David Hearne (Birmingham City University, UK)
Alex de Ruyter (Birmingham City University, UK)

Regional Success After Brexit: The Need for New Measures

ISBN: 978-1-78756-736-8, eISBN: 978-1-78756-735-1

Publication date: 1 May 2019


Hearne, D. and Ruyter, A.d. (2019), "Prelims", Regional Success After Brexit: The Need for New Measures (Brexit Studies Series), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-ix.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 David Hearne, Alex de Ruyter

Half Title Page

Regional Success After Brexit

Series Page

Brexit Studies Series

Series Editors: Alex De Ruyter, Jon Yorke and Haydn Davies, Centre for Brexit Studies, Birmingham City University, UK

With the vote on 23 June 2016 for the UK to leave the European Union it has become imperative for individuals, business, government and wider society to understand the implications of the referendum result. This series, published in collaboration with the Centre for Brexit Studies at Birmingham City University, UK, examines a broad sweep of topics related to Brexit. It aims to bring together academics from across the disciplines to confront and examine the challenges withdrawal from the EU brings. The series promotes rigourous engagement with the multifaceted aspects of both the ‘leave’ and ‘remain’ perspectives in order to enhance understanding of the consequences for the UK, and for its relationship with the wider world, of Brexit, and aims to suggest measures to counter the challenges faced.

Published Titles

Alex De Ruyter and Beverley Nielsen, Brexit Negotiations After Article 50: Assessing Process, Progress and Impact

Forthcoming Titles

Arantza Gomez Arana, Brexit and Gibraltar: The Negotiations of a Historically Contentious Region

Stefania Paladini and Ignazio Castellucci, European Security in a Post-Brexit World

Title Page

Regional Success After Brexit: The Need for New Measures


David Hearne


Alex de Ruyter

Birmingham City University, UK

United Kingdom – North America – Japan India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2019

© David Hearne and Alex de Ruyter

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (CC BY 4.0).

Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this book (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-78756-736-8 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78756-735-1 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78756-737-5 (Epub)

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Lists of Tables and Figures vii
About the Authors ix
1. Thinking Inside the Box: Defining the Problem 1
2. Thinking Outside the Box (Part 1): Real Living Standards 19
3. Thinking Outside the Box (Part 2): Real Labour Productivity 39
4. Policy Implications 75
Appendix 1: GDHI 99
Appendix 2: The EKS Method 100
Appendix 3: FISIM 103
Bibliography 107
Index 131

Lists of Tables and Figures


Table 1. Types of Region 7
Table 2. Estimated Regional GDP Proportions 55
Table 3. Median Full-time Salaries (£) by Sector in 2016 61
Table 4. Estimated Regional PPPs 67
Table 5. The Impact of Different Rental Cost Deflators 70
Table 6. Per Capita Funding (£) for Transport and Education, UK Government Office Region (GORs) 78


Figure 1. Comparative Economic Performance 17
Figure 2. Estimated Regional Consumer Price Levels 29
Figure 3. Real Regional Incomes in the UK 31
Figure 4. GDHI Per Capita in Combined Authorities (UK = 100) 32
Figure 5. Relative Costs of Gross Fixed Capital Formation 60
Figure 6. Estimated Absolute Lower Bound PPPs by Region 65
Figure 7. Relative Regional Productivity in the UK 71

About the Authors

David Hearne is a Researcher working in the Centre for Brexit Studies at Birmingham City University, UK. He joined the centre in 2017, having worked in an independent think tank previously. His work focusses on understanding all aspects of regional economic performance with a particular focus on the West Midlands.

Alex de Ruyter is a Professor and Director of the Centre for Brexit Studies at Birmingham City University, UK. He brings a wealth of research experience and academic engagement in Brexit and the related areas of regional economic development, skills and labour market issues. He has published over 50 academic outputs in leading national and international journals and has been the recipient of research funding, including being an investigator in the ESRC funded study on the effects on subsequent employment experience of workers from MG Rover after plant closure in 2005.