Seyed Mohammad Moghimi (University of Tehran, Iran)

Organizational Behavior Management

ISBN: 978-1-78769-678-5, eISBN: 978-1-78769-677-8

Publication date: 10 December 2018


Moghimi, S.M. (2018), "Prelims", Organizational Behavior Management, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xviii.



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Organizational Behavior Management: An Islamic Approach

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University of Tehran, Iran

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2019

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ISBN: 978-1-78769-678-5 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78769-677-8 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78769-679-2 (Epub)

List of Figures

Chapter 1
Figure 1.1: A Model for Organizational Behavior Management in Hereafter-oriented Organization 6
Figure 1.2: Types of Organizational Behaviors by Type of Organization and Their Staff 7
Figure 1.3: Indicators of Positive Organizational Behaviors Based on Hamam Sermon 9
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1: The Process Showing How Personality Affects Human Behavior in Islam 24
Figure 2.2: Functions of Human Personality Dimensions 26
Figure 2.3: Effect of Personality Centers on the Organizational Behaviors 27
Figure 2.4: Organizational Behavior Typology Based on Farabi’s Human Classification 30
Chapter 3
Figure 3.1: Levels of Human Perception and Wisdom 38
Figure 3.2: Stages of Human Perception 39
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1: The Relationship Between Human Identity Layers and His Level of Needs and Evolution 44
Figure 4.2: Hierarchy of Human Needs in a Hereafter-oriented Organization 45
Figure 4.3: Relationship Between the Needs for Gratitude and Increasing Individuals' Venture in a Hereafter-oriented Organization 50
Figure 4.4: Comparison of Two Different Methods for Satisfying Material and Spiritual Needs 62
Chapter 5
Figure 5.1: The Relation Between Faith in The Divinity and Mental Health 70
Figure 5.2: Link Between Inferiority Complex, Egoism, and Self-esteem 72
Figure 5.3: Effective Factor on the Organizational Trust and Their Results 77
Figure 5.4: Organizational Distrust Process 79
Figure 5.5: Relation Between the Time and Place Conditions by Positive or Negative Attitudes 81
Figure 5.6: Constructs of Organizational Commitment in a Hereafter-oriented Organization 82
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1: Human Communication Skills in Islamic Management 96
Figure 6.2: Speech Skill Components in Islamic Management 97
Figure 6.3: Types of Communication Channels and Communication in Islamic Management 108
Figure 6.4: Communication Channel Based on Duane Viewpoint 109
Chapter 7
Figure 7.1: The Rule of Optimal Conflict in Islam 114
Figure 7.2: The Comprehensive Model of Conflict Management From the Point of View of Imam Khomeini 117
Figure 7.3: Conflict Management Strategies From the Perspective of the Holy Quran 121
Figure 7.4: Types of Conflict Management Strategies Based on Verses 18–22 of Al-Dukhān Surah 129
Figure 7.5: Conflict Management Strategies From Imam Khomeini's Viewpoint 133
Chapter 8
Figure 8.1: Comparison of the Types of Approaches Related to the Leader–Followers Relations 141
Figure 8.2: Relation Between Infelt Knowledge, Influence on People, and Management Effectiveness 143
Figure 8.3: Leader's Role Concerning the Follower According to Quranic Verses and Islamic Thinkers' Views 150
Figure 8.4: The Followers' Roles Toward the Leader Based on the Verses and Narrations and the Views of Islamic Thinkers 154
Figure 8.5: The Formation Process of the Maturation and Refractoriness of Followers’ Behaviors 158
Chapter 9
Figure 9.1: Types of Communications in Advice-based Leadership Style 166
Figure 9.2: Advisers' Rights in Al-Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyya 168
Figure 9.3: Imam Khomeini and Roles of Servant Leadership 191
Figure 9.4: Managerial Roles of Imam Khomeini 192
Figure 9.5: Commander Roles of Imam Khomeini 196
Figure 9.6: Political Roles of Imam Khomeini 198
Figure 9.7: Coaching Roles of Imam Khomeini 199
Figure 9.8: Authorization Roles of Imam Khomeini 201
Figure 9.9: Ethical–Mystical Roles of Imam Khomeini 203
Figure 9.10: Conceptual Model of Characteristics of the Great Prophet's Compassionate Management Style 205
Chapter 10
Figure 10.1: Ashura-driven Organizational Culture Model for Unitarianism Organizations 226
Figure 10.2: The Moralistic Culture Model for Unitarianism Organizations in Islamic Management 238

List of Tables

Chapter 1
Table 1.1: Items of Positive Organizational Behaviors Based on Hamam Sermon 9
Chapter 4
Table 4.1: Naturalistic Needs Satisfaction Based on Quranic Teachings 47
Table 4.2: Management Measures to Meet the Needs of Employees in Accordance with the Need Levels Across Otherworldly Organization 58
Table 4.3: The Principle of the Primacy of Spiritual Needs Over Material Needs Based on Quranic Teachings 60
Chapter 7
Table 7.1: Holy Quran Teachings for Strategy Struggle and War Against the Infidels and the Enemies of Doctrinal 126
Chapter 8
Table 8.1: Roles and Duties of the Leader in Relations With Followers 145
Table 8.2: Interaction of Divine Leaders With Followers Based on Quran Verses 156
Chapter 9
Table 9.1: Characteristics of the Great Prophet's Compassionate Management Style 217

About the Author

Seyed Mohammad Moghimi is a Professor of Management at Department of Public Administration, University of Tehran, Iran. His most important expertise and interests include Islamic Management, Public Administration, and Entrepreneurship. His most remarkable scientific activities include publishing 120 scientific papers in well-known journals, publishing 29 books, conducting 34 projects in national and organizational levels, supervising more than 20 Ph.D. and postdoctoral dissertations, participating in many international conferences, and representing over 30 papers in universities of Spain, Switzerland, Germany, France, Greece, Malaysia, and Iran in Persian, Arabic, and English languages. He cooperates with many journals like Islamic Management Journal as Editor-in-Chief, Director-in-Charge, and Editorial Board Member. Also, he works with many organizations as advisor, and he has been the executive manager and CEO of several institutes and dean of several colleges. His paper entitled “Public sector managers and entrepreneurship in Islamic Republic of Iran” published in Journal of Management Development has been awarded the Outstanding Paper in the 2010 Emerald Literati Awards. Since 2010, he is acting as UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship (UCE).


“In the name of Allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful”

“And we have sent down to you the Book (the Qur'an) as an exposition of everything, guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims).” (An-Nahl Verse No: 89)

Human resources are the most important resource in possession of organizations, and the management should provide some mechanisms to enhance the competitive advantage of the organization by making use of this valuable resource. In this competitive atmosphere, those managers who are familiar with the principles of organizational behavior and thereby endeavor to implement them in their respective organization are more successful (will achieve more). On the other hand, human behaviors are so complex that the necessity to deal with the philosophical origins and foundations of human behaviors is essential and unavoidable. Therefore, for identifying the human nature and the factors shaping human behavior, we should seek types of scientific frameworks which allow for a better understanding and managing human behaviors in the organization. Islam wishes human beings a worldly and otherworldly bliss and provides a comprehensive image for human existence and determines the elements and formation of human character by enumerating positive and negative qualities of human beings. Thus, the author maintains that it is possible to offer a pattern for organizational behavior by using Islamic verses and traditions; hence, familiarizing with the dimensions of human character and formative foundations of human behavior and providing a framework for how to motivate people, effective communications, group dynamics, how to affect people, organizational leadership, elevating work ethic, and other components of organizational behavior.

Author believes that the rich Islamic sources are full of practical templates for managing the organizations in line with humanity material and spiritual welfare! In this series, it has been tried to use rich Islamic sources and Quran as master of them and a modern framework is provided that is suitable for up-to-date requirements and necessities. To this purpose, the writer has carefully analyzed many Islamic sources that are expected to contain managerial contents, so it can be said without exaggeration the volume of reviewed topics is beyond 10,000 pages. In the beginning of this series, the Holy Quran was carefully studied and over 500 Quran verses were derived that were important in the author's point of view through taking subjective notes, and then they were analyzed by referring to the comments of the Quran as a communicative bridge among researcher's mind and the Quran's bright verses, orders, and guides of that communion charter that consider to managerial science field. In utilizing the Quran, the author has considered Verse 89 of An-Nahl surah as a basic principle. Since the Quran is a guidance book for the general public and it is expected to guide people, this heavenly book has talked about any related to guide the people. Therefore, management and topics related to operate human communities are the subjects that their related discussions can be extracted from Quran verses. Of course, we shouldn't forget this important point that the purpose of Quran is not to provide managerial techniques and methods (although we can extract some managerial techniques from Quran verses), but regarding Quran versus we can codify statements and preassumptions that put frameworks in front of researchers of organization and management arena as well as explaining the management worldview and write guidance principles and regularities and even managerial models and techniques for material and spiritual welfare by inspiring these statements and preassumptions and also using their creative mind. This process has been repeated about many key Islamic sources, inter alia, Nahj al-Balaghah as the second main source after the Quran for writing this book has been explored frequently.

Efficient management contingency paradigm for promoting the aims of Islamic system requires a theoretical advancement and systematic codifying of preassumptions and intellectual and practical management foundations from the Islamic point of view and spreading Islamic management style in all organizational and national levels. Today, one of the subjects that has become a concern and anxiety for researchers in management arena is to detect the managerial pattern of progressive and oriented excellence based on time and place requirements in the framework of Islamic value system. Accordingly, management thinkers tend to design and explain the managerial models and paradigms in the Islamic management field fitted into their studied interests and assumptions. The author of this series has appreciated the valuable services implemented in this area that have been mainly provided in forms of book and paper; meanwhile, he has taken a distinctive approach and has tried to present a distinguishing product. The author has set the issues of the book within the following framework.

This book can be used in many areas such as organizational behavior management with Islamic approach, business ethics, comparative management, human resource management, organizational leadership, international management, organizational behavior philosophy, and the like, as the primary or supplementary reference for students, researchers, and practitioners.

This book could not have been written without the help of a number of people. I would like to thank the following persons for their support and suggestions.

First of all, I wish to thank my publisher Niall Kennedy, and Emerald Publishing Limited, for their great service and expert advice. He supported the entire development of the book with great proficiency.

I would like to appreciate Kerry Laundon and Nick Wolterman of Emerald Publishing for their professional support. Likewise , I sincerely express my gratitude to the honorable members of the production team, especially Mohamed Imrankhan, Sheena Reghunath, Babu Venkatesh, and Mike Hill who have been carefully following all their roles. Prof. Hossein Khanifar, Prof. Asadollah Kordnaeij, Prof. Taher Roshandel Arbatani, Dr Mousavi Moghaddam, Arash Pazooki, Morteza Azarpira, Abbas Kousari Mehr, Babak Nematollahi, and Jahangir Isfahani have offered informative suggestions on scientific resources and specialized terminology, and they have provided the author with valuable contributions in arranging the contents of the book that I appreciate them all.

Finally, I would like to give special thanks to my family who has supported me throughout this great project. I’d like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my adorable wife and to my son and daughter Seyed Mahdi and Mahya Sadat.

Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

University of Tehran