopathy in Managers and Employees Reporting of Abusive Supervision.
Figure 5.2. Psychopathy in Managers and Mental Health in Employees.
Figure 6.1. Proposed Process Model of Abusive Supervision Integrating Supervisor Characteristics and Environmental Variables.
Figure 10.1. Research Model of the Present Study.
Figure 10.2. Moderation Effect of Coworker Support. SRG, stress-related growth.
Figure 10.3. Sress-related Growth Scores Plotted against Quadratic Burnout Scores with the Best Fit Quadratic Curve.
Figure 10.4. Moderation Effect of Hardiness.
Figure 11.1. Toxic Illusio of Amazon Across Its Global Value Chain.
Figure 13.1. Multiple Needs, Resulting Implicit Biases and Resulting Behaviours Described as Machiavellian Leaders.
Figure 16.1. The Percentage of Perceptions on Female and Male Managers' Destructive Leadership Behaviors.
Figure 16.2. Female and Male Subordinates' Perception Differences of Male and Female Managers' Destructive Leadership Behaviors.
Figure 17.1. Nonprofit Leadership Behaviors.
Figure 17.2. Toxic Triangle of Nonprofit Leadership.

List of Tables

Table 2.1. A Meta-model of Leadership Concepts.
Table 4.1. Matrix of Source to Destructive Leadership Causal Factors and Predictors.
Table 6.1. Overview of Supervisor Traits Empirically Linked to Subordinate-reported Abusive Supervision.
Table 10.1. Descriptive Statistics, Alpha Coefficients, and Correlations.
Table 10.2. Moderation Effect of Hardiness and Coworker Support on the Association between Downward Mobbing and Stress-related Growth (SRG).
Table 12.1. Behaviour-Focused and Personality-Focused Factors of Destructive Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ).
Table 13.1. A Comparison of Machiavellian Biases with Destructive Leadership (DL) Biases.
Table 16.1. Cronbach's α Values and Correlation Coefficients of the Destructive Leadership Subfactors.
Table 16.2. Mean Difference of Male and Female Destructive Leadership Behaviors According to Female and Male Subordinates.
Table 17.1. Analysis of Ethical Case Studies with an Application of the Toxic Triangle of Nonprofit Leadership.

About the Contributors

Johannes F. W. Arendt is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Psychology and Sports Medicine of the Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT) in Hall in Tyrol (Austria). After he graduated in psychology from the University of Innsbruck (Austria), he obtained his doctoral degree at the Department of Psychology of the LMU Munich (Germany). In his research, he studies social relationships at work with a focus on justice perception, conflicts, and (un)cooperative behaviour such as helping behaviour, knowledge sharing, and knowledge hiding. Furthermore, he examines the effects of mindfulness in self-regulation and social interaction in the organizational context with specific attention to leadership.

Zeynep Aycan is the Koç Holding Chair of Management and Strategy at Koç University with dual appointment in the Department of Psychology and Faculty of Management. Her area of expertise is Industrial, Work, and Organizational Psychology. She is the founder and academic director of the Leadership Lab at Koç University. Aycan's research focuses on the impact of culture on human resource management practices, leadership, and career development of women. Aycan received her BA and MA degrees from Bogazici University. She conducted doctoral and postdoctoral studies at Queen's University, Kingston, and McGill University, respectively. Aycan published 5 books and more than 80 research articles and book chapters. She is one of the highly cited social scientists. Her 2014 book received the Best Leadership Book of the Year from Chartered Management Institute (London). Aycan visited Harvard University, Aston University (UK), Oxford European School of Management (UK), Bordeaux University (France), Tartu School of Management (Estonia), and Renmin University of China as a scholar or lecturer. Aycan's work has been recognized by numerous awards, including TUBITAK Science Award, American Psychological Association Ursula Gielens Book Award, Academy of Management Carolyn Dexter Award, and World Economic Forum Outstanding Young Scientist Award.

Eren Miski Aydin is an Instructor at Hacettepe University, Department of Business Administration. She received her PhD in business administration from Hacettepe University. Her research interests are organizational behavior, leadership, team management, and family studies.

Erica L. Bettac is a PhD Candidate in industrial/organizational psychology at Washington State University Vancouver. A member of the Coalition for Healthy and Equitable Workplaces lab, she examines a variety of topics, such as those related to job performance, adult attachment to supervisors, and subordinate deviant behavior. However, her primary interests lie in the work/nonwork interface (i.e., work–family conflict, work–life balance), work and health-related outcomes, and the interaction of these constructs among those self-employed or in flexible working arrangements, and cross-culturally within countries with differing health-care systems and working cultures. Most recently, as a visiting researcher at the Medical University of Innsbruck (Austria), she has worked in research relating to health and well-being in the context of COVID-19.

Clive R. Boddy is Professor of Management at the University of Tasmania. He has studied and presented on psychopaths in the workplace since 2005 and has published over 45 papers and several book chapters on corporate psychopaths. His books on psychopaths are “A Climate of Fear: Stone Cold Psychopaths at Work” and “Corporate Psychopaths: Organizational Destroyers.”

Wallace A. Burns, Jr. is a Professor in the School of Business at American Military University and a program management consultant to the US Department of Defense Logistics, Engineering, and Space Agencies.

Selin Metin Camgoz is a Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. She received her BA degree from Bogazici University and MA degree from METU. Her research interests include organizational behavior, specifically leadership, motivation, and behavioral finance.

Savaş Ceylan is an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology at Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. He received his B.S. degree in Business Administration and MS and PhD degrees in I/O Psychology from Hacettepe University. His main research interests are emotional labor, dark triad, citizenship performance, and cultural values. Currently, he serves as the head of the Training and Development Department of the Turkish Presidency Human Resources Office.

Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci is an Associate Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. Her research interests include human resource management, organization theory, specifically strategic human resource management.

Azize Ergeneli is a Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. Her research interests include organizational behavior, attitudes, leadership, and ethics.

Josef H. Gammel has conducted research on leadership with a specific interest in the role of leaders' traits and behaviors in the context of organizational change and innovation. He received his PhD from the chair of Work and Organization Psychology at the University of Munich (Germany) and holds a Master's degree in Psychology from the University of Innsbruck (Austria). His current research, teaching, and practice focuses on leadership, team innovation, and human resource management, and covers psychological aspects of knowledge sharing, organizational ambidexterity, and flexible work, among others. He also works as a strategy and process consultant at ATOSS Consulting and helps his customers to develop and implement sustainable human resource management strategies and digital workforce management solutions.

Aslı Göncü-Köse is an Associate Professor of Psychology in the field of social psychology, Çankaya University, Ankara, Turkey. She received her BS degree in psychology from METU, MA degree in I/O psychology from Koç University, and PhD degree in social psychology from METU. She took I/O psychology courses as a PhD exchange student at the University of South Florida (USF). She published a book on leader-group prototypicality in 2013. She has publications mainly in the fields of leadership and motivation, social identity theory of leadership, ethical issues in recruitment and selection processes, organizational justice, the Dark Triad personality traits, attributions in the workplace, and social media addiction. She is currently involved in a project on mistreatment at workplace which is supported by TÜBİTAK as a researcher.

Semra Güney is a Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. Her research interests include women entrepreneurship, human resource management, and small business.

Arzu Ilsev is an Associate Professor at Hacettepe University, Department of Business Administration. She received her Ph.D. in business administration from the University of South Carolina. Her research interests are leadership, supervisor–subordinate relationships, and interpersonal processes at work.

Serdar Karabati holds MA degree in Social Psychology and PhD degree in Management and Organization from Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, and currently works for Bilgi University. He has been invited to deliver courses and seminars at various universities across Europe, including ESC Amiens, Mykolas Romeris University, IPAG Paris, UEM, EPHEC Brussels, and Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, on different occasions. He was also a visiting scholar at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, US. Dr Karabati has published articles in cross-cultural management and social psychology journals.

Pinar Bayhan Karapinar is a Professor in the Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. Her research interests include organizational behavior, gender issues, work–family conflict, and negotiation.

Aybike Mergen is a Social Science Scholar at Koç University, Turkey, who is extremely curious about leaders, their audiences, and ethics. She is currently a PhD candidate at Graduate School of Business, Koç University, and a visiting scholar at Schulich School of Business, York University. She obtained two master's degrees, MSc. in Economics from Tilburg University and MA in Political Science from Sabancı University and has 2 years of management consultancy experience in Ernst & Young (EY) and Deloitte.

Irem Metin-Orta received her PhD degree in Psychology from METU and currently works in the Department of Psychology at Atilim University, Turkey. Her recent interests include cyberloafing, social media use, attitudes, sexism, homophobia, emotions, early attachment, maternal sensitivity, and attachment-based interventions. She has published several papers in journals including Current Psychology, Journal of Homosexuality, Sex Roles, Personality and Individual Differences, Infant and Child Development, Turkish Journal of Psychology, and Turkish Psychological Reports.

Fran Myers has worked as a teaching Lecturer in Higher Education for around 20 years and is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy in the United Kingdom. She has a variety of publications, available via ORCiD 0000-0003-3872-3581. These largely relate to digital teaching and learning identity work and how digital selves develop in the workplace. Her current research interests include mythmaking and narrative identities in public and organizational life and use of individual narratives to create advantage. Prior to moving to education, Fran undertook a variety of roles for private sector organizations, largely in management, training, and staff development areas.

Afife Başak Ok is an Assistant Professor of Psychology in the field of social psychology, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. She received her BS degree in psychology from Hacettepe University. She holds her MS degree in the field of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology and PhD degree in social psychology, both from the Middle East Technical University (METU). She received a postdoc scholarship from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and worked as a visiting researcher for a period of one year at HEC Montreal, Canada. Her main research interests and publications are on topics including foci and forms of commitment, work–family conflict, proactive personality, and employee self-concepts. Currently, she is a researcher in a project investigating different forms of mistreatment including incivility, mobbing, abusive supervision, sexism, and sexual harassment at workplace which is supported by TÜBİTAK.

Mustafa Ozbilgin is Professor of Organizational Behavior at Brunel Business School, London. He also holds two international positions: Co-Chaire Management etDiversité at Université Paris Dauphine and Visiting Professor of Management at Koç University in Istanbul. His research focuses on equality, diversity, and inclusion at work from comparative and relational perspectives. He has conducted field studies in the United Kingdom and internationally, and his work is empirically grounded. His research is supported by international as well as national grants. His work has a focus on changing policy and practice in equality and diversity at work. He is an engaged scholar, driven by values of workplace democracy, equality for all, and humanization of work. He has authored and edited 23 books and published over 200 papers in academic journals such as Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Work, Employment and Society, British Journal of Management, International Journal of Human Resource Management, and Human Relations among others.

John Rauthmann leads the work group “Differential Psychology, Personality Psychology, and Psychological Assessment” at Bielefeld University. He studies the dynamic interplay between persons and environments: how persons structure and navigate their daily lives, thereby creating niches that may themselves have implications for their personalities. He aims to capture person and environment variables with a multimethod approach in the lab and the field. Rauthmann studied psychology at the University of Innsbruck (Austria), obtained his doctorate and habilitation from Humboldt University of Berlin, and worked as a professor at Wake Forest University (NC, US) and University of Lübeck.

Jan Schilling is Professor for Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Applied Administrative Sciences Hannover, Germany. After obtaining his PhD at RWTH Aachen, he worked for two years for Ford in training and development. His main research interests are leadership (particularly negative and inconsistent leadership), cynicism, and learning from errors.

Birgit Schyns is Professor in Organizational Behavior at Neoma Business School, Campus Reims, France. Her research focus is leadership, particularly the follower side of leadership as well as the dark side of leadership. Birgit has edited several special issues and four books. She was associate editor for European Journal of Work and Organizational psychology (till 2011), British Journal of Management (till 2013), and Applied Psychology: An International Review (till 2020). Birgit serves on several editorial boards.

Anıl Boz Semerci is an Associate Professor of Department of Business Administration at Hacettepe University, Turkey. Her research interests include organizational behavior, entrepreneurship, innovation, and gender studies.

Anna Tait is a Student at the University of San Francisco and is enrolled in the Masters of Nonprofit Administration Program at the Graduate School of Management. Through her experiences serving as a Podiatrist in the National Health Service in Scotland and participation with various sporting institutions, she has developed an interest in ethical leadership and organizational culture development practices. She works with Bay Area–based education and human services organizations and is the captain of the USF Cross Country team.

Marco Tavanti is a Full Professor of Nonprofit Ethical Leadership at the University of San Francisco's School of Management. He is Program Director for the Master of Nonprofit Administration and Director of the Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Initiative. He consults for various international organizations on subject matters related to anticorruption and ethical leadership for sustainable development. His recent publications include “Conscious Sustainability Leadership,” “Globally Responsible Management Education,” and “Sustainable Human Security: Corruption Issues and Anti-corruption solutions.”

Christian Thoroughgood, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Psychology and Human Resource Development at Villanova University. His areas of expertise include leadership, diversity and inclusion, positive organizational behavior, and workplace aggression and mistreatment. He earned his MS and PhD in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. His research has been published in various outlets, including the Harvard Business Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, The Leadership Quarterly, and the Journal of Business Ethics, among others, as well as featured in various media outlets, including The Washington Post, The Conversation, and The Atlantic. Dr Thoroughgood has worked on large-scale research grants funded through the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security and provides consulting services to organizations on various issues related to employee engagement, selection and assessment, performance evaluation, and diversity and inclusion.

Yonca Toker-Gültaş is an Associate Professor of Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology at METU, Ankara, Turkey, and received her PhD and MS degrees in this area from Georgia Institute of Technology and METU, respectively, and her BS degree in Psychology from METU. She conducts research mainly on workplace mistreatment, workplace sexual harassment, personality and implicit personality assessment, vocational interests, and test development and validation. She has led two funded research projects on vocational interests, is currently leading a project on the Dark Triad personality and emotional labor, and is a researcher on another project related to workplace mistreatment, all funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey. She is a member of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) and has published in various SSCI and national journals. She is a frequent presenter at the annual conferences of The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), and the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

Didar Zeytun is currently a Master’s Student at Koç University, Psychology Department. She is also teaching and research assistant, and Lab Manager of Leadership Lab. Her research interests include, but not limited to, work identity, meaning-making in organizations, future of work and job insecurity.

List of Contributors

Johannes F. W. Arendt Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT), Austria
Zeynep Aycan Koç University, Turkey
Eren Miski Aydin Hacettepe University, Turkey
Erica Bettac Washington State University Vancouver, USA
Clive R. Boddy University of Tasmania, Australia
Wallace Burns American Military University, USA
Selin Metin Camgoz Hacettepe University, Turkey
Savas Ceylan Hacettepe University, Turkey
Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci Hacettepe University, Turkey
Azize Ergeneli Hacettepe University, Turkey
Josef Heribert Gammel University of Munich, Germany
Aslı Göncü-Köse Çankaya University, Turkey
Semra Guney Hacettepe University, Turkey
Arzu Ilsev Hacettepe University, Turkey
Serdar Karabati Bilgi University, Turkey
Pinar Bayhan Karapinar Hacettepe University, Turkey
Aybike Mergen Koç University, Turkey and York University, Canada
Irem Metin-Orta Atilim University, Turkey
Frances Myers University of Manchester, UK
Afife Basak Ok Ankara University, Turkey
Mustafa Ozbilgin Brunel Business School, UK
John F. Rauthmann Wake Forest University, USA and University of Lübeck, Germany
Jan Schilling University of Applied Administrative Sciences Hannover, Germany
Birgit Schyns Neoma Business School, Campus Reims, France
Anil Boz Semerci Hacettepe University, Turkey
Anna Tait University of San Francisco, USA
Marco Tavanti University of San Francisco, USA
Christian Thoroughgood Villanova University, USA
Yonca Toker-Gültas Middle East Technical University (METU), Turkey
Didar Zeytun Koç University, Turkey


A bad leader lacks talent and skill. A destructive leader lacks character.

–Frank Sonnenberg.

A leader behaving in a way that is exceedingly self-interested and exploitative of others is a recurring notion in destructive leadership, but also an unexplored aspect that warrants further scrutiny (p. 1401).

–Schmid, Pircher Verdorfer, & Peus (2019)

The readers of this book would appreciate that today's competitive business environment and management of the modern workforce require a decent understanding of leadership to advance in productivity, quality of work-life and social welfare. On that account, for more than nine decades, a vast number of academic journals and books have been devoted to leaders and the leadership process. Beyond that, the popular media has generated remarkable stories about historical, political, and organizational leaders and their effects on their followers and society. While a strong interest in leadership is evident, the focus seems to be predominantly on identifying the paths to constructive and effective styles. On the other side of the coin, there exist the destructive and ineffective aspects of leadership, which have been relatively underrated until lately. Destructive leadership, a recent but appealing notion in the leadership literature, now stands as a stream that seeks further attention with its prevalence (Aasland, Skogstad, Notelaers, Nielsen, & Einarsen, 2010) and its diagnosed unpleasant consequences (Schyns & Schilling, 2013).

Considering this increasing attention, this edited book initially aims to provide important insights into the theory pertaining to the dark and harmful sides of leadership. Such an endeavor is important since the destructive leadership literature is relatively in its early stages, lacks the integration of the diverse concepts, and as a result, problems regarding the inconsistencies of the terminology prevail (Tepper, 2007). Therefore, one of the objectives of the book is to provide a systematic review of existing research on destructive leadership focusing on the conceptualizations of this construct, its similarities with related constructs, as well as empirical studies. With such a design, we aim to provide a comprehensive theoretical basis and guidance for future research, contributing to advance the research area, in general. Accordingly, we believe that the current book will be a useful source for those embarking on the dark leadership research for the first time by providing a comprehensive picture capturing conceptualizations, plausible antecedents, and consequences of the dark side of leadership on followers and organizations together with measurement issues.

The current book will not only provide a state-of-the-art overview of our knowledge on destructive leadership but also contribute to both academic and practitioner sides of the area. From the practical perspective, the identification of the leaders who can effectively lead and show constructive behaviours in various organizational settings (i.e., private, government organizations, small businesses, etc) across a variety of cultures has been the focus of many practitioners. Nevertheless, the identification of destructive leadership behaviors in organizations could be also valuable for managing and hopefully eradicating those unconstructive behaviors. Upon reading this book, we hope that human resource practitioners would be more careful, sensitive, and equipped with the selection of people in leadership and managerial positions.

The structure of the book has been designed to create a future focus as well as to provide a comprehensive view regarding the dark side of leadership. In particular, the book aims to highlight the current state of inquiry pertaining to destructive leadership, and discuss what we already know, what we do not know, yet should know, and what the possible interesting areas of inquiry to pursue in future research are. The chapters in the book will tackle several aspects of destructive leadership and search answers for the queries of:

  • Is there a mutually agreed upon conceptualization of destructive leadership?

  • How can destructive leadership be conceptualized from a holistic/macro perspective? Dynamic, cocreational approaches among leaders, followers, and environments.

  • How can we systematize destructive and ineffective leadership?

  • Which dispositional characteristics of the leaders can be pathologically destructive and abusive? What are the individual, follower, and situational antecedents of destructive leadership?

  • How corporate psychopaths act and influence decisions in organizations?

  • What are the possible effects of leader hypocrisy in organizations?

  • What are the individual and organizational consequences of destructive leadership?

  • How downward mobbing as a special type of dark leadership could affect an employee's stress-related growth?

  • How Toxic Illusio manifests itself in the global value chain?

  • How to measure destructive leadership?

  • What are the cognitive biases of destructive leadership styles?

  • What are the public myths related to heroic and demonic leadership?

  • Is there convergence or divergence among destructive leadership behaviors across cultures?

  • What are the causes and outcomes of nonprofit leadership?

In answering those aforementioned inquiries, Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy: Advances in Theory and Practice is organized into three parts that provide comprehensive coverage of key topics. The first part focuses on the conceptualization of the dark side of leadership and introduces seemingly controversial constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, petty tyranny, derailed leadership, toxic leadership, pseudotransformational leadership) discussed around the concept of destructive leadership. The second part focuses on the individual and organizational consequences of destructive leader and management hypocrisy. Finally, the third part scrutinizes the emerging issues in destructive leadership including the remedies of how to deal with it. The brief descriptions regarding the contents of the chapters in each part are provided below.

Part 1: Definitional Issues and Conceptual Clarifications in Destructive Leadership

The first section of the book starts with Christian Thoroughgood's Chapter 1 taking the reader on a historical journey regarding a holistic view of the dark side of leadership over the 25-year. The chapter provides a critique of the destructive leadership literature and highlights gaps in understanding of leaders, followers, and environments in contributing to destructive leadership processes. The author discusses strategies for examining destructive leadership in a broader, more holistic fashion.

In Chapter 2, Jan Schilling and Birgit Schyns focus on two prominent types of negative leadership, representing two opposite ends of the continuum. The authors argue that though both affecting the perception of followers, abusive and laissez-faire leadership styles representing active and passive forms of destructive leadership are associated with different employee outcomes. Schilling and Schyns propose a meta-model of leadership, which allows for a more refined categorization of leadership and suggest four plausible areas of inquiry for research that could be useful for systematizing future research and acknowledging the different forms of destructive and negative leadership.

Aslı Göncü-Köse, Başak Ok, and Yonca Toker-Gültaş as the authors of Chapter 3 aim to provide a summary of the definitions of the interrelated constructs (e.g. paternalistic leadership, pseudotransformational leadership) to outline the commonalities with and differences from the construct of “destructive leadership” as well as their differential effects on personal, group, and organization-level outcomes.

In Chapter 4, Wallace Burns explores compares the differences and similarities of three destructive leadership styles: pseudo-transformational, laissez-faire, and unethical leadership. This destructive leadership typology focuses on the predictors and causal factors of each style based on a thorough review of the literature.

Clive R. Boddy as the author of Chapter 5 sheds light on corporate psychopaths and psychopathic leadership outlining its importance. Building on the notion that the success or failure of organizations largely depends on the personality of the leader, Boddy scrutinizes the influence of psychopaths and their presence as managers in corporations. The author also acknowledges the presence of “double jeopardy” effect that provokes when corporate psychopaths work together as managers and employees, and, thus, magnifies their destructiveness and results in a workplace environment marked by many adverse outcomes such as fake corporate social responsibility, greater schadenfreude, poor financial decision-making, and employee confusion.

This section of the book ends with Chapter 6, written by Johannes Arendt, Erica Bettac, Josef Gammel, and John Rauthmann. This chapter provides a comprehensive literature review of dispositional supervisor characteristics, individual-level antecedents, and correlates of destructive leadership together with boundary conditions. The chapter also proposes an integrated process model of abusive supervision and suggestions for future research.

Part 2: The Outcomes of Destructive Leadership and Leader Hypocrisy

The second section of the book starts with a discussion of the consequences of destructive leadership. The chapters aim to provide an integrated theoretical framework for the interaction process between leaders and followers. In particular, Chapter 7, authored by Irem Metin-Orta, focuses on the relationship between destructive leadership and its outcomes on followers' psychological well-being. It provides insight into the research concerning the impact of destructive leadership on followers' mental health including experiences of anxiety, depression, frustration, hostility, fatigue, loss of concentration, emotional exhaustion, affectivity, stress, and burnout.

Likewise, Chapter 8 addresses the detrimental effects of destructive leadership on organizational outcomes. The author Serdar Karabatı mentions both the direct and indirect outcomes of dark leadership, especially focusing on employees' well-being and performance. The author ends his chapter with a brief evaluation of the individual and contextual factors that might shape and intensify the effect of destructive leadership.

In Chapter 9, Arzu İlsev and Eren Miski Aydın introduce the concept of leader hypocrisy that refers to the inconsistencies between the leaders' words, promises, and their attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral actions with the deliberate intention of deceiving others. By conceptualizing the leader's hypocrisy and differentiating it from leader integrity, the authors also outline the detrimental consequences of leader hypocrisy on the employees and organizations.

In Chapter 10, Zeynep Aycan and Didar Zeytun provide empirical research exploring the effect of downward mobbing on employees' stress-related growth with both qualitative and quantitative study design. The authors provide comprehensive literature evidence regarding the destructive effects of downward mobbing and also discuss the mediator role of burnout, the moderator role of organizational trust, personality hardiness, and support on the relationship between downward mobbing and stress-related growth.

In Chapter 11, the authors of Mustafa Özbilgin and Aybike Mergen apply the use of the destructive and toxic leadership theoretical framework into a global value chain perspective. Drawing on the netnography of toxic leadership cases in a global firm, the authors demonstrate how this global organization can avoid criticism and create the illusion of success while perpetuating toxicity and exploitation across its complex operations and value chain internationally.

Part 3: Emerging Issues in Destructive Leadership: A Special Concern to Measures and Remedies of How to Deal with It

The third and the final section of the book details and highlights the emerging issues in destructive leadership. This part begins with Chapter 12, in which the discussion turns out into conceptual and practical concerns regarding the measurement of destructive leadership. The authors Pinar Bayhan Karapınar and Selin Metin Camgoz consider the range of scales and instruments available for assessing the dark sides of leadership. This chapter outlines important methodological issues for the assessment of destructive leadership and concludes with recommendations for future research areas.

In Chapter 13, Yonca Toker-Gültaş, Başak Ok, and Savaş Ceylan outline an approach, in which they introduce the available literature on cognitive biases and justification mechanisms concerning destructive and toxic leadership and then offer a qualitative analysis of similar or additional biases of Machiavellian leaders.

Fran Myers, in Chapter 14, addresses public myths of heroic and demonic leadership by providing examples from the financial crisis of 2008–09 in the United Kingdom. The chapter examines the press coverage generated around the negative leadership stories and how villainy, illegitimacy, demonization, and ruined reputations in those coverages contributed to the shared myths of the crisis.

The emerging issues section continues with Chapter 15 in which Özge Tayfur Ekmekci and Semra Güney explore destructive leadership from a cross-cultural perspective. Drawing on the notion of the prevalence of destructive leadership in every society and context, there remains a paucity of research that examines such leadership in countries other than the West. Thus, this chapter provides valuable insight into the differences and similarities concerning the conceptualization of destructive leadership in Western and non-Western societies.

In chapter 16, Pinar Bayhan Karapinar, Azize Ergeneli, and Anıl Boz Semerci seek to contribute to the extant literature by revealing gender's effects on destructive leadership. The authors assume that the gender of the followers (i.e., subordinates) affects the perceptions of male and female managers and make empirical research about gender-destructive leadership. This exploratory research provides insights about: (1) overall evaluations of individuals about the destructive leadership behaviors of their managers, (2) male and female subordinates' perceptions about the female and male managers' destructive leadership behavior, and (3) evaluations of the dimensional structure of destructive leadership in terms of the gender of both the participant subordinates and the leaders themselves.

Last but not the least, it is essential to examine the destructive leadership phenomenon in organizations aiming to serve communities and societies given that destructive leadership is observed not only in profit-based organizations but also in nonprofit organizations. Marco Tavanti, in Chapter 17, reviews several real cases of nonprofit organizations and nonprofit professionals who failed to articulate their mission and resulted in illegal, unethical and harmful practices. Besides addressing the main ethical challenges of nonprofit organizations, the author provides recommendations for nonprofit organizations and their leaders to avoid destructive and unethical behaviors and recenter on positive behaviors coherent to the nonprofit's social and public good mission.

In a nutshell, with a cast of distinguished academics from international contexts, Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy: Advances in Theory and Practice book aims to contribute to the ongoing research stream of destructive leadership and to serve as a reference guide for the potential future research. Therefore, the potential audience of the book does not only include academics in the early stages of their career but also includes the researchers, practitioners, HR experts, and government executives currently working in the area. Readers will be able to evaluate destructive leadership notion from a wide perspective to critique its impacts on the individual, organization, and society.


This publication effort would not have been possible without the people participating directly in the compilation of the book (authors, reviewers, and publisher). All the participants have collaborated solidly by pursuing effort, providing valuable information that helps the future growth of this volume. We would also like to thank the Emerald publishing team for accepting our proposal on destructive leadership and reviewers for providing invaluable comments for the chapters. Among our professional colleagues, Pınar Bayhan Karapınar and Kazim Baris Atici deserve special thanks for their intellectual stimulation and constructive feedback.

Part 1 Definitional Issues and Conceptual Clarifications in Destructive Leadership
Chapter 1 Destructive Leadership: Explaining, Critiquing, and Moving Beyond Leader-Centric Perspectives
Chapter 2 How Can Anyone Be Like That? – Systematising Destructive and Ineffective Leadership
Chapter 3 Fifty Shades of Darth Vaders in Organizations: An Overview of Destructive Leadership
Chapter 4 A Typology of Destructive Leadership: PseudoTransformational, Laissez-Faire, and Unethical Causal Factors and Predictors
Chapter 5 Corporate Psychopaths and Destructive Leadership in Organisations
Chapter 6 Dispositional Characteristics of Abusive Supervisors
Part 2 The Outcomes of Destructive Leadership and Leader Hypocrisy
Chapter 7 The Impact of Destructive Leadership on Followers' Well-being
Chapter 8 Organizational Outcomes of Destructive Leadership: Summary and Evaluation
Chapter 9 Leader Hypocrisy and Its Emotional, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Consequences
Chapter 10 A Manifestation of Destructive Leadership: Downward Mobbing and Employees' Stress-Related Growth
Chapter 11 Toxic Illusio in the Global Value Chain: The Case of Amazon
Part 3 Emerging Issues in Destructive Leadership: A Special Concern to Measures and Remedies of How to Deal with It
Chapter 12 Measuring Destructive Leadership
Chapter 13 Cognitive Biases of Destructive Leadership: A Special Focus on Machiavellianism
Chapter 14 Public Myth and Metaphor: Negative Narratives, Lost Reputations and Bankers' Leadership Illegitimacies from the Media during the Financial Crisis of 2008–2009
Chapter 15 Destructive Leadership from a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Is There a Convergence or Divergence?
Chapter 16 Gender and Destructive Leadership: An Examination of Follower Perceptions
Chapter 17 The Dark Side of Nonprofit Leadership: Cases, Causes, and Consequences