Index

Smart Cities

ISBN: 978-1-78769-614-3, eISBN: 978-1-78769-613-6

Publication date: 14 June 2019

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Gassmann, O., Böhm, J. and Palmié, M. (2019), "Index", Smart Cities, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 333-341. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78769-613-620191004

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Africa, urbanization
, 6–7

AI. See Artificial intelligence (AI)

Air quality
, 58

and smog
, 17–18

Alibaba’s City Brain project
, 273

Amazon Mechanical Turk service
, 39

APIs. See Application programming interfaces (APIs)

Application programming interfaces (APIs)
, 210

Artificial intelligence (AI)
, 28, 273–275, 278

Asia-Pacific region, urbanization
, 7

Aspern Smart City Research study
, 86–87

Austrian Court of Audit
, 79–80

Autonomous systems
, 278

Autonomous vehicles
, 275

Bill Gates
, 3–4

BMVIT
, 73–74

BMW Group in Switzerland
, 41

Business model

scaling, questionnaire
, 302–303

for smart city
, 55–56, 57–60

for smart economy
, 58, 59

for smart environment
, 58

for smart mobility
, 59

Cause and effect tree
, 300–302

Centralized Asset Management and Limited Access
, 284–291

Centralized Asset Management and Potential Access
, 284–291

Century of the city
, 5

Charlotte, United States
, 206, 206

Cities

current challenges for
, 8–22

limited resources of
, 19

as megatrend
, 5–8

urgent challenges for
, 9

Citizens Fear the City’s impact on health
, 16

City administration, new role for
, 26–27

City Development Plan 2025
, 69

City planners
, 8–9

City Services Benefit Card (CSBC)
, 132–133

City2Share project, Munich
, 90, 103–104, 105–106

Civilization, future of
, 5–6

Civitas Eccentric
, 90

Co-creation Lab Vienna
, 84

Computational materials
, 270–271

Cooperation, with business
, 54

Decentralized Asset Management and Limited Access
, 284–291

Decentralized Asset Management and Potential Access
, 284–291

Decentralized water supply
, 33

Decision maker
, 2

Demographic developments
, 13

Digital hub (dhub)
, 38

Digitalization
, 46

Digital shadow of a city
, 27–31

accessibility
, 29

courtesy
, 30

expandability
, 29

service areas of
, 31–46

smart economy
, 38–39

smart environment
, 32–34

smart government
, 42–45

smart living
, 34–38

smart mobility
, 40–42

smart people
, 45–46

structure
, 29

Diverse lifestyles, development of
, 13

Ecological footprint of a city
, 32

Ecosystems
, 272–273

Electric vehicles
, 36–37

Electromobility, in St. Gallen
, 217–219

EMPA
, 36

“Energienetz GSG” project
, 161–162

“Energiestadt Gold” (Gold Energy City) award
, 155

Energy

consumption
, 277

hub method
, 37–38

renewable
, 35

Energy city
, 155, 155, 155

Energy performance contracts (EPCs)
, 249

Energy systems
, 16

in Swiss
, 39

Environmental and health issues
, 17

EPCs. See Energy performance contracts (EPCs)

Estonia, as pioneer of smart government
, 47

Europe

Espresso project
, 283

GDPR
, 278

urbanization
, 7–8

European cities

over-tourism in
, 20–21

smartness in smart city visions of
, 170

European Energy Award® (eea®)
, 155

European Environment Agency
, 19

EU’s Smarter Together project
, 153

Face recognition
, 273–274

Flexibility
, 22

GDPR. See General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
, 274–275

Europe
, 278

Georgia Tech
, 270–271

German Institute of Urban Affairs
, 9

Global warming
, 16

Gody Suter (Frisch)
, 27

Green ride
, 41

Health issues, environmental and
, 17

Hetero-functional Graph Theory
, 208–209

HIS Markit
, 52

Humans and machines
, 277

ICF. See Intelligent Community Forum (ICF)

ICT. See Information and communication technology (ICT)

Immigration
, 22

Implementer
, 2

Industrial revolution
, 26

Information and communication technology (ICT)
, 34, 36–37, 277

Vienna
, 73

Infrastructure, overloading of
, 13–17

Inhabitants, quality of life of
, 13–17

Intelligent Community Forum (ICF), Toronto
, 138

International Energy Agency
, 48–49

Internet economy
, 66

Internet of things (IoT)
, 29, 269–270

world
, 270

Interoperability, lack of standards and
, 56

IoT. See Internet of things (IoT)

Latin America, urbanization
, 7

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
, 125

LEED. See Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

Life of inhabitants, quality of
, 13–17

Lifestyles, development of diverse
, 13

Lighthouse cities
, 67

Likert scale
, 167, 233–234

London, smog values in
, 19

LoRaWan (Low-Power Wide Area Network)
, 156, 211–212

Loud night noise
, 19

Lyon
, 120–121

core project of
, 110

develop concept and synchronize partners
, 114–116

initiate transformation
, 110–112

location determination
, 112–114

Lyon Smart Community
, 116–117

mobilize resources
, 116–117

operation and institutionalization
, 120

realize projects
, 117–120

Smart Community project
, 118

SPL Lyon confluence
, 111, 112, 113, 118, 120–121

Machines, humans and
, 277

MAC protocol. See Media Access Control (MAC) protocol

Master Innovation and Development Plan (MIDP)
, 140–141

The Matrix
, 28–29

Media Access Control (MAC) protocol
, 156

Megacities (2018), TomTom Traffic Index for
, 15

Megatrend, cities as
, 5–8

Microjobs
, 39

MIDP. See Master Innovation and Development Plan (MIDP)

Migration
, 22

Mobility

and tourism
, 20

unprecedented forms of
, 275–276

Modernization requires time
, 13

Moore’s law
, 270–271

MSI Scalability Tool
, 302–303

Multienergy systems
, 39

Munich, Germany
, 107–108

analysis of external factors relevant to smart city development
, 98–99

City2Share project
, 90, 103–104

develop concepts and synchronize partners
, 99–103

e-government platform
, 103

EU Smarter Together project
, 105

initiate transformation
, 91–95

location determination
, 95–99

strengths and weaknesses
, 95–97

mobilize resources

additional resources
, 104

funding
, 103–104

open data initiatives
, 102–103

open/urban data platform
, 102

operation and institutionalization
, 106–107

project concepts
, 100–101

public participation
, 101–102

qualitative smart city objectives in
, 100

realize projects
, 104–106

smart city program
, 90–91

smart city projects
, 90

smart city strategy
, 99–100

smarter together project
, 90, 106–107

Stadtteil Labor
, 105

stakeholders
, 97–98

urban development plans
, 89

Munich Science Network
, 270

NAVYA
, 120

NEST project
, 37–38

New work or no work
, 276

Noise
, 19

loud night
, 19

Nonmotorized route planning
, 58

North America, urbanization
, 7

Obstacles for smart city
, 46–57

ambiguity
, 51

common
, 51–57

complexity
, 50–51

uncertainty
, 48–50

volatility
, 47–48

Overloading of infrastructure
, 13–17

PACE. See Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE)

Paramecium politics vs. traditional city management
, 45

Peer-to-peer virtual parking places
, 59

Perspektive München
, 89, 91–92, 101

PESTEL analysis
, 190–191

Political support
, 54

Post-suburbanization
, 11

PPPs. See Public–private partnerships (PPPs)

Project control and governance
, 55

Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE)
, 250–251

Prosumers
, 35

Public participation model, for solar power plants
, 77

Public–private partnerships (PPPs)
, 52–53, 54–55

Public value
, 27

Quality of life in cities
, 34

RACI matrix
, 174–178

“Red Vienna” (1918??1934)
, 68

Regulatory conditions
, 47–48

Remishueb project
, 158, 159, 162

co-creation in
, 199, 199, 200, 200, 200, 200–201, 201

Renewable energy
, 35

Return on investment (RoI)
, 54

Reurbanization
, 11

Risk assessment
, 296–299

checklist
, 296–299

Route planning, nonmotorized
, 58

St. Gallen
, 154, 155, 156

assembling a project team
, 165

assignment of tasks and responsibilities in
, 175–176, 177

building a project coalition
, 242–245

business models

development
, 216–222

scaling
, 263

citizen participation projects
, 241–242

concepts and synchronizing partners, development
, 197–238

continuous improvement process
, 265–267

criteria for formulation of sub-goals
, 231

data governance, designing and implementing
, 201–203

dealing with implementation risks
, 258–259

dealing with risks
, 224–231

design guidelines
, 247–248

direction of impact determination
, 194–196

electric power systems
, 208

electromobility
, 217, 218–219

ensuring partner and citizen participation
, 198–201

environmental analysis
, 189–191

benchmarking with “ideal” smart city
, 191

PESTEL analysis
, 190–191

exploiting synergies between initiatives
, 267–268

financing mechanisms for projects
, 249–251

finding partners for implementation
, 222–224

5G (5th-generation wireless systems)
, 210–211

funds for
, 203–207, 248–253

Hetero-functional Graph Theory
, 208–209

idea generation in
, 193–194

initial self-assessment
, 182–183

initiate transformation
, 162–178

internal perspective
, 178–180

kickoff and clarifying responsibilities
, 172–178

life cycles of smart city infrastructure
, 204

location determination
, 178–196

mayor’s view
, 172, 195, 222–223

mobilizing citizens
, 240–242

mobilizing resources
, 238–255

finding partners
, 238–240

project partner platforms
, 239–240

sharing ideas
, 238

motion experiment in Istanbul
, 206

navly project in Lyon Confluence
, 220, 221, 222

operation and institutionalization
, 259–268

pilot projects
, 158–162

pioneer group
, 173–174

platforms/decentralized systems
, 213–214

point-of-view method
, 185–186

preparations and initial considerations
, 162–164

probability-of-impact matrix
, 224–227

project concepts development
, 207–209

project organization
, 245–248

project selection

criteria
, 231–233

performance
, 233–234

public value scorecard
, 171

public works department
, 156, 159–162

RACI matrix for clear responsibilities
, 174–178

realizing projects
, 256–259

reasons for the failure of smart city projects
, 257–258

return on investment (ROI)
, 207

risk assessment
, 227

risk categories
, 225–226, 228

roadmaps development
, 234–237

scaling up process
, 262

setting goals and metrics
, 228–231

setting priorities
, 170–171, 230

smart city maturity model
, 178–180

Smart City Steering Committee
, 177

smart city visions
, 166, 168, 169–170

Happy City
, 169–170

Real-Time City
, 169

Slow City
, 169

Zero City
, 168–169

stakeholder

analysis
, 187–188

map
, 186–189

strategic options, identifying
, 191–193

Sturzenegg building project
, 264–265

synchronization
, 237–238

technology

for city’s digital shadow
, 210–216

digital ID
, 215

new technologies
, 210, 211, 212, 213

platform selection
, 209–216

sensors
, 212

technology-oriented and citizenoriented smart city planning
, 241

third-party ownership
, 250

tips and tricks for a successful project
, 177, 178

urban funds
, 250

vision, development
, 166–170, 168–169

visioning workshop, checklist
, 167

Zug city administration
, 214–215

SBB Green Class E-Car
, 40

SCMM. See Smart City Management Model (SCMM)

SCWG. See Smart City Working Group (SCWG)

Seestadt Aspern
, 79–80, 81, 85–87

Self-learning system
, 28

Sensor systems
, 269–270

Sidewalk Labs
, 146

Sidewalk Toronto
, 140, 141–142, 143, 146

Silicon Valley
, 6

SIMmobil
, 82–83

Singapore, virtual
, 30–31

Smaller cities (2018), TomTom Traffic Index for
, 15

“100 Smart Cities” plan
, 3–4

Smart city

business models for
, 55–56, 57–60

challenges faced by mayors of US Cities
, 52–57

initiative
, 293–295

initiatives, basic elements
, 65–66

obstacles for
, 46–57

in twenty-first century
, 278–281

Smart City Agency of Vienna
, 84

Smart City Cells
, 156

Smart City Management Model (SCMM)
, 1, 2, 66, 67, 153

Smart city maturity model
, 178–180, 283–291

Smart city projects, challenges addressed by
, 9–11

Smart city transformations

challenges of
, 52

projects
, 29–30

Smart City Vienna Framework Strategy
, 69

Smart City Wien Rahmenstrategie
, 69

Smart City Working Group (SCWG), Toronto
, 133–134, 135–136

Smart crosswalks
, 41

Smart economy
, 38–39

business model for
, 58, 59

Smart environment
, 32–34

business model for
, 58

Smart government
, 42–45

Smart living
, 34–38

Smart megacity projects
, 4

Smart mobility
, 40–42

business model for
, 59

SmartNet
, 156

Smart people
, 45–46

Smog

air quality and
, 17–18

values in London
, 19

Software-based companies and services
, 278–281

Solar power plants, public participation model for
, 77

Songdo City
, 130

Cisco’s technology infrastructure
, 125

develop concepts and synchronize partners
, 125–127

digital shadow in
, 125–126

initiate transformation
, 122–123

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
, 125

location determination
, 123–125

master plan of
, 126

mobilize resources
, 127–129

operation and institutionalization
, 129

project
, 122

realize projects
, 127–129

SPL Lyon confluence
, 113, 118, 120–121

competencies of
, 112

goals of
, 111

Stakeholder integration
, 53–54

Stakeholder map
, 292

STEEP (social, technological, economical, ecological, and political) analysis
, 98

Sturzenegg project
, 158

Suburbanization
, 11

Swiss Competence Center of Energy Research, Future Energy-Efficient Buildings and Districts (SCCER FEEBD)
, 35

Swiss, energy systems in
, 39

Switzerland, BMW Group in
, 41

Synergy patterns
, 304–306

Tax revenues
, 48

Thames River
, 16

ThinkPort Vienna
, 80

Toilet-as-a-service
, 59

TomTom Traffic Index
, 15–16

for smaller and megacities (2018)
, 15

Toronto
, 131, 132, 143–147

See also Waterfront Toronto

activate resources
, 137–138

data privacy
, 144–146

develop concepts and synchronize partners
, 136–137

initiate transformation
, 132–134

lighthouse projects
, 147–151

position determination
, 134–136

Sidewalk Toronto
, 140

Smart City Working Group (SCWG)
, 133–134, 135–136

stakeholder groups
, 150

Urban Living Futures
, 137

Toronto Smart Cities Region Board of Trade (TRBT)
, 133–134

Tourism, mobility and
, 20

Tourism places, growth rate of
, 20–21

Traditional city management vs. paramecium politics
, 45

Tragedy of the commons
, 20–22

Transaction costs, decreasing
, 271–272

Twenty-first century, questions for smart cities in
, 278–281

Ubiquity of data and computing
, 269–270

Uncertainty
, 48–50

UNESCO World Heritage site
, 68

UPPLift
, 137

Urban data, marketplace for
, 58

Urban development
, 67

Urban economic centers, growth of
, 6

Urban infrastructure systems
, 13–17

Urban Innovation Vienna
, 74

Urbanization
, 281

global trend of
, 9–11

and opposing trends
, 9–13

worldwide
, 9–11

Urbanization Across the World (United Nations, 2017)
, 6, 7–8

Urban Living Futures, Toronto
, 137

Urban Living Lab
, 82–83

Urban mobility
, 40

US Cities, smart city challenges faced by mayors of
, 52–57

Vehicles, autonomous
, 275

Vienna
, 88

business agency
, 84

Co-creation Lab Vienna
, 84

determine location
, 71–74

financial resources as a launching force
, 79–80

high public participation
, 75–76

information and communication technology (ICT)
, 73

initiate transformation
, 69–70

innovation labs
, 87

jointly developed project concepts
, 77–78

mobilize resources
, 79–81

open innovation
, 77

operation and institutionalization
, 87–88

project coalitions as strategic resources in
, 80–81

project selection criteria
, 78

public participation model for solar power plants
, 77

realize projects
, 81–87

Smart City Agency of
, 84

smart city lighthouse projects
, 67–88

smart city program
, 69

smart city strategy
, 74–75

stakeholders
, 72–74

strengths and weaknesses
, 71–72

subways, braking energy
, 84

ThinkPort Vienna
, 80

urban inhabitants of
, 72

virtual department
, 85

Wi-Fi, public
, 87

Virtual parking places
, 59

Virtual Singapore
, 30–31

Volatility
, 47–48

VUCA world (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity)
, 47, 51–52

Waiting times
, 16

Warka Water Tower
, 33

Water and wastewater
, 16

Waterfront Toronto
, 138

develop concepts and synchronize partners
, 141–143

initiate transformation
, 138–140

position determination
, 140–141

Wiener Stadtwerke GmbH
, 73

Worldwide Tourism Growth, 1996–2017
, 20–21

Worldwide Urban and Rural Population from 1950 to 2050
, 6–8