References

Gender and the Violence(s) of War and Armed Conflict: More Dangerous to Be a Woman?

ISBN: 978-1-78769-116-2, eISBN: 978-1-78769-115-5

Publication date: 16 October 2020

Citation

(2020), "References", Banwell, S. (Ed.) Gender and the Violence(s) of War and Armed Conflict: More Dangerous to Be a Woman? (Emerald Studies in Criminology, Feminism and Social Change), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 173-200. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78769-115-520201011

Download as .RIS

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020 Stacy Banwell

License

This work is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this work (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


Abboud, 2017Abboud, S. (2017). The economics of war and peace in Syria: Stratification and factionalization in the business community. Retrieved from https://tcf.org/content/report/economics-war-peace-syria/

Abusharaf, 2006Abusharaf, R. M. (2006). Competing masculinities: Probing political disputes as acts of violence against women from Southern Sudan and Darfur. Human Rights Review, 7(2), 5974.

Acker, 2004Acker, J. (2004). Gender, capitalism and globalization. Critical Sociology, 30(1), 1741.

Adams, 2017Adams, R. (2017). Michel Foucault: Biopolitics and biopower. Retrieved from http://criticallegalthinking.com/2017/05/10/michel-foucault-biopolitics-biopower/

Africa Research Bulletin, 2011Africa Research Bulletin. (2011). Democratic Republic of Congo: FARDC accused of rape. Africa Research Bulletin, 48(1), 18701.

AfriMap and The Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa, 2009AfriMap and The Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa. (2009). The Democratic Republic of Congo military justice and human rights – An urgent need to complete reforms. Retrieved from https://issat.dcaf.ch/download/2212/19164/AfriMAP-DRC-MilitaryJustice-DD-EN.pdf

Agathangelou, Turcotte, 2015Agathangelou, A. M., & Turcotte, H. M. (2015). Postcolonial theories and challenges to ‘first world-ism.’’ In L. J. Shepherd (Ed.), Gender matters in global politics: A feminist introduction to international relations (pp. 3648). New York, NY: Routledge.

Åhäll, 2017Åhäll, L. (2017). Sexing war/policing gender: Motherhood, myth and women’s political violence. London: Routledge.

Aijazi, Baines, 2017Aijazi, O., & Baines, E. (2017). Relationality, culpability and consent in wartime: Men’s experiences of forced marriage. The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 11(3), 463483.

Al-Ali, 2005Al-Ali, N. (2005). Reconstructing gender: Iraqi women between dictatorship, war, sanctions and occupation. Third World Quarterly, 26 (4–5), 739758.

Al-Ali, 2018Al-Ali, N. (2018). Sexual violence in Iraq: Challenges for transnational feminist politics. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 25(1), 1027.

Al-Ali, Pratt, 2009aAl-Ali, N., & Pratt, N. (2009a). Introduction. In N. Al-Ali & N. Pratt (Eds.), Women and war in the Middle East: Transnational perspectives (pp. 131). London: Zed Books.

Al-Ali, Pratt, 2009bAl-Ali, N., & Pratt, N. (2009b). The United States, the Iraqi women’s diaspora and women’s ‘empowerment’ in Iraq. In N. Al-Ali & N. Pratt (Eds.), Women and war in the Middle East: Transnational perspectives (pp. 6598). London: Zed Books.

Al-Riffai, Breisinger, Verner, Zhu, 2012Al-Riffai, P., Breisinger, C., Verner, D., & Zhu, T. (2012). Droughts in Syria: An assessment of impacts and options for improving the resilience of the poor. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 51(1), 2149.

Alison, 2007Alison, M. (2007). Wartime sexual violence: Women’s human rights and questions of masculinity. Review of International Studies, 33(1), 7590.

Alsaba, Kapilashrami, 2016Alsaba, K., & Kapilashrami, A. (2016). Understanding women’s experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: The case of Syria. Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), 517.

Amnesty International, 2009aAmnesty International. (2009a). Rape is cheaper than bullets. Retrieved from https://politicaladvertising.co.uk/2009/02/27/amnesty-rape-is-cheaper-than-a-bullet/

Amnesty International, 2009bAmnesty International. (2009b). Women’s rights… Provocative new rape in conflict advert to appear in London tubes. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/womens-rightss-rightss-rightss-rightss-rightss-rightss-rights-provocative-new-rape

Amnesty International, 2016Amnesty International. (2016). I want a safe place: Refugee women from Syria uprooted and unprotected in Lebanon. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/MDE1832102016ENGLISH.PDF

Anani, 2013Anani, G. (2013). Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Retrieved from http://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/detention/anani.pdf

Anonymous, 1954Anonymous. (1954). A woman in Berlin (P. Boehm, Trans.). London: Virago Press.

Aoláin, 2000Aoláin, F. N. (2000). Sex-based violence and the Holocaust: A re-evaluation of harms and rights in international law. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 12(1), 4384.

Aoláin, 2016Aoláin, F. N. (2016). The ‘war on terror’ and extremism: Assessing the relevance of the women, peace and security agenda. International Affairs, 92(2), 275291.

Apel, 2005Apel, D. (2005). Torture culture: Lynching photographs and the images of Abu Ghraib. Art Journal, 64(2), 88100.

Apperley, 2015Apperley, H. (2015). Hidden victims: A call to action on sexual violence against men in conflict. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 31(2), 9299.

Aradau, van Munster, 2009Aradau, C., & van Munster, R. (2009). Exceptionalism and the ‘war on terror:’ Criminology meets international relations. British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 686701.

Argibay, 2003Argibay, C. M. (2003). Sexual slavery and the “Comfort women” of World War II. Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21, 375389.

Askin, 2003Askin, D. K. (2003). Prosecuting wartime rapes and other gender-related crimes under international law: Extraordinary advances, enduring obstacles. Berkeley Journal of International Law, 21, 288349.

Ayers, 2008Ayers, A. J. (2008). Beyond the ideology of ‘civil war’: The global-historical constitution of political violence in Sudan. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 4(10), 261288.

Baaz, Stern, 2009Baaz, M. E., & Stern, M. (2009). Why do soldiers rape? Masculinity, violence, and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo (DCR). International Studies Quarterly, 53(2), 495518.

Baaz, Stern, 2013Baaz, M. E., & Stern, M. (2013). Sexual violence as a weapon of war? Perceptions, prescriptions, problems in the Congo and beyond. New York, NY: Zed Books.

Banwell, 2007Banwell, S. (2007). From unspeakable to unsayable to talked about: Women’s subjective accounts of their violent behaviour; an interactionist study. Unpublished doctoral thesis. University of Wales, Bangor.

Banwell, 2010Banwell, S. (2010). Gendered narratives: Women’s subjective accounts of their use of violence and alternative aggression(s) within their marital relationships. Feminist Criminology, 5(2), 116134.

Banwell, 2013Banwell, S. (2013). Book review: Ryan Ashley Caldwell, ‘Fallgirls: Gender and the framing of torture at Abu Ghraib.’ Crime, Media, Culture, 9(2), 214216.

Banwell, 2014Banwell, S. (2014). Rape and sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A case study of gender-based violence. Journal of Gender Studies, 23(1), 4558.

Banwell, 2015aBanwell, S. (2015a). Book review: Jenny Nordberg, ‘The underground girls of Kabul: The hidden lives of Afghan girls disguised as boys.’ Journal of Gender Studies, 24(5), 587588.

Banwell, 2015bBanwell, S. (2015b). Globalisation masculinities, empire-building and forced prostitution: A critical analysis of the gendered impact of the neoliberal economic agenda in post-invasion/occupation Iraq. Third World Quarterly, 36(4), 705722.

Banwell, 2016Banwell, S. (2016). Rassenschande, genocide and the reproductive Jewish body: Examining the use of rape and sexualized violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, 15(2), 208227.

Banwell, 2018Banwell, S. (2018). Security, peace and development: Unpacking discursive constructions of wartime rape and sexual violence in Syria. International Journal of Peace and Development Studies, 9(2), 1530.

Banwell, 2019Banwell, S. (2019). Gender, north–south relations: Reviewing the global gag rule and the defunding of UNFPA under President Trump. Third World Quarterly, 41(1), 119.

Bartels, Michael, Roupetz, Garbern, Kilzar, Bergquist, Bunting, 2018Bartels, S. A., Michael, S., Roupetz, S., Garbern, S., Kilzar, L., Bergquist, H., … Bunting, A. (2018). Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: A mixed methods study in Lebanon. BMJ Global Health, 3(1), 112. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000509

Bass, 2004Bass, G. (2004). Jus post bellum. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 32(4), 384412.

Batchelor, 2005Batchelor, S. (2005). ‘Prove me the bam!’: Victimization and agency in the lives of young women who commit violent offences. Probation Journal, 52(4), 358375.

Batha, 2015Batha, E. (2015, February 17). Iraqi women trafficked into sexual slavery – rights group. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-trafficking-women/iraqi-women-trafficked-into-sexual-slavery-rights-group-idUSKBN0LL1U220150217

BBC, 2011BBC. (2011). Iraq war in figures. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11107739

BBC, 2013BBC. (2013). Iraq 10 years on: In numbers. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-21752819

BBC, 2019aBBC. (2019a). What’s happening in Syria? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/16979186

BBC, 2019bBBC. (2019b). Why is there a war in Syria? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-35806229

Beachler, 2007Beachler, D. (2007). The politics of genocide scholarship: The case of Bangladesh. Patterns of Prejudice, 41(5), 467492.

Beasley, 2008Beasley, C. (2008). Rethinking hegemonic masculinity in a globalizing world. Men and Masculinities, 11(1), 86103.

Beauchamp, 2017Beauchamp, Z. (2017). The war in Syria, explained: How Syria’s civil war became America’s problem. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2017/4/8/15218782/syria-trump-bomb-assadexplainer

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. (1995). The fourth world conference on women. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/events/pastevents/pdfs/Beijing_Declaration_and_Platform_for_Action.pdf

Bock, 1993Bock, G. (1993). Racism and sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood, compulsory sterilization, and the state. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Different voices: Women and the Holocaust (pp. 161186). New York, NY: Paragon House (Original work published in 1984).

Boesten, 2017Boesten, J. (2017). Of exceptions and continuities: Theory and methodology in research on conflict-related sexual violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 19(4), 506519.

Bose, 2007Bose, S. (2007). Losing the victims: Problems of using women as weapons in recounting the Bangladesh war. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(38), 38643871.

Boudana, Frosh, Cohen, 2017Boudana, S., Frosh, P., & Cohen, A. A. (2017). Reviving icons to death: When historic photographs become digital memes. Media, Culture & Society, 39(8), 12101230.

Bouvier, 2014Bouvier, P. (2014). Sexual violence, health and humanitarian ethics: Towards a holistic, person-centred approach. International Review of the Red Cross, 96(894), 565584.

Brown, 2014Brown, M. (2014). Visual criminology and carceral studies: Counter-images in the carceral age. Theoretical Criminology, 18(2), 176197.

Brown, 2017Brown, M. (2017). Visual criminology: Oxford research encyclopedia of criminology. Retrieved from https://oxfordre.com/criminology/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-206

Brown, Carrabine, 2017Brown, M., & Carrabine, E. (2017). Introducing visual criminology. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Browne, 2018Browne, G. (2018). Al Qaeda’s ‘re-radicalization’ schools lure ISIL fighters in Syria.Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/world/mena/al-qaeda-s-re-radicalisationschools-lure-isil-fighters-in-syria-1.697124

Brownmiller, 1975Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York, NY. Ballantine Books.

Burgess-Proctor, 2006Burgess-Proctor, A. (2006). Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime: Future directions for feminist criminology. Feminist Criminology, 1(1), 2747.

Burke, 2018Burke, J. (2018, April 3). ‘The wars will never stop’ –millions flee bloodshed as Congo falls apart. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/03/millions-flee-bloodshed-as-congos-army-steps-up-fight-with-rebels-in-east

Burke, 2019Burke, J. (2019, July 8). DRC warlord ‘the terminator’ convicted of war crimes. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/08/drc-rebel-commander-bosco-ntaganda-the-terminator-convicted-over-war-crimes?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Burman, Batchelor, Brown, 2001Burman, M. J., Batchelor, S. A. & Brown, J. A. (2001). Researching girls and violence: Facing the dilemmas of fieldwork. The British Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 443459.

Buss, 2009Buss, D. E. (2009). Rethinking ‘rape as a weapon of war.’ Feminist Legal Studies 17, 145163.

Butler, 1990Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble. Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Butler, 2007Butler, J. (2007). Torture and the ethics of photography. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 25, 951966.

Button, Worthen, 2014Button, D. M., & Worthen, M. G. F. (2014). General strain theory for LGBQ and SSB youth: The importance of intersectionality in the future of feminist criminology. Feminist Criminology, 9(4), 270297.

Caldwell, 2012Caldwell, R. A. (2012). Fallgirls: Gender and the framing of torture at Abu Ghraib. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Caldwell, Mestrovic, 2008Caldwell, R. A., & Mestrovic, S. G. (2008). The role of gender in ‘expressive’ abuse at Abu Ghraib. Cultural Sociology, 2(3), 275299.

Campbell, 1993Campbell, A. (1993). Out of control: Men women and aggression. London: Pandora.

Canning, 2010Canning, V. (2010). Who’s human? Developing sociological understandings of the rights of women raped in conflict. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(6), 849864.

Cannizarro, 2016Cannizarro, S. (2016). Internet memes as internet signs: A semiotic view of digital culture. Sign Systems Studies, 44(4), 562586.

Caprioli, Douglass, 2008Caprioli, M., & Douglass, K. L. (2008). Nation building and women: The effect of intervention on women’s agency. Foreign Policy Analysis, 4(1), 4565.

Card, 1996Card, C. (1996). Rape as a weapon of war. Hypatia, 11(4), 618.

Card, 2008Card, C. (2008). The paradox of genocidal rape aimed at enforced pregnancy. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 46(1), 176189.

Carline, 2011Carline, A. (2011). Criminal justice, extreme pornography and prostitution: Protecting women or promoting morality? Sexualities, 14(3), 312333.

Carlson, 2006Carlson, E. S. (2006). The hidden prevalence of male sexual assault during war: Observations on blunt trauma to the male genitals. British Journal of Criminology, 46(1), 1625.

Carney, 2017Carney, P. (2017). How does the photograph punish? In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Carpenter, 2002Carpenter, C. R. (2002). Beyond ‘gendercide’: Incorporating gender into comparative genocide studies. The International Journal of Human Rights, 6(4), 77101.

Carpenter, 2005Carpenter, C. R. (2005). Women, children and other vulnerable groups: Gender, strategic frames and the protection of civilians as a transnational issue. International Studies Quarterly, 49(2), 295334.

Carpenter, 2006Carpenter, C. (2006). Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations. Security Dialogue, 37(1), 83103.

Carrabine, 2011Carrabine, E. (2011). Images of torture: Culture, politics and power. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(1), 530.

Carrabine, 2012Carrabine, E. (2012). Just images: Aesthetics, ethics and visual criminology. The British Journal of Criminology, 52(3), 463489.

Castro, 2018Castro, A. P. (2018). Promoting natural resource conflict management in an illiberal setting: Experiences from Central Darfur, Sudan. World Development, 109, 163171.

Cauterucci, 2017Cauterucci, C. (2017). How U.S funding cuts to the U.N. population fund will hurt women in Guatemala and beyond. Retrieved from https://slate.com/human-interest/2017/04/how-u-s-funding-cuts-to-the-u-n-population-fund-will-hurt-women-in-guatemala-and-beyond.html

Centre for Reproductive Rights, 2017Centre for Reproductive Rights. (2017). Ensuring sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and girls affected by conflict. Briefing paper. Retrieved from https://www.reproductiverights.org/document/briefing-paper-ensuring-sexual-and-reproductive-health-and-rights

Chalmers, 2015Chalmers, B. (2015). Jewish women’s sexual behavior and sexualized abuse during the Nazi era. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 24(2), 184196.

Chesney-Lind, 2006Chesney-Lind, M. (2006). Patriarchy, crime and justice: Feminist criminology in an era’ of backlash. Feminist Criminology, 1(1), 626.

Chinkin, Kaldor, 2013Chinkin, C., & Kaldor, M. (2013). Gender and new wars. Journal of International Affairs, 67(1), 167187.

Chirot, McCauley, 2006Chirot, D., & McCauley, C. (2006). Why not kill them all? The logic and prevention of mass political murder. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Christian, Safar, Ramazani, Burnham, Glass, 2011Christian, M., Safar, O., Ramazani, P., Burnham, G., & Glass, N. (2011) Sexual and gender-based violence against men in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Effects on survivors, their families and the community. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 27(4), 227246.

Chulov, 2019Chulov, M. (2019, March 24). The rise and fall of the Isis ‘caliphate.’ The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/23/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-isis-caliphate

Clark, 2017Clark, J. N. (2017). The vulnerability of the penis: Sexual violence against men in conflict and security frames. Men and Masculinities, 123. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X17724487

CNN, 2013CNN. (2013). Iraq prison abuse scandal fast facts. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/iraq-prison-abuse-scandal-fast-facts/index.html

CNN, 2019CNN. (2019). Syrian civil war facts. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/27/world/meast/syria-civil-war-fast-facts/index.html

Cockburn, 2012Cockburn, C. (2012). Gender relations as causal in militarization and war. In A. Kronsell & E. Svedberg (Eds.), Making gender, making war: Violence, military and peacekeeping practices (pp. 1934). London: Routledge.

Cockburn, 2017Cockburn, P. (2017, September 6). While defeat of Isis dominates global attention, Al-Qaeda strengthens in Syria. The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-defeatal-quaeda-syria-grow-global-attention-islamist-terrorists-jihadis-unus-west-iraq-raqqa-a7932881.html

Cohen, Green, Wood, 2013Cohen, D. K., Green, A. H, & Wood, E. J. (2013). Wartime sexual violence: Misconceptions, implications, and ways forward. Special report of the United States institute of peace. Retrieved from https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/SR323.pdf

Cohn, 2013Cohn, C. (2013). Women and wars: Toward a conceptual framework. In C. Cohn (Ed.), Women and wars (pp. 135). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Collins, 2017Collins, V. E. (2017). State crime: Women and gender. London: Routledge.

Connell, 1998Connell, R. W. (1998). Masculinities and globalization. Men and Masculinities, 1(1), 323.

Connell, 2005Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Connell, Messerschmidt, 2005Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender and Society, 19(6), 829859.

Connell, Wood, 2005Connell, R. W., & Wood, J. (2005). Globalization and business masculinities. Men and Masculinities, 7(4), 347364.

Cook, 2016Cook, K. J. (2016). Has criminology awakened from its “androcentric slumber”? Feminist Criminology, 11(4), 334353.

Cosslett, 2017Cosslett, R. (2017, January 2). This photo sums up Trump’s assault on women’s rights. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jan/24/photo-trump-womens-rights-protest-reproductive-abortion-developing-contries

Council on Foreign Relations, 2018Council on Foreign Relations. (2018). Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/interactive/global-conflict-tracker/#!/conflict/violence-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo

Crawford, 2013Crawford, K. F. (2013). From spoils to weapons: Framing wartime sexual violence. Gender Development, 21(3), 505517.

Crawford, Green, Parkinson, 2014Crawford, K. F., Green, A. H, & Parkinson, S. E. (2014, September 24). Wartime sexual violence is not just a “weapon of war.” The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/09/24/wartime-sexual-violence-is-not-just-a-weapon-of-war/

Cudd, 2008Cudd, A. E. (2008). Rape and enforced pregnancy as femicide: Comments on Claudia Card’s ‘The paradox of genocidal rape aimed at enforced pregnancy.’ The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 46, 190199.

Dakkak, 2007Dakkak, H. (2007). Tackling sexual violence, abuse and exploitation. Forced Migration Review, 39. Retrieved from https://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/iraq/dakkak.pdf

Dallman, 2009Dallman, A. (2009). Prosecuting conflict-related sexual violence at the international criminal court. SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, 1, 116.

Das, 2011Das, B. (2011). Bangladesh rape victims say war crimes overlooked. Retrieved from https://womensenews.org/2011/09/bangladesh-rape-victims-say-war-crimes-overlooked/

Davies, True, 2015Davies, S. E., & True, J. (2015). Reframing conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence: Bringing gender analysis back in. Security Dialogue, 46(6), 495512.

De Châtel, 2014De Châtel, F. (2014). The role of drought and climate change in the Syrian uprising: Untangling the triggers of the revolution. Middle Eastern Studies, 50(4), 521535.

De Juan, 2015De Juan, A. (2015). Long-term environmental change and geographical patterns of violence in Darfur, 2003–2005. Political Geography, 45, 2233.

de Waal, 2005de Waal, A. (2005). Who are the Darfurians? Arab and African identities, violence and external engagement. African Affairs, 104(415), 181205.

de Waal, Hazlett, Davenport, Kennedy, 2014de Waal, A., Hazlett, C., Davenport, C., & Kennedy, J. (2014). The epidemiology of lethal violence in Darfur: Using micro-data to explore complex patterns of ongoing armed conflict. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 368377.

Decision of the Nuremberg Special Court in the Katzenberger Race Defilement CaseDecision of the Nuremberg Special Court in the Katzenberger Race Defilement Case. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007909

Detges, 2017Detges, A. (2017). Droughts, state-citizen relations and support for political violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: A micro-level analysis. Political Geography, 61, 8898.

Digidiki, Bhabha, 2018Digidiki, V., & Bhabha, J. (2018). Sexual abuse and exploitation of unaccompanied migrant children in Greece: Identifying risk factors and gaps in services during the European migration crisis. Children and Youth Services Review, 92, 114121.

Diken, Lausten, 2005Diken, B., & Lausten, C. B. (2005). Becoming abject: Rape as a weapon of war. Body and Society, 11(1), 111128.

Dixon, 2002Dixon, R. (2002). Rape as a crime in international humanitarian law: Where from here? European Journal of International Law, 13(3), 697719.

Duncanson, 2013Duncanson, C. (2013). Forces for good? Military masculinities and peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dunn, Powell-Williams, 2007Dunn, J. L., & Powell-Williams, M. (2007). Everybody makes choices: Victim advocates and the social construction of battered women’s victimization and agency. Violence Against Women, 13(10), 9771001.

Duroch, Schulte-Hillen, 2015Duroch, F., & Schulte-Hillen, C. (2015). Care for victims of sexual violence. An organization pushed to its limits: The case of Médecins Sans Frontières. Retrieved from https://international-review.icrc.org/articles/care-victims-sexual-violence-organization-pushed-its-limits-case

Eisenman, 2007Eisenman, S. (2007). The Abu Ghraib effect. London: Reaktion Books.

Eller, 2014Eller, R. D. (2014). The war on poverty in Appalachia. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/CommInfoStudies/IRJCI/EllerPovertyWarAppalachiaOhioU.pdf

Elshtain, 1982Elshtain, J. B. (1982). On beautiful souls, just warriors and feminist consciousness. Women’s Studies International Forum, 5(3-4), 341348.

Emmanuel, 2016Emmanuel, K. I. (2016). Access to health care in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Major challenge for the poor. Journal of Nursing and Palliative Care Services (NPCS). http://hendun.org/journals/NPCS/PDF/NPCS-16-1-103.pdf

En.wikipedia.org, 2003En.wikipedia.org. (2003). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AG-10B.JPG#/media/File:AG-10.jpg

En.wikipedia.org, 2003–2004En.wikipedia.org. (2003–2004). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abu_Ghraib_48.jpg

End Violence Against Women, 2014End Violence Against Women. (2014). Submission to Amnesty International’s global policy consultation on sex work. Retrieved from https://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/EVAW_Submission_on_Amnesty_consultation_FINAL.pdf

Enloe, 2000Enloe, C. (2000). Maneuvers: The international politics of militarizing women’s lives. Berkley, CA: University California Press.

Enloe, 2010Enloe, C. (2010). Nimo’s war, Emma’s war: Making feminist sense of the Iraq war. London: University of California Press.

Erez, Adelman, Gregory, 2009Erez, E., Adelman, M., & Gregory, C. (2009). Intersections of immigration and domestic violence: Voices of battered immigrant women. Feminist Criminology, 4(1), 3256.

European CommissionEuropean Commission. (n.d.). Zaatari camp: Taking care of women and the future generation. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/echo/field-blogs/stories/zaatari-camp-taking-care-women-and-future-generation_en

European Security Strategy, 2003European Security Strategy. (2003). A secure Europe in a better world. Retrieved from https://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/2004/10/11/1df262f2-260c-486f-b414-dbf8dc112b6b/publishable_en.pdf

Farwell, 2004Farwell, N. (2004). War rape: New conceptualizations and responses. Affilia, 19(4), 389403.

Fanghanel, Milne, Zampini,, Banwell, FilddlerFanghanel, A., Milne, E., Zampini, G., Banwell, S., Filddler, M. (Forthcoming) Sex and Crime. London: Sage Publishing.

Faust, 2015Faust, A. M. (2015). The Ba’thification of Iraq: Saddam Hussein’s totalitarianism. Austin, TX: University of Texas press.

Fay, Jones, 2005Fay, G. R., & Jones, A. R. (2005). Investigation of intelligence activities at Abu Ghraib. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a429125.pdf

Fein, 1999Fein, H. (1999). Genocide and gender: The uses of women and group destiny. Journal of Genocide Research, 1(1), 4363.

Femia, Werrell, 2012Femia, F., & Werrell, C. (2012). Syria: Climate change, drought and social unrest. Retrieved from https://climateandsecurity.org/2012/02/29/syria-climate-change-drought-and-social-unrest/

Ferrales, Brehm, McElrath, 2016Ferrales, G., Brehm, H. N., & McElrath, S. (2016). Gender-based violence against men and boys in Darfur: The gender-genocide nexus. Gender and Society, 30(4), 565589.

Ferrell, 2017Ferrell, J. (2017). ‘We never, never talked about photography’: Documentary photography, visual criminology, and method. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Ferris, 2007Ferris, E. (2007). Abuse of power: Sexual exploitation of refugee women and girls. Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 32(3), 584591.

FIDH, 2012FIDH. (2012). Violence against women in Syria: Breaking the silence. Briefing paper based on an FIDH assessment mission in Jordan. Retrieved from: https://fidh.org/IMG/pdf/syria_sexual_violence-web.pdf

Finn, 2017Finn, J. (2017). Making the criminal visible: Photography and criminality. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Flaschka, 2010Flaschka, M. (2010). Only pretty women were raped: The effect of sexual violence on gender identities in concentration camps. In S. Hedgepeth & R. Saidel (Eds.), Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust (pp. 7793). Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Fogelman, 2012Fogelman, E. (2012). Rape during the Nazi Holocaust: Vulnerabilities and motivations. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Rape: Weapon of war and genocide (pp. 1528). St Paul Minnesota: Paragon House.

Ford, 2019Ford, L. (2019, April 23). UN waters down rape resolution to appease U.S’s hardline abortion stance. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/apr/23/un-resolution-passes-trump-us-veto-threat-abortion-language-removed

Foster, 2016Foster, A. M. (2016, March 9–11). Safe abortion in humanitarian settings: An overview of needs, gaps and resources. Paper presented at the 16th annual meeting of the IAWG on Reproductive Health in Crises. Dakar, Senegal. Retrieved from http://iawg.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/IAWG-16th-Annual-Meeting-6-21-16-FINAL.pdf

Foster, Arnott, Hobstetter, 2017Foster, A. M., Arnott, G., & Hobstetter, M. (2017). Community-based distribution of misoprostol for early abortion: Evaluation of a program along the Thailand-Burma border. Contraception, 96(4), 242247.

Foster, Arnott, Hobstetter, Zaw, Maung, Sietstra, Walsh, 2016Foster, A. M., Arnott, G., Hobstetter, M., Zaw, H., Maung, C., Sietstra, C., & Walsh, M. (2016). Establishing a referral system for safe and legal abortion care: A pilot project on the Thailand-Burma border. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 42(3), 151156.

Foster, Minwalla, 2018Foster, J. E., & Minwalla, S. (2018). Voices of Yazidi women: Perceptions of journalistic practices in the reporting on ISIS sexual violence. Women’s Studies International Forum, 67, 5364.

Foucault, 1977Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans). London: Penguin.

Foucault, 1978Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality. Volume I: An introduction (R. Hurley, Trans.). London: Penguin. Retrieved from https://suplaney.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/foucault-the-history-of-sexuality-volume-1.pdf

Foucault, 2015Foucault, M. (2015). The Punitive Society: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1972-1973. (G. Burchell, Trans & Ed. A.I. Davidson). Gordonsville, United States: Palgrave Macmillan (Original work published in 1972–1973).

Franklin, 2008Franklin, C. A. (2008). Women offenders, disparate treatment, and criminal justice: A theoretical, historical, and contemporary overview. Criminal Justice Studies, 21(4), 341360.

Freccero, Biswas, Whiting, Alrabe, Seelinger, 2017Freccero, J., Biswas, D., Whiting, A., Alrabe, K., & Seelinger, K. T. (2017). Sexual exploitation of unaccompanied migrant and refugee boys in Greece: Approaches to prevention. PLoS Med., 14(11), e1002438. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002438

Freedman, 2016Freedman, J. (2016). Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: A hidden aspect of the refugee “crisis.” Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), 1826.

Freedman, 2011Freedman, J. (2011). Explaining sexual violence and gender inequalities in the DRC. Peace Review, 23(2), 170175.

Friedman, 2002Friedman, J. (2002). Speaking the unspeakable: Essays on sexuality, gender, and the Holocaust survivor memory. Maryland: University Press of America.

GAPS UK, 2013GAPS UK. (2013). Response to the preventing sexual violence Initiative. Unpublished briefing paper circulated prior to the ESVC Summit.

Garber, 2013Garber, M. (2013, July 15). Night witches: The female fighter pilots of World War II members of the 588th night bomber regiment decorated their planes with flowers … and dropped 23,000 tons of bombs. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/07/night-witches-the-female-fighter-pilots-of-world-war-ii/277779/

Gentry, Sjoberg, 2015Gentry, C. E., & Sjoberg, L. (2015). Beyond mothers, monsters, whores: Thinking about women’s violence in global politics. London: Zed books.

George, Shepherd, 2016George, N., & Shepherd, L. (2016). Women, peace and security: Exploring the implementation and integration of UNSCR 1325. International Political Science Review, 37(3), 297306.

Gies, 2017Gies, L. (2017). Staged imagery of killing and torture: Ethical and normative dimensions of seeing. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Gilbert, 2002Gilbert, P. (2002). Discourses of female violence and societal gender stereotypes. Violence Against Women, 8(11), 12711300.

Girls not Brides, 2017Girls not Brides. (2017). Child marriage and the Syrian conflict: 7 things you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/child-marriage-and-the-syrian-conflict-7-things-you-need-to-know/

Gleick, 2014Gleick, P. H. (2014). Water, drought, climate change, and conflict in Syria. Weather, Climate and Society, 6, 331340.

Global Citizen, 2017Global Citizen. (2017). The details of Trump’s proposed foreign aid cuts are devastating. Retrieved from https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/trump-foreign-aid-cuts-report/

Global Justice Centre, 2011Global Justice Centre. (2011). The right to an abortion for girls and women raped in armed conflict: States’ positive obligations to provide non-discriminatory medical care under the Geneva conventions. Retrieved from http://globaljusticecenter.net/documents/LegalBrief.RightToAnAbortion.February2011.pdf

Global Witness, 2016Global Witness. (2016). River of Gold. How the state lost out in an eastern Congo gold boom, while armed groups, a foreign mining company and provincial authorities pocketed millions. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/River_of_gold.pdf

Gobat, Kostial, 2016Gobat, J., & Kostial, K. (2016). International monetary fund working paper: Syria’s conflict economy. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2016/wp16123.pdf

Goetze, 2008Goetze, K. (2008). Special report: Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Institute for War and Peace Reporting: Netherlands International Justice Programme. Retrieved from http://www.ceipaz.org/images/contenido/Sexual%20violence%20in%20the%20Democratic%20Republic%20of%20Congo.pdf

Goldenberg, 1998Goldenberg, M. (1998). Memoirs of Auschwitz survivors: The burden of gender. In D. Ofer & L. Weitzman (Eds.), Women in the Holocaust (pp. 327339). New Heaven: Yale University Press.

Goldenberg, 2013Goldenberg, M. (2013). Sex-based violence and the politics and ethics of survival. In M. Goldenberg & A. Shapiro (Eds.), Different horrors, same hell: Gender and the Holocaust (pp. 99127). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Gong-Gershowitz, 2009Gong-Gershowitz, J. (2009). Forced marriage: A “new” crime against humanity? Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 8(1), 5376.

Gorris, 2015Gorris, E. A. P. (2015). Invisible victims? Where are male victims of conflict-related sexual violence in international law and policy? European Journal of Women’s Studies, 24(4), 412427.

Gradinaru, 2018Gradinaru, C. (2018). GIFs as floating signifiers. Sign Systems Studies 46(2/3), 294318.

Gronnvoll, 2017Gronnvoll, M. (2017). Gender (in)visibility at Abu Ghraib. Faculty Research and Creative Activity. Retrieved from https://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1001&context=commstudies_fac

Grey, 2017Grey, R. (2017). The ICC’s first ‘forced pregnancy’ case in historical perspective. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 15(5), 905930.

Grey, Shepherd, 2012Grey, R., & Shepherd, L. J. (2012). “Stop rape now?”: Masculinity, responsibility, and conflict-related sexual violence. Men and Masculinities, 16(1), 115135.

Grundhauser, 2015Grundhauser, E. (2015, June 25). The little-known story of the night witches, an all-female force in WWII. Vanity Fair. Retrieved from https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2015/06/night-witches-wwii-female-pilots

Grundlingh, 2018Grundlingh, L. (2018). Memes as speech acts. Social Semiotics, 28(2), 147168.

Gupta, 2016Gupta, R. (2016). Understanding the war in Syria and the roles of external players: Way out of the quagmire? The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 105(1), 2941.

Gurashi, 2017Gurashi, R. (2017, May 19–20). Beyond hyper capitalism: Can the sharing economy reshape sustainable development? Paper presented at the 13th International Conference of ASECU, Durres, Albania. Retrieved from http://www.asecu.gr/files/13th_conf_files/Beyond-Hyper-Capitalism-Can-the-Sharing-Economy-Reshape-Sustainable-Development.pdf

Haenen, 2013Haenen, I. (2013). The parameters of enslavement and the act of forced marriage. International Criminal Law Review, 13, 895915.

Hagan, Kaiser, 2015Hagan, J., & Kaiser, J. (2015). Gendered genocide: The socially destructive process of genocidal rape, killing, and displacement in Darfur. Law and Society Review, 49(1), 69107.

Hagan, Kaiser, Rothenberg, Hanson, Parker, 2012Hagan, J., Kaiser, J., Rothenberg, D., Hanson, A., & Parker, P. (2012). Atrocity victimization and the costs of economic conflict crimes in the battle for Baghdad and Iraq. European Journal of Criminology, 9(5), 481498.

Hagan, Rymond-Richmond, 2008Hagan, J., & Rymond-Richmond, W. (2008). The collective dynamics of racial dehumanization and genocidal victimization in Darfur. American Sociological Review, 73(6), 875902.

Hagan, Rymond-Richmond, Parker, 2005Hagan, J., Rymond-Richmond, W., & Parker, P. (2005). The criminology of genocide: The death and rape of Darfur. Criminology, 43(3), 525561.

Hakamies, Geissler, Borchert, 2008Hakamies, N., Geissler, P. W., & Borchert, M. (2008). Providing reproductive health care to internally displaced persons: Barriers experienced by humanitarian agencies. Reproductive Health Matters, 16(31), 3343.

Halbmayr, 2010Halbmayr, B. (2010). Sexualized violence against women during Nazi ‘racial’ persecution. In S. Hedgepeth & R. Saidel (Eds.), Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust (pp. 2944). Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Hassan, 2007Hassan, N. (2007, June 24). 50,000 Iraqi refugees forced into prostitution. Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/50000-iraqi-refugees-forced-into-prostitution-5333575.html

Haveman, Smeulers, 2008Haveman, R., & Smeulers, A. (2008). Supranational criminology: Towards a criminology of international crimes. Antwerp: Intersentia.

Heck, Schlag, 2013Heck, A., & Schlag, G. (2013). Securitizing images: The female body and the war in Afghanistan. European Journal of International Relations, 19(4), 891913.

Hedgepeth, Saidel, 2010Hedgepeth, S., & Saidel, R. (Eds.) (2010). Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust. Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Heit, 2009Heit, S. (2009). Waging sexual warfare: Case studies of rape warfare used by the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. Women’s Studies International Forum, 32, 363370.

Henne, Shah, 2016Henne, K., & Shah, R. (2016). Feminist criminology and the visual. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology. Retrieved from http://oxfordre.com/criminology/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-56#

Henne, Troshynski, 2013Henne, K., & Troshynski, E. (2013). Mapping the margins of intersectionality: Criminological possibilities in a transnational world. Theoretical Criminology, 17(4), 455473.

Henry, 2014Henry, N. (2014). The fixation on wartime rape: Feminist critique and international criminal law. Social and Legal Studies, 23(1), 9311.

Henry, 2016Henry, N. (2016). Theorizing wartime rape: Deconstructing gender, sexuality, and violence. Gender & Society, 30(1), 4456.

Herring, G. Rangwala, 2005Herring, E., & G. Rangwala, G. (2005). Iraq, imperialism and global governance. Third World Quarterly, 26(4–5), 667683.

Hersh, 2004Hersh, S. (2004, April 30). Torture at Abu Ghraib: American soldiers brutalized Iraqis. How far up does the responsibility go? The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2004/05/10/torture-at-abu-ghraib

Highgate, 2007Highgate, P. (2007). Peacekeepers, masculinities, and sexual exploitation. Men and Masculinities, 10(1), 99119.

Hirschauer, 2014Hirschauer, S. (2014). The securitization of rape: Women, war and sexual violence. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hodalska, 2017Hodalska, M. (2017). Selfies at horror sites: Dark tourism, ghoulish souvenirs and digital narcissism. Zeszyty Prasoznawcze, 2(230), 405423. Retrieved from http://www.ejournals.eu/Zeszyty-Prasoznawcze/2017/2-230/art/10331/

Holland, 2009Holland, S. L. (2009). The enigmatic Lynndie England: Gendered explanations for the crisis at Abu Ghraib. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6(3), 246264.

Holmes, 2007Holmes, J. (2007, October 11). Congo’s rape war. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2007-oct-11-oe-holmes11-story.html

Home Office, 2018Home Office. (2018). Country policy and information note DRC: Gender-based violence. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/742590/DRC._GBV._2018.v2_ext__003_.pdf

Homer-DixonHomer-Dixon, T. (n.d.). Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: Evidence from cases. Retrieved from https://homerdixon.com/environmental-scarcities-and-violent-conflict-evidence-from-cases/

Hooper, 2001Hooper, C. (2001). Manly states: Masculinities, international relations and gender politics. New York, NY: Columbia Press.

Horowitz, 1998Horowitz, S. (1998). Women in the Holocaust literature: Engendering trauma memory. In D. Ofer & L. Weitzman (Eds.), Women in the Holocaust (pp. 364377). New Heaven: Yale University Press.

Hossain, 2016Hossain, A. (2016). Why is the mass sexualized violence of Bangladesh’s liberation war being ignored? Retrieved from https://womenintheworld.com/2016/03/25/why-is-the-mass-sexualized-violence-of-bangladeshs-liberation-war-being-ignored/

House of Lords, 2016House of Lords. (2016). Select committee on sexual violence in conflict. Report of session 2015–16. Report No. 123. Retrieved from https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201516/ldselect/ldsvc/123/123.pdf

Howard, Prividera, 2008Howard III, J. W., & Prividera, L. C. (2008). The fallen woman archetype: Media representations of Lynndie England, gender, and the (ab)uses of U.S. female soldiers. Women’s Studies in Communication, 31(3), 287311.

Howe, 2008Howe, A. (2008). Violence against women: Rethinking the local-global nexus. In M. Cain & A. Howe (Eds.), Women, crime and social harm: Towards a criminology for the global era (pp. 3755). Oxford: Hart publishing.

Hristova, 2013Hristova, S. (2013). ‘Doing a Lynndie’: Iconography of a gesture. Visual Anthropology, 26(5), 430443.

Human Rights and Gender Justice, MADRE, The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 2016Human Rights and Gender Justice, MADRE, The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. (2016). Human rights violations against women and girls in Syria. Submission to the UN universal periodic review of The Syrian Arab Republic. Retrieved from https://www.madre.org/sites/default/files/PDFs/Syria%20UPR%20submission%20Final.pdf

Human Rights Council (HRC), 2016Human Rights Council (HRC). (2016). They came to destroy: ISIS crimes against the Yazidis. Report No. A/HRC/32/CRP.2. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A_HRC_32_CRP.2_en.pdf

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 1999Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1999). World report: The Democratic Republic of Congo. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/legacy/worldreport99/africa/drc.html

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2002Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2002). The war within the war: Sexual violence against women and girls in Eastern Congo. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/drc/Congo0602.pdf

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2003Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2003). Climate of fear: Sexual violence and abduction of women and girls in Baghdad. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/iraq0703/iraq0703.pdf

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2005Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2005). Seeking justice: The prosecution of sexual violence in the Congo war. Human Rights Watch, 17 1(A), i53.

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2006Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2006). Democratic Republic of Congo: On the brink. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2006/08/01/democratic-republic-congo-brink

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2008Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2008). Congo advocacy coalition: Update on protection of civilians in Eastern Congo’s peace process. Retrieved from https://cdn.globalwitness.org/archive/files/pdfs/congo_advocacy_coalition_update_july_2008_english.pdf

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2011Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2011). At a crossroads: Human rights eight years after the US-led invasion. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2011/02/21/crossroads/human-rights-iraq-eight-years-after-us-led-invasion#

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2014aHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2014a). No one is safe: Abuses of women in Iraq’s criminal justice system. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/02/06/no-one-safe/abuse-women-iraqs-criminal-justice-system#

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2014bHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2014b). World report 2014 Iraq. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2014/country-chapters/iraq

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2014cHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2014c). We are still here: Women on the front lines of Syria’s conflict. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/07/02/we-are-still-here/women-front-lines-syrias-conflict

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2015aHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2015a). Iraq: ISIS escapees describe systematic rape: Yezidi survivors in need of urgent care. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/14/iraq-isis-escapees-describe-systematic-rape

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2015bHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2015b). As though we are not human beings: Police brutality against migrants and asylum seekers in Macedonia. Retrieved from https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1280234/1002_1442920879_macedonia0915-4up.pdf

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2016aHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2016a). Growing up without an education: Barriers to education for Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/19/growing-without-education/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children-lebanon

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2016bHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2016b). “We’re afraid for their future:” Barriers to education for Syrian refugee children in Jordan. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/08/16/were-afraid-their-future/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children-jordan

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2017Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2017). Iraq: Events of 2016. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017/country-chapters/iraq

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2018aHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2018a). Iraq: Events of 2017. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/iraq

Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2018bHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2018b). Democratic Republic of Congo events of 2017. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/democratic-republic-congo

Huntington, 2013Huntington, H. E. (2013). Subversive memes: Internet memes as a form of visual rhetoric. Selected Papers of Internet Research, 14. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bfd2/63e65405d8807403fda06dccc70526100e2d.pdf?_ga=2.9172605.955758820.1563460049-533432257.1563460049

Institute for Security Studies Africa, 2016Institute for Security Studies Africa. (2016). Is the illegal trade in Congolese minerals financing terror? Retrieved from https://www.defenceweb.co.za/security/national-security/iss-is-the-illegal-trade-in-congolese-minerals-financing-terror/

Inter-agency, 2013Inter-agency. (2013). Gender-based violence and child protection among Syrian refugees in Jordan, with a focus on early marriage. Retrieved from http://www.refworld.org/docid/52cfa5d14.html

Inter-agency Information and Analysis Unit (IAU), 2008Inter-agency Information and Analysis Unit (IAU). (2008). Gender-based violence in Iraq: The effects of violence - real and perceived – on the lives of women, girls, men and boys in Iraq. Retrieved from http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/824%20gender%20violence%20in%20Iraq.pdf

Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, 2010Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises. (2010). Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings. Revision for field review. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305149/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK305149.pdf

Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, 2011Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises. (2011). Minimal initial service package. Retrieved from http://iawg.net/minimum-initial-service-package/

Isenberg, 2011Isenberg, D. (2011, October 19). The neoliberal wars. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-neoliberal-wars_b_1016328

Jabbra, 2006Jabbra, N. W. (2006). Women, words and war: Explaining 9/11 and justifying U.S. military action in Afghanistan and Iraq. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 8(1), 236255.

Jacobson, 2013Jacobson, R. (2013). Women ‘after’ wars. In C. Cohn (Ed.), Women and wars (pp. 215241). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Jamjoom, 2009Jamjoom, M. (2009). War forces Iraqi mom into prostitution. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/11/02/iraq.prostitute/index.html

Jenkins, 2012Jenkins, S. D. (2012). Preliminary assessment of trafficking in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Retrieved from https://iccforum.com/media/sdj_human_rights_project/2012-03_SDJ_Human_Rights_Project_at_UCLA_Report-Trafficking_in_the_DRC.pdf

John, 2016John, V. M. (2016). The dangers of educated girls and women. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 11(2), 184196.

Jones, 2000Jones, A. (2000). Gendercide and genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 2(2), 185211.

Jones, 2002Jones, A. (2002). Gender and genocide in Rwanda. Journal of Genocide Research, 4(1), 6594.

Kaiser Family Foundation, 2019Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019). UNFPA funding & Kemp-Kasten: An explainer. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/fact-sheet/unfpa-funding-kemp-kasten-an-explainer/

Kaiser, Hagan, 2015Kaiser, J., & Hagan, J. (2015). Gendered genocide: The socially destructive process of genocidal rape, killing, and displacement in Darfur. Law and Society Review, 49(1), 69107.

Kaldor, 1999Kaldor, M. (1999). New and old wars: Organized violence in a global era. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kaldor, 2013Kaldor, M. (2013). In defense of new wars. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 2(1). ISSN 2165–2627. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/49500/

Kamp, 2009Kamp, M. (2009). Fragmented citizenship: Communalism, ethnicity and gender in Iraq. In N, Al-Ali, & N. Pratt (Eds.), Women and war in the middle east: Transnational perspectives (pp. 193216). London: Zed Books.

Kanopka, 1966Kanopka, G. (1966). The Adolescent girl in conflict. Prentice Hall: New Jersey.

Karim, Beardsley, 2016Karim, S., & Beardsley, K. (2016). Explaining sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions: The role of female peacekeepers and gender equality in contributing countries. Journal of Peace Research, 53(1), 100115.

Katz, 2012Katz, S. (2012). Thoughts on the intersection of rape and Rassenschande during the Holocaust. Modern Judaism Online, 32(3), 293322.

Kelley, Mohtadi, Cane, Seager, Kushnir, 2015Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Cane, M. A., Seager, R., & Kushnir, Y. (2015). Climate change in the fertile crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(11), 32413246.

Kelly, 1988Kelly, L. (1988). Surviving sexual violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kempadoo, 2001Kempadoo, K. (2001). Women of color and the global sex trade: Transnational feminist perspectives. Meridians, 1(2), 2851.

Kennedy, Patrick, 2014Kennedy, L., & Patrick, C. (2014). Introduction. In L. Kennedy & C, Patrick (Eds.), The violence of the image: Photography and international conflict (pp. 1-6) London: I.B.Tauris.

Khan, 2014Khan, S. (2014). The two faces of Afghan women: Oppressed and exotic. Women’s Studies International Forum, 44, 101109.

Kim, Merlo, 2014Kim, B., & Merlo, A. V. (2014). Comparative/international research on women and crime: Analysis of ASC and ESC annual meeting presentations. Feminist Criminology, 9(4), 382407.

Kimm, Sauer, 2010Kimm, S., & Sauer, B. (2010). Discourses on forced prostitution, trafficking in women, and football: A comparison of anti-trafficking campaigns during the World Cup 2006 and the European Championship 2008. Soccer & Society, 11(6), 815828.

Kirby, 2012Kirby, P. (2012). How is rape a weapon of war? Feminist international relations, modes of critical explanation and the study of wartime sexual violence. European Journal International Relations, 19(4), 797821.

Kirby, 2015aKirby, P. (2015a). Acting time; or, the abolitionist and the feminist. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(3), 508513.

Kirby, 2015bKirby, P. (2015b). Ending sexual violence in conflict: The preventing sexual violence initiative and its critics. International Affairs, 91(3), 457472.

Klem, 2003Klem, B. (2003). Dealing with scarcity and violent conflict. Working Paper No. 24. Retrieved from https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20031000_cru_working_paper_24.pdf

Know Your Meme. Lynndie England PoseKnow Your Meme. Lynndie England Pose. (n.d). Retrieved from https://knowyourmeme.com/memes/lynndie-england-pose

Kramer, Michalowski, 2005Kramer, R. C., & Michalowski, R. J. (2005). War, aggression and state crime: A criminological analysis of the invasion and occupation of Iraq. The British Journal of Criminology, 45(4), 446469.

Kramer, Michalowski, 2011Kramer, R. C., & Michalowski, R. J. (2011). Empire and exceptionalism: The Bush administration’s criminal war against Iraq. In D. Rothe & C. Mullins (Eds.), State crime: Current perspectives (pp. 94121). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Krause, Williams, Onyango, Sami, Doedens, Giga, Tomczyk, 2015Krause, S., Williams, H., Onyango, M. A., Sami, S., Doedens, W., Giga, N., … Tomczyk, B. (2015). Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: An evaluation of the minimum initial services package. Conflict and Health, 9(1), 110.

Kristeva, 1982Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of horror: An essay on abjection (L. S. Roudiez, Trans.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Krsteva, Donev, Iliev, 2018Krsteva, M., Donev, D., & Iliev, K. (2018). New media content: Meme. Yearbook – Faculty of Philology, 9(12), 135138.

Krylova, 2016Krylova, A. (2016). Gender binary and the limits of poststructuralist method. Gender and History, 28(2), 307323.

La Capra, 1994La Capra, D. (1994). Representing the Holocaust: History, theory and trauma. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Lang, 2010Lang, J. (2010). Questioning dehumanization: Intersubjective dimensions of violence in the Nazi concentration and death camps. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 24(2), 225246.

Leatherman, 2011Leatherman, J. (2011). Sexual violence and armed conflict. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lee-Koo, 2011Lee-Koo, K. (2011). Gender-based violence against civilian women in postinvasion Iraq: (Re) politicizing George W. Bush’s silent legacy. Violence Against Women, 17(12), 16191634.

Leiby, 2009Leiby, M. L. (2009). Wartime sexual violence in Guatemala and Peru. International Studies Quarterly, 53, 445468.

Leitner, 1993Leitner, I. (1993). Fragments of Isabella: A memoir of Auschwitz. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Different voices: Women and the Holocaust (pp. 6568). New York, NY: Paragon House (Original work published in 1978).

Lentin, 1999Lentin, R. (1999). The rape of the nation: Women narrativising genocide. Sociological Research Online, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/4/2/lentin.html

Levenkron, 2010Levenkron, N. (2010). Death and the maidens: Prostitution, rape and sexual slavery during World War II. In S. Hedgepeth & R. Saidel (Eds.), Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust (pp. 1328). Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Lewis, 2009Lewis, D. A. (2009). Unrecognized victims: Sexual violence against men in conflict settings under international law. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 27(1), 149.

Linfield, 2012Linfield, S. (2012). The cruel radiance: Photography and political violence. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Linos, 2009Linos, N. (2009). Rethinking gender-based violence during war: Is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing? Social Science & Medicine, 68(8), 15481551.

Lobasz, 2008Lobasz, J. K. (2008). The woman in peril and the ruined woman: Representations of female soldiers in the Iraq war. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, 29(3), 305334.

Lombroso, Ferrero, 2004Lombroso, C., & Ferrero, W. (2004). Criminal woman, the prostitute and the normal woman (N. Hahn-Raftrer & M. Gibson, Trans. & Eds.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press (Original work published in 1893).

Looney, 2004Looney, R. (2004). Neoliberalism in a conflict state: The viability of economic shock therapy in Iraq. Strategic Insights, 3(6), 111.

Luneghe, 2017Luneghe, M. K. (2017). Lacking doctors, clinics, and equipment, reproductive health care scarce in North Kivu. Global Press Journal. Retrieved from https://globalpressjournal.com/africa/democratic-republic-of-congo/lacking-doctors-clinics-equipment-reproductive-health-care-scarce-north-kivu/

Mackenzie, 2010Mackenzie, M. (2010). Securitizing sex? International Feminist Journal of Politics, 12(2), 202221.

Maclean, 2017Maclean, R. (2017, December 13). Congolese fighters convicted of raping young girls in landmark case. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/dec/13/congolese-fighters-convicted-raping-toddlers-young-girls-landmark-case

Maier-Katkin, Mears, Bernard, 2009Maier-Katkin, D., Mears, D. P., & Bernard, T. (2009). Towards a criminology of crimes against humanity. Theoretical Criminology, 13(2), 227255.

Managhan, 2012Managhan, T. (2012). Gender, agency and war: The maternalized body in US foreign policy. London: Rutledge.

Manjoo, McRaith, 2011Manjoo, R., & McRaith, C. (2011). Gender-based violence and justice in conflict and post-conflict areas. Cornell International Law Journal, 44, 1131.

Mantz, 2008Mantz, J. (2008). Improvisational economies: Coltan production in the eastern Congo. Social Anthropology, 16(1), 3450.

Marchant, 2019Marchant, L. (2019). How do internet memes speak security? Contemporary Voices, 1(2), 3962.

Marcovich, 2010Marcovich, M. (2010). Trafficking, sexual exploitation and prostitution of women and girls in Iraq. Retrieved from http://www.catwinternational.org/Content/Images/Article/149/attachment.pdf

Mason, 2018Mason, A. (2018). The vital role of women in the Second World War. Retrieved from https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-vital-role-of-women-in-the-second-world-war

Mason, 2005Mason, C. (2005). The hillbilly defense: Culturally mediating U.S. terror at home and abroad. NWSA Journal, 17(3), 3963.

Mason, Stubbs, 2010Mason, G., & Stubbs, J. (2010). Feminist approaches to criminological research. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228134204_Feminist_Approaches_to_Criminological_Research

Mason-Jones, Nicholson, 2018Mason-Jones, A. J., & Nicholson, P. (2018). Structural violence and marginalization. The sexual and reproductive health experiences of separated young people on the move. A rapid review with relevance to the European humanitarian crisis. Public Health, 158, 156162.

Masterson, 2013Masterson, A. R. (2013). Reproductive health and gender-based violence in Syrian refugee women. Public Health Theses. Retrieved from https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.co.uk/&httpsredir=1&article=1242&context=ysphtd

Masterson, Usta, Gupta, Ettinger, 2014Masterson, A. R, Usta, J., Gupta, J., & Ettinger, A. S. (2014). Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon. BioMed Central Women’s Health, 14(25), 18.

Maya, 2012Maya, M. (2012). Mobile courts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Complementarity in Action? American Bar Association Rule of Law Initiative. Retrieved from https://worldjusticeproject.org/news/mobile-courts-democratic-republic-congo-complementarity-action

Mbambi, Faray-Kele, 2010Mbambi, A., & Faray-Kele, M. C. (2010). Gender inequality and social institutions in the DRC. Retrieved from https://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/hrinst_genderinequalityinthedrc_wilpf_december2010english_0.pdf

McKinnon, 2016McKinnon, S. L. (2016). Gender violence as global phenomenon: Refugees, genital surgeries, and neocolonial projects of the United States. Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies, 16(4), 414426.

Meger, 2010Meger, S. (2010). Rape of the Congo: Understanding sexual violence in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 28(2), 119135.

Meger, 2015Meger, S. (2015). Toward a feminist political economy of wartime sexual violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(3), 416434.

Meger, 2016aMeger, S. (2016a). Rape loot pillage: The political economy of sexual violence in armed conflict. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Meger, 2016bMeger, S. (2016b). The fetishization of sexual violence in international security. International Studies Quarterly, 60(1), 149159.

Merelli, 2017Merelli, A. (2017, November 22). Rohingya, Syrian, and Yemeni women are paying for Trump’s ideological withdrawal of UN funds. Quarts. Retrieved from https://qz.com/1135083/rohingya-syrian-and-yemeni-women-are-paying-for-trumps-ideological-withdrawal-of-un-funds/

Mertens, Pardy, 2017Mertens, C., & Pardy, M. (2017). ‘Sexurity’ and its effects in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Third World Quarterly, 38(4), 956979.

Mertus, 2004Mertus, J. (2004). Shouting from the bottom of the well: The impact of international trials for wartime rape on women’s agency. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 6(1), 110128.

Micha, About-Atta, Macaud, Barnes, 2011Micha, A., About-Atta, I., Macaud, M. C., & Barnes, S. (2011). Karamatuna: An investigation into the sex trafficking of Iraqi women and girls. Retrieved from https://www.peacewomen.org/assets/file/karamatuna-web_resource.pdf

Michalowski, Kramer, 2007Michalowski R. J., & Kramer R. C (2007). State-corporate crime and criminological Inquiry. In H. N. Pontell & G. Geis, (Eds.), International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime (pp. 200219). Boston, MA: Springer.

Milner, 2012Milner, R. M. (2012). The world made meme: Discourse and identity in participatory media. KU Scholar Works. Retrieved from https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/10256

Mirzoeff, 2011Mirzoeff, N. (2011). The right to look. Critical Inquiry, 37(3), 473496.

Mohanty, 1988Mohanty, C. (1988). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Feminist Review, 30, 61-88.

Mookherjee, 2006Mookherjee, N. (2006). Remembering to forget: Public secrecy and memory of sexual violence in the Bangladesh war of 1971. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 12(2), 433450.

Mookherjee, 2007Mookherjee, N. (2007). Available motherhood: Legal technologies, ‘state of exception’ and the dekinning of ‘war-babies’ in Bangladesh. Childhood, 14(3), 339354.

Mookherjee, 2015Mookherjee, N. (2015). The raped woman as a horrific sublime and the Bangladesh war of 1971. Journal of Material Culture, 20(4), 379395.

Motoyama, 2018Motoyama, H. (2018). Formulating Japan’s UNSCR 1325 national action plan and forgetting the “comfort women.” International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20(1), 3953.

Mourtada, Schlecht, DeJong, 2017Mourtada, R., Schlecht, J., & DeJong, J. (2017). A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon. Conflict and Health, 11(1), 5365.

MSF, 2016MSF. (2016). In Mambasa, MSF teams provide care to four new rape survivors each day. Retrieved from https://www.msf.org/democratic-republic-congo-mambasa-msf-teams-provide-care-four-new-rape-survivors-each-day

Mudgway, 2017Mudgway, C. (2017). Sexual exploitation by UN peacekeepers: The ‘survival sex’ gap in international human rights law. The International Journal of Human Rights, 21(9), 14531476.

Muir, 2017Muir, J. (2017, October 17). Islamic state: Raqqa’s loss seals rapid rise and fall. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-35695648

Mullins, 2009aMullins, C. W. (2009a). “He would kill me with his penis”: Genocidal rape in Rwanda as a state crime. Critical Criminology, 17(1), 1533.

Mullins, 2009bMullins, C. W. (2009b). “We are going to rape you and taste Tutsi women:” Rape during the 1994 Rwandan genocide. British Journal of Criminology, 49(6), 719735.

Mullins, Rothe, 2008Mullins, C., & Rothe, D. (2008). Gold, diamonds and blood: International state-corporate crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Contemporary Justice Review, 11(2), 8199.

Murphy, 2007Murphy, A. (2007). The missing rhetoric of gender in responses to Abu Ghraib. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 8(2), 2034.

Mythen, Walklate, 2006Mythen, G., & Walklate, S. (2006). Criminology and terrorism: Which thesis? Risk society or governmentality. British Journal of Criminology, 46(3), 379398.

Mythen, Walklate, 2008Mythen, G., & Walklate, S. (2008). Terrorism, risk and international security: The perils of asking what if? Security Dialogue, 39(2), 221242.

Nayak, 2006Nayak, M. (2006). Orientalism and ‘saving’ US state identity after 9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 4261.

Nduka-Agwu, 2009Nduka-Agwu, A. (2009). Doing gender after the war: Dealing with gender mainstreaming and sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peace support operations in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Civil Wars, 11(2), 179199.

Nordberg, 2014Nordberg, J. (2014). The underground girls of Kabul: The hidden lives of Afghan girls disguised as Boys. London: Virago.

O’Brien, 2011O’Brien, M. (2011). Sexual exploitation and beyond: Using the Rome statute of the international criminal court to prosecute UN peacekeepers for gender-based crimes. International Criminal Law Review, 11(4), 803827.

O’Brien, 2016O’Brien, M. (2016). “Don’t kill them, let’s choose them as wives”: The development of the crimes of forced marriage, sexual slavery and enforced prostitution in international criminal law. The International Journal of Human Rights, 20(3), 386406.

O’Connor, 2017O’Connor, M. (2017). Choice, agency consent and coercion: Complex issues in the lives of prostituted and trafficked women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 62, 816.

Ohambe, Muhigwa, Wa Mamba, 2005Ohambe, O. M. C., Muhigwa, J. B. B., & Wa Mamba, B. M. (2005). Women’s bodies as a battleground: Sexual violence against women and girls during the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Kivu (1996-2003). Retrieved from https://www.international-alert.org/sites/default/files/publications/women’s-bodies-as-a-english.pdf

Olivius, 2016aOlivius, E. (2016a). Refugee men as perpetrators, allies or troublemakers? Emerging discourses on men and masculinities in humanitarian aid. Women’s Studies International Forum, 56, 5665.

Olivius, 2016bOlivius, E. (2016b). Constructing humanitarian selves and refugee others. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 18(2), 270290.

Olsson, Siba, 2013Olsson, O., & Siba, E. (2013). Ethnic cleansing or resource struggle in Darfur? An empirical analysis. Journal of Development Economics, 103, 299312.

Onsrud, Sj⊘veian., Luhiriri, Mukwege, 2008Onsrud, M., Sj⊘veian. S, Luhiriri, R., & Mukwege, D. (2008). Sexual violence-related fistulas in the Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 103(3), 265269.

Onyango, Burkhardt, Scott, Rouhani, Haider, Greiner, Bartels, 2016Onyango, M. A., Burkhardt, G., Scott, J., Rouhani, S., Haider, S., Greiner, A., … Bartels, S. (2016). A qualitative analysis of disclosure patterns among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS ONE, 11(10), 113.

Oosterhoff, Zwanikken, Ketting, 2004Oosterhoff, P., Zwanikken, P., & Ketting, E. (2004). Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: An open secret. Reproductive Health Matters, 12(23), 6877.

Orend, 2000Orend, B. (2000). Jus post bellum. Journal of Social Philosophy, 31(1), 117137.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2015Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2015). Mineral supply chains and conflict links in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Five years of implementing supply chain due diligence. Retrieved from http://mneguidelines.oecd.org/Mineral-Supply-Chains-DRC-Due-Diligence-Report.pdf

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2017Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2017). Gender equality and women’s empowerment in fragile and conflict-affected situations: A review of donor support. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/conflict-fragility-resilience/docs/Gender_equality_in_fragile_situations_2017.pdf

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2019Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2019). Social institutions gender index: DRC. Retrieved from https://www.genderindex.org/wp-content/uploads/files/datasheets/2019/CD.pdf

Organization of Women’s Freedom in Iraq (OWFI), 2010Organization of Women’s Freedom in Iraq (OWFI). (2010). Prostitution and trafficking of women and girls in Iraq. Retrieved from http://www.fondationscelles.org/pdf/prostitutionandtrafficking-OWFIreport.pdf

Owen, 2011Owen, M. (2011). Widowhood issues in the context of united nations security council resolution 1325. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13(4), 616622.

Oxfam International, 2009Oxfam International. (2009). In her own words: Iraqi women talk about their greatest challenges. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/5502ECEE4FF6F3C1C1257570004373F7-Full_Report.pdf

Parker, Reckdenwald, 2008Parker, K., & Reckdenwald, A. (2008). Women and crime in context: Examining the linkages between patriarchy and female offending across space. Feminist Criminology, 3(1), 524.

Patterson, 2013Patterson, D. (2013). The Nazi assault on the Jewish soul through the murder of the Jewish mother. In M. Goldenberg & A. Shapiro (Eds.), Different horrors, same hell: Gender and the Holocaust (pp. 163176). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Pauwels, 2017Pauwels, L. (2017). Key methods of visual criminology: An overview of different approaches and their affordances. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge.

Pennington, 2010Pennington, R. (2010). Offensive women: Women in combat in the Red Army in the Second World War. The Journal of Military History, 74(3), 775820.

Perl, 1993Perl, G. (1993). I was a doctor in Auschwitz. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Different voices: Women and the Holocaust (pp. 104118). New York, NY: Paragon House (Original work published in 1984).

Person, 2015Person, K. (2015). Sexual violence during the Holocaust: The case of forced prostitution in the Warson Ghetto. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, 33(2), 103121.

Peters, 2006Peters, T. (2006). Mad, bad, or victim? Making sense of mother-daughter sexual abuse. Feminist Criminology, 1(4), 283302.

Peterson, 2009Peterson, V. S. (2009). Gendering informal economies. In N. Al-Ali & N. Pratt (Eds.), Women and war in the Middle East: Transnational perspectives (pp. 3564). London: Zed Books.

Pickles, 2016Pickles, S. (2016, December 1). Managing the risk of illegal mining and conflict minerals in global supply chains. Retrieved from https://blogs.thomsonreuters.com/answerson/managing-risk-illegal-mining-conflict-minerals-global-supply-chains/

Poitras, 2016Poitras, L. (2016). Astral noise. Retrieved from https://whitney.org/Exhibitions/LauraPoitras

Pollack, 2007Pollack, S. (2007). “I’m just not good in relationships:” Victimization discourses and the gendered regulation of criminalized women. Feminist Criminology, 2(2), 158174.

Potter, 2006Potter, H. (2006). An argument for black feminist criminology: Understanding African American women’s experiences with intimate partner abuse using an integrated approach. Feminist Criminology, 1(2), 106124.

Pratt, 2011Pratt, N. (2011). Iraqi women and UNSCR 1325: An interview with Susan Abbas, director of the Iraqi women’s leadership institute, Baghdad, January 2011. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13(4), 612615.

Pruitt, 2014Pruitt, W. R. (2014). How criminology can engage in the theorizing on genocide? International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 9(1), 115.

Puechguirbal, 2010Puechguirbal, N. (2010). Discourses on gender, patriarchy and resolution 1325: A textual analysis of UN documents. International Peacekeeping, 17(2), 172187.

Ramos, López, Quinteros, 2015Ramos, C. G., López, R. O., & Quinteros, A. C. (2015). The FMLN and post-war politics in El Salvador from included to inclusive actor? Retrieved from https://www.berghof-foundation.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Publications/Other_Resources/IPS/Paper-2-El-Salvador-English-final.pdf

Rasul, McDowell, 2015Rasul, A., & McDowell, S. D. (2015). Images of oppression: An analysis of the coverage of Afghan women in Time and Newsweek after 9/11. The Journal of International Communication, 21(1), 2137.

Raven-Roberts, 2013Raven-Roberts, A. (2013). Women and the political economy of war. In C. Cohn (Ed.), Women and wars (pp. 3653). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Reinharz, 2010Reinharz, S. (2010). Foreword. In S. Hedgepeth & R. Saidel (Eds.), Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust (pp. ixx). Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Renzetti, 2013Renzetti, C. (2013). Feminist criminology. London: Routledge.

Report of the United Nations Secretary General, 2019Report of the United Nations Secretary General (2019). Conflict-related sexual violence. S/2019/280. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sexualviolenceinconflict/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/report/s-2019-280/Annual-report-2018.pdf

Richani, 2016Richani, N. (2016). The political economy and complex interdependency of the war system in Syria. Civil Wars, 18(1), 4568.

Richter-Montpetit, 2007Richter-Montpetit, M. (2007). Empire, desire and violence: A queer transnational feminist reading of the prisoner ‘abuse’ in Abu Ghraib and the question of ‘gender equality’. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 9(1), 3859.

Rigterink, 2013Rigterink, A. (2013). New wars in numbers: An empirical test of the ‘new war’ thesis. Discussion paper. Retrieved from http://www.securityintransition.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Rigterink.-New-Wars-in-Numbers.pdf

Riley, 2013Riley, R. L. (2013). Depicting the veil: Transnational sexism and the war on terror. London: Zed Books.

Ringelheim, 1993Ringelheim, J. (1993). Women and the Holocaust: A reconsideration of research. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Different voices: Women and the Holocaust (pp. 374418). New York, NY: Paragon House (Original work published in 1985).

Ringelheim, 1998Ringelheim, J. (1998). The split between gender and the holocaust. In D. Ofer & L. Weitzman (Eds.), Women in the Holocaust (pp. 340350). New Heaven: Yale University Press.

Rittner, Roth, 1993Rittner, C., & Roth, J. (1993). Prologue. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Different voices: Women and the Holocaust (pp. 119). New York, NY: Paragon House.

Robertson, Klein, 1997Robertson, C., & Klein, M. A. (1997). Women & Slavery in Africa. Portsmouth, NH. Heinemann.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (1998). Retrieved from http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/7_4_1998.pdf

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 2011Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (2011). The International Criminal Court. Retrieved from https://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/ADD16852-AEE9-4757-ABE7-9CDC7CF02886/283503/RomeStatutEng1.pdf

Rothe, 2009Rothe, D. (2009). State criminality: The crimes of all crimes. Plymouth: Lexington Books.

Rothe, Mullins, 2011Rothe, D., & Mullins, C. W. (Eds) (2011). State crimes: Current perspectives. Rutgers University Press.

Rothe, Muzzatti, 2004Rothe, D., & Muzzatti, S. L. (2004). Enemies everywhere: Terrorism, moral panic, and US civil society. Critical Criminology, 12(3), 327350.

Rouhani, Scott, Burkhardt, Onyango, Haider, Greiner, Albutt, Bartels, 2016Rouhani, S. A., Scott, J., Burkhardt, G., Onyango, M. A., Haider, S., Greiner, A., Albutt, K., … Bartels, S. A. (2016). A quantitative assessment of termination of sexual violence-related pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Conflict and Health, 10 (9), 19.

Said, 1979Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Saidel, 2006Saidel, R. (2006). The Jewish women of Ravensbrück concentration camp. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Salih, 2008Salih, K. O. (2008). The internationalization of the communal conflict in Darfur and its regional and domestic ramifications: 2001–2007. Arab Studies Quarterly, 30(3), 124.

Sampathkumar, 2017Sampathkumar, M. (2017, April 4). Donald Trump defunding of UN’s women’s health service will cause ‘millions to suffer. The Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/donald-trump-abortion-defunding-global-mexico-city-rule-un-population-fund-a7666916.html

Save the Children, 2014Save the Children. (2014). Too young to wed: The growing problem of child marriage among Syrian girls in Jordan. Retrieved from http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/TOO_YOUNG_TO_WED_REPORT_0714.PDF

Save the Children, 2015Save the Children. (2015). More than half of all school attacks have been in Syria, new data shows. Retrieved from https://www.savethechildren.org/us/about-us/media-and-news/2015-press-releases/more-than-half-of-all-school-attacks-have-been-in-syria--new-dat

Save the Children, 2018Save the Children. (2018). Education under attack. Retrieved from https://www.savethechildren.org/content/dam/usa/reports/ed-cp/education-under-attack-2018-full-report.pdf

Schept, 2016Schept, J. (2016). Visuality and criminology. Oxford Research Encyclopedias: Criminology and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from https://oxfordre.com/criminology/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-145?print=pdf

Schilling, Saulich, Engwicht, 2018Schilling, J., Saulich, C., & Engwicht, N. (2018). A local to global perspective on resource governance and conflict. Conflict, Security & Development, 18(6), 433461.

Schmitt, Mazzetti, 2013Schmitt, E., & Mazzetti, M. (2013, July 20). U.S. intelligence official says Syrian war could last for years. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/21/world/middleeast/us-intelligence-official-says-syrian-war-could-last-for-years.html

Schneider, Banholzer, Albarracin, 2015Schneider, G., Banholzer, L., & Albarracin, L. (2015). Ordered rape: A principal–agent analysis of wartime sexual violence in the DR Congo. Violence Against Women, 21(11), 13411363.

Schulte-Hillen, Staderini, Saint-Sauveur, 2016Schulte-Hillen, C., Staderini, N., & Saint-Sauveur, J. (2016). Why Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides safe abortion care and what that involves. Conflict and Health, 10(19), 14.

Schweickart, 1986Schweickart, P. (1986). Reading ourselves: Toward a feminist theory of reading. In E. Flynn & P. Schweitckart (Eds.), Gender and reading: Essays on readers, texts and contexts (pp. 3162). Baltimore: The John Hopkins.

Shah, 2016Shah, M. (2016, March 9–11). The global legal landscape: Access to safe abortion care in crisis settings. Paper presented at the 16th annual meeting of the IAWG on Reproductive Health in Crises. Dakar, Senegal. Retrieved from http://iawg.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/IAWG-16th-Annual-Meeting-6-21-16-FINAL.pdf

Shaheen, 2017Shaheen, K. (2017, August 4). Al-Qaida-linked militants’ advance throws west’s Syria plans into disarray. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/04/al-qaida-linked-militants-advance-throws-wests-syria-plans-into-disarray

Shangquan, 2000Shangquan, G. (2000). Economic globalization: Trends, risks and risk prevention. Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/cdp_background_papers/bp2000_1.pdf

Shannon, 2011Shannon, L. (2011). A thousand sisters: My journey into the worst place on earth to be a woman. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.

Sharkey, 2007Sharkey, H. J. (2007). Arab identity and ideology in Sudan: The politics of language, ethnicity, and race. African Affairs, 107(426), 2143.

Sharlach, 1999Sharlach, L. (1999). Gender and genocide in Rwanda: Women as agents and objects of Genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 1(3), 387399.

Sharlach, 2000Sharlach, L. (2000) Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda. New Political Science, 22(1), 89102.

Shepherd, 2006Shepherd, L. J. (2006). Veiled references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 1941.

Shepherd, 2011Shepherd, L. J. (2011). Sex, security and superhero(in)es: From 1325 to 1820 and beyond. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13(4), 504521.

Sinjab, 2007Sinjab, L. (2007, December 3). Prostitution ordeal of Iraqi girls. BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7119473.stm

Sivakumaran, 2007Sivakumaran, S. (2007). Sexual violence against men in armed conflict. European Journal of International Law, 18(2), 253276.

Sivakumaran, 2010Sivakumaran, S. (2010). Lost in translation: UN responses to sexual violence against men and boys in situations of armed conflict. International Review of the Red Cross, 92(877), 259277.

Sjoberg, 2006aSjoberg, L. (2006a). Gendered realities of the immunity principle: Why gender analysis needs feminism. International Studies Quarterly, 50(4), 889910.

Sjoberg, 2006bSjoberg, L. (2006b). Gender, justice and the wars in Iraq: A feminist reformulation of just war theory. Oxford: Lexington Books.

Sjoberg, 2007Sjoberg, L. (2007). Agency, militarized femininity and enemy others: Observations from the war in Iraq. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 9(1), 82101.

Sjoberg, 2011Sjoberg, L. (2011). Gender, the state, and war redux: Feminist international relations across the ‘levels of analysis.’ International Relations, 25(1), 108134.

Sjoberg, 2013Sjoberg, L. (2013). Gendering global conflict: Toward a feminist theory of war. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Sjoberg, Gentry, 2007Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2007). Mothers, monsters, whores: Women’s violence in global politics. London: Zed books.

Sjoberg, Gentry, 2008Sjoberg, L., & Gentry, C. E. (2008). Reduced to bad sex: Narratives of violent women from the bible to the war on terror. International Relations, 22(1), 523.

Sjoberg, Peet, 2011Sjoberg, L., & Peet, J. (2011). Targeting civilians in war: Feminist contributions. In A. J Tickner & L. Sjoberg (Eds.), Feminism and international relations: Conversations about the past, present and future (pp. 169187). London: Routledge.

Sjogerg, 2016Sjogerg, L. (2016). Women as wartime rapists: Beyond sensation and stereotyping. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Skjelsbæk, 2001Skjelsbæk, I. (2001). Sexual violence and war: Mapping out a complex relationship. European Journal of International Relations, 7(2), 211237.

Smeulers, 2015Smeulers, A. (2015). Female perpetrators: Ordinary or extra-ordinary women? International Criminal Law Review, 15(2), 207253.

Smith, 2011Smith, D. (2011, February 11). Congolese soldiers go on trial accused of raping more than 60 women. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/feb/10/congolese-soldiers-rape-trial-gender-court

Sohl, 2010Sohl, M. (2010). Tackling the drought in Syria. Retrieved from https://www.natureasia.com/en/nmiddleeast/article/10.1038/nmiddleeast.2010.206

Solangon, Patel, 2012Solangon, S. & Patel, P. (2012). Sexual violence against men in countries affected by armed conflict. Conflict, Security & Development, 12(4), 417442.

Sommer, 2010Sommer, R. (2010). Sexual exploitation of women in Nazi concentration camp brothels. In S. Hedgepeth & R. Saidel (Eds.), Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust (pp. 4560). Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press.

Sontag, 1979Sontag, S. (1979). On photography. London: Penguin books.

Sontag, 2003Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York, NY: Picador.

Sontag, 2004Sontag, S. (2004, May 23). Regarding the torture of others. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/23/magazine/regarding-the-torture-of-others.html

Spencer, 2016Spencer, R. (2016, February 3). Nearly half a million pregnant women among displaced and refugee Syrians. Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/12139358/Nearly-half-a-million-pregnant-women-among-displaced-and-refugee-Syrians.html

Spencer, Usta, Essaid, Shukri, El-Gharaibeh, Abu-Taleb, Clark, 2015Spencer, R. Usta, J., Essaid, A., Shukri, S., El-Gharaibeh, Y., Abu-Taleb, … Clark, C. J. (2015). Gender based violence against women and girls displaced by the Syrian conflict in south Lebanon and north Jordan: Scope of violence and health correlates. Retrieved from https://www.alnap.org/system/files/content/resource/files/main/gbv-against-women-and-girl-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon-and-jordan-final.pdf

Spens, 2014Spens, C. (2014). The theatre of cruelty: Dehumanization, objectification & Abu Ghraib. Journal of Terrorism Research. The Centre of the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, 5(3), 4969.

Spivak, 1988Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In C. Nelson & Grossberg, L. (Eds.), Marxism and the interpretation of culture (pp. 67111). Basingstoke: Macmillan Education.

Stabile, Kumar, 2005Stabile, C. A., & Kumar, D. (2005). Unveiling imperialism: Media, gender and the war on Afghanistan. Media, Culture & Society, 27(5), 765782.

Steans, 2008Steans, J. (2008). Telling stories about women and gender in the war on terror. Global Society, 22(1), 159176.

Steans, 2013Steans, J. (2013). Gender and international relations: Theory, practice, and policy (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Stokes, 2014Stokes, E. (2014, May 1). Seeking justice for victims of rape in Minova, DRC. Global Post. Retrieved from https://www.pri.org/stories/2014-05-01/seeking-justice-victims-rape-minova-drc-video

Stokes, Muyali, 2014Stokes, E., & Muyali, S. (2014, May 5). Two of 39 soldiers convicted of rape in historic DRC trial, all military officers acquitted of rape. Global Post. Retrieved from https://www.pri.org/stories/2014-05-05/two-39-soldiers-convicted-rape-historic-drc-trial-all-military-officers-acquitted

Stop Rape NowStop Rape Now. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stoprapenow.org/

Storr, 2011Storr, W. (2011, July 17). The rape of men: The darkest secret of war. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men

Stoter, 2015Stoter, B. (2015, September 9). After mass rape by the Islamic state, Yazidi women still struggle to break the silence. Al-monitor. Retrieved from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/09/yazidi-women-rape-slave-islamic-state.html

Sullivan, 2003Sullivan, B. (2003). Trafficking in women: Feminism and the new international law. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 5(1), 6791.

Sutton, Daniels, Maclean, 2017Sutton, T., Daniels, J. P., & Maclean, R. (2017, August 1). Insult to injury: How Trump’s ‘global gag’ will hit women traumatized by war. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/aug/01/insult-to-injury-trump-global-gag-will-hit-women-traumatised-by-war?CMP=share_btn_link

Sylvester, 2002Sylvester, C. (2002). Feminist arts of international relations. In C. Sylvester (Ed.), Feminist international relations: An unfinished journey (pp. 267286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Syrian Network for Human RightsSyrian Network for Human Rights. (n.d.). Civilian death toll. Retrieved from http://sn4hr.org/blog/2018/09/24/civilian-death-toll/#

Syrian Network for Human Rights, 2013Syrian Network for Human Rights. (2013). The destruction of schools and its consequences. Retrieved from http://sn4hr.org/public_html/wp-content/pdf/english/The_Destruction_Of_Schools_And_its_Consequences_en.pdf

Taguba, 2004Taguba, A. (2004). Article 15-6 investigation of the 800th military police brigade. Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/agency/dod/taguba.pdf

Takai, 2011Takai, A. (2011). Rape and forced pregnancy as genocide before the Bangladesh tribunal. Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, 25, 393422.

Takševa, 2015Takševa, T. (2015). Genocidal rape, enforced impregnation, and the discourse of Serbian National Identity. Comparative Literature and Culture, 17(3), 28.

Tappis, Freeman, Glass, Doocy, 2016Tappis, H., Freeman, J., Glass, N., & Doocy, S. (2016). Effectiveness of interventions, programs, and strategies for gender-based violence prevention in refugee populations: An integrative review. PLOS Currents, 19, 119.

Tec, 2003Tec, N. (2003). Resilience and courage: Women, men and the Holocaust. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Teo, 2014Teo, T. (2014) Epistemological violence. In T. Teo (Eds.) Encyclopedia of critical psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Tétreault, 2006Tétreault, M. A. (2006). The sexual politics of Abu Ghraib: Hegemony, spectacle, and the global war on terror. The National Women’s Studies Association Journal, 18(3), 3350.

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 2014The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.oas.org/dil/1948_Convention_on_the_Prevention_and_Punishment_of_the_Crime_of_Genocide.pdf

The Freedom Fund, 2016The Freedom Fund. (2016). Struggling to survive: Slavery and exploitation of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Retrieved from https://d1r4g0yjvcc7lx.cloudfront.net/uploads/Lebanon-Report-FINAL-8April16.pdf

The International Center for Transnational Justice (ICTJ), 2018The International Center for Transnational Justice (ICTJ). (2018). We didn’t think it would hit us’: Understanding the impact of attacks on schools in Syria. Retrieved from https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/Report_Save_Syrian_Schools_English_Web.pdf

The International Criminal Court DRCThe International Criminal Court DRC. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.icc-cpi.int/drc

The International Criminal Court, 2011The International Criminal Court. (2011). Elements of crimes. Retrieved from https://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/336923D8-A6AD-40EC-AD7B-45BF9DE73D56/0/ElementsOfCrimesEng.pdf

The International Rescue Committee, 2013The International Rescue Committee. (2013). Syria: A regional crisis. The IRC commission on Syrian refugees. Retrieved from http://utra.sa.utoronto.ca/files/2013/10/IRCReportMidEast20130114.pdf

The New Humanitarian, 2009The New Humanitarian. (2009). Drought driving farmers to the cities. Retrieved from http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/feature/2009/09/02/drought-driving-farmers-cities

The New Humanitarian, 2013The New Humanitarian (2013). Armed groups in the DRC. Retrieved from http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2013/10/31/armed-groups-eastern-drc

The Syrian Centre for Policy Research (SCPR), 2015The Syrian Centre for Policy Research (SCPR). (2015). Syria: Confronting fragmentation. Impact of Syrian crisis report. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/content/dam/syria/docs/Framework/SCPR-report-Confronting-fragmentation-2015-EN%20(1).pdf

The Week, 2019The Week (2019, April 24). Isis: How a global terror network was born. The Week. Retrieved from https://www.theweek.co.uk/islamic-state/59001/what-is-isis-and-can-the-terror-group-be-stopped

Themnér, Wallensteen, 2013Themnér, L., & Wallensteen, P. (2013). Armed conflicts, 1946–2012. Journal of Peace Research, 50(4), 509521.

Touquet, Gorris, 2016Touquet, H., & Gorris, E. (2016). Out of the shadows? The inclusion of men and boys in conceptualizations of wartime sexual violence. Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), 3646.

Tousaw, Moo, Arnott, Foster, 2017Tousaw, E., Moo, S. N. H. G, Arnott, G., & Foster, A. M. (2017). It is just like having a period with back pain: Exploring women’s experiences with community-based distribution of misoprostol for early abortion on the Thailand-Burma border. Contraception, 97(2), 122129.

Trenholm, Olsson, Blomqvst, Ahlberg, 2013Trenholm, J., Olsson, P., Blomqvst, M., & Ahlberg, B. M. (2013). Constructing soldiers from boys in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Men and Masculinities, 16(2), 203227.

True, 2010True, J. (2010). The political economy of violence against women: A feminist international relations perspective. Australian Feminist Law Journal, 32(1), 3959.

True, 2012True, J. (2012). The political economy of violence against women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tucker, Triantafyllos, 2008Tucker, B., & Triantafyllos, S. (2008). Lynndie England, Abu Ghraib, and the new imperialism. Canadian Review of American Studies, 38(1), 83100.

Turshen, 2016Turshen, M. (2016). Gender and the political economy of conflict in Africa. London: Routledge.

U.S. Department of State, 2012U.S. Department of State. (2012). Trafficking in persons report – Iraq. Retrieved from http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fe30cbf32.html

United Nations (UN), 2007United Nations (UN). (2007). The United Nations and Darfur. Retrieved from http://www.unis.unvienna.org/pdf/UN-Darfur_fact_sheet.pdf

United Nations (UN), 2017United Nations (UN). (2017). Civilians in Darfur still under threat, as proliferation of weapons aggravates situation, peacekeeping chief tells security council. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/sc12678.doc.htm

United Nations (UN), 2018aUnited Nations (UN). (2018a). Group of experts on the DRC. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1812836.pdf

United Nations (UN), 2018bUnited Nations (UN). (2018b). Report of the secretary-general on conflict-related sexual violence. S/2018/250. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sexualviolenceinconflict/wp-content/uploads/report/s-2018-250/SG-REPORT-2017-CRSV-SPREAD.pdf

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, 2008United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq. (2008). Human rights report, July 1–December 31. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/IQ/UNAMI_Human_Rights_Report_July_December_2008_EN.pdf

United Nations Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF), 2014United Nations Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF). (2014). A study on early marriage in Jordon. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/jordan/study-early-marriage-jordan-2014

United Nations DRC, 2019United Nations DRC. (2019). Sexual violence in conflict. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sexualviolenceinconflict/countries/democratic-republic-of-the-congo/

United Nations General Assembly, 1981United Nations General Assembly. (1981). Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW). Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/cedaw.pdf

United Nations General Assembly, 1993United Nations General Assembly. (1993). Declaration on the elimination of violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.21_declaration%20elimination%20vaw.pdf

United Nations General Assembly, 2013aUnited Nations General Assembly. (2013a). Report of the special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Monjoo. A/HRC/17/26. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session23/A_HRC_23_49_English.pdf

United Nations General Assembly, 2013bUnited Nations General Assembly. (2013b). Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic 22nd session, 5th February U.N. Doc. A/HRC/22/59. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A.HRC.22.59_en.pdf

United Nations General Assembly, 2015United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, 27th session, 5th February U.N. Doc. A/HRC/28/69. Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/019/37/PDF/G1501937.pdf?OpenElement

United Nations General Assembly, 2016United Nations General Assembly. (2016). Child, early and forced marriage: Report of the Secretary-General. Retrieved from https://www.refworld.org/topic,50ffbce4c9,50ffbce4e7,57cd39584,0,UNGA,,.html

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 1997United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (1997). Guidelines on policies and procedures in dealing with unaccompanied children seeking asylum. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/3d4f91cf4.pdf

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 2003United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2003). Sexual and gender-based violence against refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons: Guidelines for prevention and response. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/3f696bcc4.pdf

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 2015United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2015). Woman alone: The fight for survival by Syria’s refugee women. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/ar/53bb8d006.pdf

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 2016United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2016). Global trends: Forced displacement in 2016. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2016/

United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, 2010United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. (2010). Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/protocoltraffickinginpersons.aspx

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsUnited Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (n.d.) Syrian Arab Republic. Retrieved from https://www.unocha.org/syrian-arab-republic/about-ocha-syria

United Nations Office for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN SRSG-SVC), 2013United Nations Office for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN SRSG-SVC). (2013). Report of workshop on sexual violence against men and boys in conflict situations. Retrieved from https://ifls.osgoode.yorku.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Report-of-Workshop-on-Sexual-Violence-against-Men-and-Boys-Final.pdf

United Nations Office for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN SRSG-SVC), 2015United Nations Office for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN SRSG-SVC). (2015). United Nations special representative welcomes unanimous adoption of security council resolution on the peace process in Syria and urges all parties to take immediate steps to ensure the protection and participation of women. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sexualviolenceinconflict/statement/united-nations-special-representative-welcomes-unanimous-adoption-of-security-council-resolution-on-the-peace-process-in-syria-and-urges-all-parties-to-take-immediate-steps-to-ensure-the-protection-an/

United Nations office on genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect: Crimes against humanityUnited Nations office on genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect: Crimes against humanity. (n.d). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/crimes-against-humanity.shtml

United Nations office on genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect: War crimesUnited Nations office on genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect: War crimes. (n.d). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/war-crimes.shtml

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2015United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2015). Five years of saving lives. Retrieved from https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/UNFPA_Annual_Report_E.compressed.pdf

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2017aUnited Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2017a). Statement by UNFPA on U.S. decision to withhold funding. Retrieved from https://www.unfpa.org/press/statement-unfpa-us-decision-withhold-funding

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2017bUnited Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2017b). Voices from Syria 2018: Assessment findings of the humanitarian needs overview. Retrieved from https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/2017-12_voices_from_syria_2nd_edition.pdf

United Nations Population FundUnited Nations Population Fund. (n.d). FAQ. Retrieved from https://www.unfpa.org/frequently-asked-questions

United Nations Population FundUnited Nations Population Fund. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved from https://www.unfpa.org/about-us

United Nations Secretary General’s Bulletin, 2003United Nations Secretary General’s Bulletin. (2003). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Retrieved from https://www.refworld.org/docid/451bb6764.html

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2000United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2000). Resolution 1325. Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N00/720/18/PDF/N0072018.pdf?OpenElement

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2002United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2002). Resolution 1146. Final report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Retrieved from https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC%20S%202002%201146.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2003United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2003). Report of the panel of experts on the illegal exploitation of natural resources and other forms of wealth of the Democratic Republic of Congo. S/2003/1027.

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2003United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2003). Resolution 1483. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/culture/laws/pdf/resolution1483_iraq_en.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2008United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2008). Resolution 1820. Retrieved from https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/CAC%20S%20RES%201820.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2009aUnited Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2009a). Resolution 1888. Retrieved from http://unscr.com/files/2009/01888.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2009bUnited Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2009b). Resolution 1889. http://unscr.com/files/2009/01889.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2010United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2010). Resolution 1960. Retrieved from http://unscr.com/files/2010/01960.pdf

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2013aUnited Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2013a). Resolution 2106. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/S/RES/2106(2013)

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2013bUnited Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2013b). Resolution 2122. Retrieved from http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2122

United Nations Security Council (UNSCR), 2015United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). (2015). Resolution 2242. Retrieved from http://unscr.com/files/2015/02242.pdf

Universal Periodic Review, 2016Universal Periodic Review. (2016). Human rights violations against women and girls in Syria. Submission to the United Nations universal periodic review of the Syrian Arab republic. Retrieved from: https://www.madre.org/sites/default/files/PDFs/Syria%20UPR%20submission%20Final.pdf

USAIDUSAID (n.d.) Responsible minerals trade fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.usaid.gov/democratic-republic-congo/fact-sheets/usaiddrc-fact-sheet-responsible-minerals-trade

van der Mensbrugghe, 2016van der Mensbrugghe, C. (2016, August 16). Respect rape victims right to abortions in Syria. [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://globaljusticecenter.net/blog/526-respect-rape-victims-right-to-abortions-in-syria

Vojdik, 2014Vojdik, V. K. (2014). Sexual violence against men and women in war: A masculinities approach. Nevada Law Journal, 14(3), 923952.

Von Uexkull, 2014Von Uexkull, N. (2014). Sustained drought, vulnerability and civil conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa. Political Geography, 43, 1626.

Vujnovic, 2017Vujnovic, M. (2017). Hypercapitalism. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9780470670590.wbeog278.pub2

Walklate, 2017Walklate, S. (2017). Mediated suffering. In M. Brown & E. Carrabine (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of visual criminology (e-book version). Oxon: Routledge

Waller, 2012Waller, J. (2012). Rape as a tool of ‘othering’ in genocide. In C. Rittner & J. Roth (Eds.), Rape: Weapon of war and genocide (pp. 83100). St Paul Minnesota: Paragon.

Weitzer, 2005Weitzer, R. (2005). Flawed theory and method in studies on prostitution. Violence Against Women, 11(7), 934949.

Weitzman, Ofer, 1998Weitzman, L. & Ofer, D. (1998). Introduction. In D. Ofer & L. Weitzman (Eds.), Women in the Holocaust (pp. 118). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Wesely, 2006Wesely, J. K. (2006). Considering the context of women’s violence: Gender, lived experience and cumulative victimization. Feminist Criminology, 1(4), 303328.

West, Isotta-Day, Ba-Break, Morgan, 2016West, L., Isotta-Day, H., Ba-Break, M., & Morgan, R. (2016). Factors in use of family planning services by Syrian women in a refugee camp in Jordan. Journal of Family Planning, Reproductive Health Care, 73(2), 96102.

Whyte, 2007Whyte, D. (2007). The crimes of neo-liberal rule in occupied Iraq. British Journal of Criminology, 47(2), 177195.

Wikimedia.commons.org, 2003aWikimedia.commons.org. (2003a). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sabrina-Harman.jpg

Wikimedia.commons.org, 2003bWikimedia.commons.org. (2003b). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AbuGhraibDogs03.jpg

Wilcox, 2015Wilcox, L. (2015). Bodies of violence: Theorizing embodied subjects in international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Willemse, 2007Willemse, K. (2007). “In my father’s house”: Gender, Islam and the construction of a gendered public sphere in Darfur, Sudan. Journal for Islamic Studies, 27, 73115.

Willemse, 2009Willemse, K. (2009). Masculinity and the construction of a Sudanese national identity. In S. M. Hassan & C. E. Ray (Eds.), Darfur and the crisis of governance in Sudan: A critical reader (pp. 213232). New York, NY: Cornell University Press.

Wirtz, Pham, Glass, Loochkartt, Kidane, Cuspoca, …Vu, 2014Wirtz, A., Pham, K., Glass, N., Loochkartt, S., Kidane, T., Cuspoca, D., …Vu, A. (2014). Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: Qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia. Conflict and Health, 8(10), 114.

Wolfe, 2013Wolfe, L. (2013, April 3). Syria has a massive rape crisis. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/04/syria-has-a-massive-rape-crisis/274583/

Women on WavesWomen on Waves. (n.d.). Women in Syria need more than guided missiles. Retrieved from https://www.womenonwaves.org/en/page/4555/women-in-syria-need-more-than-guided-missiless

Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), 2016Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). (2016). Violations against women in Syria and the disproportionate impact of the conflict on them. NGO summary report. Universal periodic review of the Syrian Arab republic. Retrieved from https://wilpf.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/WILPF_VAW_HC-2016_WEB-ONEPAGE.pdf

Women’s Media Centre (WMC)Women’s Media Centre (WMC). (n.d.). Bangladesh. Retrieved from http://www.womensmediacenter.com/women-under-siege/conflicts/bangladesh

Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC), 2016Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC). (2016). A girl no more: The changing norms of child marriage in conflict. Retrieved from https://www.womensrefugeecommission.org/girls/resources/1311-girl-no-more

Wood, 2009Wood, E. J. (2009). Armed groups and sexual violence: When is wartime rape rare? Politics and Society, 37(1), 131162.

Wood, 2014Wood, E. J. (2014). Conflict-related sexual violence and the policy implications of recent research: Sexual violence in armed conflict. International Review of the Red Cross, 96(894), 457478.

Work, 2018Work, C. (2018). Climate change and conflict: Global insecurity and the road less travelled. Geoforum, 102, 222225.

World Health Organization (WHO), 2004World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Clinical management of rape survivors: Developing protocols for use with refugees and internally displaced person. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/403a0b7f4.pdf

Young, 2014Young, A. (2014). From object to encounter: Aesthetic politics and visual criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 18(2), 159175.

Zoepf, 2007Zoepf, K. (2007, May 29). Desperate Iraqi refugees turn to sex trade in Syria. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/29/world/middleeast/29syria.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

Zubriggen, 2010Zubriggen, E. L. (2010). Rape, war, and the socialization of masculinity: Why our refusal to give up war ensures that rape cannot be eradicated. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(4), 538549.