Index

Social Media Use in Crisis and Risk Communication

ISBN: 978-1-78756-272-1, eISBN: 978-1-78756-269-1

Publication date: 1 October 2018

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Citation

(2018), "Index", Hornmoen, H. and Backholm, K. (Ed.) Social Media Use in Crisis and Risk Communication, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78756-269-120181001

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © Harald Hornmoen and Klas Backholm

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (CC BY 4.0). Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this book (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


INDEX

Actionable risk communication model
, 272

Active participant
, 64, 76–78

Activity theory
, 186, 190, 198–199

Acute phase of severe crisis
, 88

Ad hoc publics
, 232

Alkoven voluntary fire brigade
, 237

Anger (emotions)
, 44, 210, 217

Austria

social media use in
, 159

2013 Floods in
, 157–159

Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG)
, 158, 165

Austrian Press Agency (APA)
, 162, 165

Authorities
, 167

health
, 262

Norwegian and UK
, 265–266

public
, 164

Autonomic nervous system
, 208

BBC
, 7, 139, 141, 144–147, 149, 150

BBC News
, 142, 144, 151, 266, 267

Bieber, Justin
, 27–28

Biometric data
, 194, 196

‘Blodbank’
, 76

Blood bank communication
, 76–77

Boolean expression combining operators
, 22

Breaking news and prayers
, 26–27

Central European floods (2013)
, 157, 159, 160–161

Central nervous system
, 208–210

Citizens, affected
, 166–167

Civil protection laws and regulations
, 157

Civil Protection Server
, 167

Close-to-working prototype
, 197, 214

second usability test
, 216–218

Closed Facebook Group
, 51–52

Cognitive mental models
, 5

Cognitive processes
, 209–210

‘Comment and date’
, 48

Commissives
, 265, 271

Communication (see also Crisis communication; Online communication reconstruction)

channels
, 258

models and social media
, 233–234

official
, 158, 231, 239

online
, 156, 163, 164

patterns
, 234–235

strategies
, 231

Communicators

crisis
, 231

findings from interviews with
, 286–287

official
, 172

Community resilience
, 4

Complex contagion dynamics
, 24

Computational thinking
, 188, 198

Computer-assisted qualitative content analysis
, 164

“Configuring awareness”
, 280

Constatives
, 265, 271

Content evaluation
, 198

Content strategy inspired recommendations
, 242

audience
, 245–246

develop and implement content strategy
, 242–244

stakeholders and users, and needs
, 244–245

Content Strategy Quad by Brain Traffic
, 243

Crisis
, 3–4, 136

journalism
, 117

management
, 186

news events
, 115, 117

phase
, 166, 236–238

public to networked crisis publics
, 234

Twitter and situation awareness of crisis events
, 17–19

Crisis communication
, 17, 65–67, 87, 88, 159, 206

managers
, 286

official
, 161

SA and social media in
, 279–280

social media impact on
, 174–175

strategies
, 230

theories
, 89

tools
, 258

Crisis communicators
, 89–90, 230, 232–233, 258

developing tool for
, 8

Dagsavisen (Regional newspaper)
, 281

Daily Mail
, 141, 144

Democratic values
, 47

Department of Health (DoH)
, 260

Der Standard
, 171

Digital journalism
, 114

Digital media, affordances of
, 7, 114, 116–118

Digital technology
, 116–117

Directives
, 265, 271, 272

Disaster stages
, 161

Discussion forums
, 19

Disease outbreaks
, 256

Domestic terror event
, 115

Dual testimony
, 46

Dynamic communication
, 233

Earthquakes
, 230

Ebola outbreak
, 137, 139, 141

Electrodermal activity (EDA)
, 209

Emergency
, 3

information gathering tool
, 187–188

management organisations
, 186

usability testing and
, 189–191

Emotion(al)

detectors
, 210

perception
, 210

process
, 120–121

reaction stems
, 214

Environmental disasters
, 157, 165, 230

communication models and social media
, 233–234

content strategy inspired recommendations
, 242–246

crisis phase
, 237

crisis public to networked crisis publics
, 234

hydrographical perspective
, 235

plan ahead and communicate proactively
, 241–242

pre-crisis phase
, 236–237

public communication
, 238

recommendations and models
, 240

recommendations for rescue organisations
, 241

research design
, 234–235

social media and networked publics
, 231–233

theoretical backdrop
, 231

voluntary fire brigade’s online and social media communication
, 237–238

web and social media literacy oriented recommendations
, 246–247

Events
, 188, 211

awareness concerning effects
, 123–125

crisis news
, 126–127

domestic terror
, 115–116

event in Norway
, 119–121

long-wave
, 136, 137, 140, 256, 259

short-wave
, 136

terrorist
, 136

‘Every crisis is unique’
, 100–101

Expressives
, 265, 271

Eye movements
, 216

Eye-tracking
, 196, 209–210

Facebook
, 73, 117, 118, 122, 161, 166, 168, 169, 171–173, 194, 232, 235, 238, 239, 286, 288

and date
, 48

discourse
, 47

feeds
, 189

Facial expressions
, 210, 215–217

Facial responses
, 196

First responder’s experiences
, 101–102

Floods
, 136, 230

flood-related communication
, 163, 230

flood-related conversations
, 231

pre-crisis phase of
, 158

Format
, 118

Frustration
, 217

Functioning high-fidelity prototype
, 188

Future crises, daily routines and challenges for
, 97–98

Future Global Shocks
, 65

Gatekeeping
, 121

‘Global health’
, 137

Google
, 129, 271

Governmental agencies
, 206, 259–260

Grief
, 27, 44, 46, 47, 50, 52–53

private and public
, 54

The Guardian
, 141, 142–144, 145–146, 148–149

The Guardian and MailOnline
, 267

Hard news
, 114

Hashtags (see also Twitter)
, 283, 288

#ff hashtags
, 28

#Oslo hashtag
, 27, 28, 283

#osloexpl
, 283

#oslove
, 28

#prayfor (…) hashtag
, 27

#prayfornorway hashtag
, 33, 283

relevance of
, 19–21, 24–26

#showyourhearts
, 28

#Utøya
, 283

Health authorities
, 262

Health sector (see also Police sector)
, 98

‘every crisis is unique’
, 100–101

first responder’s experiences
, 101–102

hospital staff experiences with Twitter
, 99–100

High income countries (HICs)
, 256

‘High Tide 2013’
, 166

Hospital staff experiences with Twitter
, 99–100

Human-computer interaction (HCI)
, 207–208

Hydrography Services
, 158, 165–166

In-depth interviews
, 47–48

Individual resilience
, 4

Information flows
, 162, 165, 166

institutional actors
, 167–170

journalists
, 171–173

social media communication processes and
, 167

Information handling tools
, 188

Information officers, findings from interviews with
, 286–287

Instagram
, 188

Institutional actors
, 164, 167–170, 241

social media impact on
, 174

Inter alia
, 158

Interdisciplinary cooperation
, 124

Internet
, 65, 232

crisis
, 238

Journalism-as-institution
, 115

Journalism-as-work
, 115

Journalists
, 115, 129, 130n3, 156, 165, 171–173, 196

findings from interviews with
, 286–287

Joy (emotions)
, 210

Laboratory studies
, 208

Laboratory testing of usability
, 207–208

Live streaming video applications
, 160

Live tickers
, 171, 174

Long-wave events
, 136, 137, 140, 256, 259

Macro-economic consequences
, 256

MailOnline
, 141, 142, 144, 146

Main crisis phase
, 158

Many-to-many process
, 280

Media (see also Social media)

logic
, 117–118, 130n1

mass
, 163, 206

niche
, 163

traditional
, 156, 231

Medical evacuation of William Pooley
, 145–147

Mental models
, 5, 190, 198

Meteorological forecast system
, 168

Micro-blogging services
, 18

Ministry of Health and Care Service
, 86

Ministry of Justice
, 86, 89

Mobile apps
, 161

Monitoring challenges
, 96–97

Narrative therapy (NT)
, 46

National sentiment
, 47

Natural disasters
, 160

Networked crisis publics, crisis public to
, 234

Networked publics
, 231–233, 242

News

agencies
, 86

BBC News
, 142, 144, 151, 266, 267

online
, 118

services
, 162

News workers reflections on digital journalism

awareness concerning effects of event
, 123–125

biggest event in Norway
, 119–121

crisis news events
, 126–127

culture of collaboration
, 125–126

domestic terror event
, 115–116

journalists transfer
, 114–115

methodology
, 118–119

occupational and organisational approaches
, 121–123

online newspaper
, 128–129

social media logic
, 117–118

technological affordances
, 116–118, 127–128

Niche media
, 163

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
, 186

Norway attacks (see also Utøya terror attack)

active participant
, 76–78

blood and security during
, 64

findings
, 69–78

methodology
, 68–69

Norwegian Authorities on Twitter 22 July
, 69–71

Oslo University Hospital
, 72–74

passive observer
, 74–76

situation awareness, social media and crisis communication
, 65–67

Social Media Strategy of PST
, 72–76

22 July events
, 67–68

Norwegian and UK authorities
, 265–266

Norwegian Directorate of Health (NDH)
, 86, 99, 259

Norwegian Institute for Public Health (NIPH)
, 259

Norwegian Police Security Services (PST)
, 64, 69

Norwegian Twitter-community
, 284

Norwegian Twitter-sphere
, 16, 68, 280

breaking news and prayers
, 26–27

event
, 21

findings
, 23–35, 283–284

hashtags on Twitter
, 25

Love and Justin Bieber
, 27–28

method
, 22–23

proportion of tweets with hashtags
, 26

relevance of hashtags
, 19–21, 24–26

retweeted accounts
, 33

superposters
, 28–31

Twitter and situation awareness of crisis events
, 17–19

Twitter users
, 31–33

NRK Dagsrevyen (TV news programme)
, 100

NRK Supernytt (Youth channel)
, 73

Oberösterreichische Nachrichten
, 163, 171

Occupational approaches to technological affordances
, 121–123

Occupational professionalism
, 120

‘On-going event’ view
, 189, 196

Online

communication
, 156, 163, 164

data analysis
, 162–163

news
, 118

Online communication reconstruction
, 164

affected citizens and organisations, new actors and others
, 166–167

crisis communication, social media impact on
, 174–175

2013 Floods in Austria
, 157–159

institutional actors, journalists and remote experts
, 164–166

institutional actors, social media impact on
, 174

media, social media impact on
, 174

online data analysis
, 162–163

related work
, 160–162

social media
, 156–157, 159, 167–173

stakeholder interviews
, 163–164

study design
, 162

theoretical background
, 159–160

Organisational approaches to technological affordances
, 121–123

Organisational professionalism
, 116

Oslo bomb
, 16

Oslo police district (OPD)
, 93

Oslo University Hospital (OUH)
, 33, 72–74, 76–78, 99

Oslo-centred hashtags
, 27

Pandemic threats
, 257, 271

Paracrisis
, 160

Passive observer
, 74–76

Pauline Cafferkey, diagnosis of
, 147–149

Periscope
, 160

Personal relevance
, 232

Police directorate (POD)
, 92

Police sector (see also Health sector)
, 92

awakening to importance of social media
, 93–94

daily routines and challenges for future crises
, 97–98

interactivity and dialogue in terror crises
, 94–96

monitoring challenges
, 96–97

Post-crisis phase
, 158–159

Pre-crisis phase
, 166, 235–237

of floods
, 158

Pre-design mapping
, 195

Pre-production mapping
, 199

Private grief
, 54

Proactive communication strategy
, 241–242

Professionalism
, 115, 116, 121

occupational
, 120

organisational
, 116

@PSTnorge
, 71, 74

Psychophysiological measurements

psychophysiological data
, 218

psychophysiological testing
, 211

for stress detection
, 208–209

use in usability prototype testing
, 218–220

Public authorities
, 164

Public grief
, 54

Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
, 138, 259

WHO’s declaration
, 142–145

Public Health England (PHE)
, 260

Quality broadsheets
, 141

Queensland Police role in Twitter
, 66

Red Cross
, 169–170

Regional Office for Africa (AFRO)
, 141

Remote experts
, 165

Rescue organisations, recommendations for
, 241

Researching Social Media and Collaborative Software Use in Emergency Situations project (RESCUE project)
, 1–2, 186, 188, 207, 282, 286

tool
, 186–187, 188–189, 199–200

Resilience
, 4, 44, 46

Retweeted accounts
, 33

Ringerike Hospital
, 100

Risk
, 4, 8–9, 66, 109, 137, 256, 258, 265

for crisis management and communication
, 98

public health
, 138

Sadness (emotions)
, 210

SC
, 209, 215–216

“Selfinitiated and mediated resilience governance”
, 67

Semi-structured interviews
, 90

Short-wave events
, 136

Situation awareness (SA)
, 4, 17–19, 65–67, 207, 278

in crisis communication
, 279–280

of crisis events
, 17–19

Situational crisis communication theory
, 89, 159, 160, 241

Snapchat
, 73, 286

Social democratic party
, 21

Social media
, 1, 16, 65–67, 117, 122, 126, 136, 137, 140, 162, 163, 167, 206, 230, 259, 273

analysis
, 92

awakening to importance
, 93–94

communication models and
, 233–234

connectivity element
, 3

in crisis communication
, 279–280

in crisis situations
, 160

escalation
, 291

health sector
, 98–102

impact on crisis communication
, 174–175

impact on institutional actors
, 174

impact on media
, 174

interview subjects and responsibilities
, 91

literacy oriented recommendations
, 246–247

logic
, 117–118

in management of terror crisis in Norway
, 86

methodological approach
, 90–92

and narrative of trauma
, 45–47

need for coordination
, 102–103

and networked publics
, 231–233

perspectives from research
, 89–90

platforms
, 2, 156, 171, 211

police sector
, 92–98

recommendations for social media use
, 8–9

in risks and crises
, 5–8

use in Austria
, 159

Social media communication
, 162, 237–238, 243

action-able risk communication model
, 272

constative and directive speech acts
, 265

health authorities strategies
, 262

and information flows
, 167

institutional actors
, 167–170

journalists
, 171–173

likes/re-tweets/comments
, 266–267

Norwegian and UK health authorities’ strategies
, 263–264

recommendations for health authorities use of social media
, 269–270

research design
, 259–262

social medium
, 273

strategy documents and interview sources
, 271

theoretical perspectives
, 257–259

Twitter
, 267

Social media information gathering tool development

activity theory
, 198–199

building conceptual model
, 191–193

emergency information gathering tool
, 187–188

laboratory tests
, 199–200

RESCUE tool
, 186–187, 188–189

testing detailed tool design
, 195–198

testing tool
, 193–195, 211–213

testing usability
, 191

usability testing and emergencies
, 189–191

Social Media Strategy of PST
, 72–76

Social media-reflexivity
, 140, 261

Social networks
, 161, 230

Social shaping
, 117

Socio-technological foundations
, 232

Solidarity
, 47

Sorrow
, 27, 44, 57

‘Split networks’
, 234

SQL database
, 22

Stakeholders
, 162, 167, 234–235, 244–245

interviews
, 163–164

management approach
, 160

typology
, 163

Standard operating procedure (SOP)
, 289

Stress detection, psychophysiological measurements for
, 208–209

‘Structured focused’ methodology
, 141

Subjective data
, 195–196

Subsidiarity principle
, 158

Superposters
, 19, 28–31

‘Swine flu’ crisis
, 266

Sympathetic nervous system
, 209

Task performance tests
, 207–208

‘Team Austria’
, 170

Technological affordances
, 118, 128

occupational and organisational approaches to
, 121–123

in time of digital media
, 116–118

Technological artefact
, 118

Terror crises, interactivity and dialogue in
, 94–96

Terror-event journalism
, 117

Terrorist attacks
, 16, 30, 32, 34, 67–68, 119, 125, 278, 279

case and data
, 281–282

findings from analysis of Norwegian Twitter-sphere
, 283–284

findings from interviews with journalists, information officers and key communicators
, 286–287

findings from interviews with survivors from Utøya
, 285–286

key findings
, 283

recommendations
, 287–292

situation awareness and social media in crisis communication
, 279–280

Terrorist event
, 136

Testing usability of social media information gathering tool
, 191

Togetherness
, 52–53

Traditional actors
, 166

Traditional crisis communicators
, 156, 161

Traditional journalism
, 117

Traditional media
, 156, 231

Transport services
, 167

Trauma
, 45–47

Tsunamis
, 290

Tweets or Instagram images
, 211

22 July Commission
, 67–68, 74, 86, 98, 281

Twitter
, 17, 18, 73, 121–122, 161, 163, 166, 171, 256, 267, 287, 288

communication analysis
, 16

of crisis events
, 17–19

and diagnosis of Pauline Cafferkey
, 147–149

and medical evacuation of William Pooley
, 145–147

research design and methods
, 139–141

and social media
, 136–137

users
, 31–33

and West African Ebola outbreak
, 137–139, 141–142

WHO’s declaration of PHEIC
, 142–145

UBIMET (meteorological forecast system)
, 168

UN Mission for Emergency Ebola Relief (UNMEER)
, 139

Unfolding emergencies
, 188

Unity
, 44

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
, 138, 139

Usability testing
, 5, 186, 198, 199, 207, 213–218

and emergencies
, 189–191

laboratory testing
, 207–208

prototype testing
, 218–220

of social media information gathering tool
, 191

User-friendliness

close-to-working prototype
, 214–218

discussion and recommendations
, 218

EDA
, 209

eye tracking
, 209–210

facial expressions
, 210

laboratory testing of usability
, 207–208

psychophysiological measurements for stress detection
, 208–209

test methods
, 206–207

testing tool for social media information gathering
, 211–213

use of psychophysiological measurements
, 218–220

wireframe prototype
, 213–214

Utøya terror attack (see also Norway attacks)
, 44, 49, 55–56

background
, 44–45

closed Facebook group
, 51–52

findings from interviews with survivors from
, 285–286

grief and togetherness
, 52–53

hate and evil
, 55

inconceivable
, 50–51

methodology and data
, 47–48

missing youth
, 51

private and public grief
, 54

saved
, 49–50

social media and narrative of trauma
, 45–47

Variability of raw materials
, 121

Verdens Gang (Tabloid newspaper)
, 94

VG
, 54, 117, 125, 129

digital platforms
, 119

interdisciplinary cooperation
, 124

VG Live 24-hours News
, 94

VG Nett (Online newspaper)
, 73, 119

Virtual interpersonal communication
, 48

Voluntary fire brigade
, 174, 235, 239

local
, 234

online and social media communication
, 237–238

Voluntary initiatives
, 167

Warning and alarm system
, 158

Weather information
, 158

Weather warnings
, 158

Web 2.0 technologies
, 65

Web and social media

communication processes
, 243

literacy oriented recommendations
, 246–247

West African Ebola outbreak
, 137–139

Wireframe prototype
, 213–214

World Health Organisation (WHO)
, 137, 138, 259

announces outbreak of Ebola virus disease
, 141

declaration of PHEIC
, 142–145

YouTube
, 31, 171, 238

Prelims
Social Media Use in Crises and Risks: An Introduction to the Collection
Part 1 Using Social Media in Risks and Crises
Chapter 1 Tweeting Terror: An Analysis of the Norwegian Twitter-sphere during and in the Aftermath of the 22 July 2011 Terrorist Attack
Chapter 2 Victims’ Use of Social Media during and after the Utøya Terror Attack: Fear, Resilience, Sorrow and Solidarity
Chapter 3 Blood and Security during the Norway Attacks: Authorities’ Twitter Activity and Silence
Chapter 4 Social Media in Management of the Terror Crisis in Norway: Experiences and Lessons Learned
Chapter 5 News Workers’ Reflections on Digital Technology and Social Media after a Terror Event
Chapter 6 Old Wine in New Bottles? Use of Twitter by Established UK News Media during the 2014–15 West African Ebola Outbreak
Chapter 7 Flows of Water and Information: Reconstructing Online Communication During the 2013 European Floods in Austria
Part 2 Developing a Tool for Crisis Communicators
Chapter 8 Tailoring Tools to the Rescue: Lessons Learned from Developing a Social Media Information Gathering Tool
Chapter 9 What Eye Movements and Facial Expressions Tell Us about User-Friendliness: Testing a Tool for Communicators and Journalists
Part 3 Recommendations for Social Media Use in Risks and Crises
Chapter 10 ‘When the Levee Breaks’: Recommendations for Social Media Use During Environmental Disasters
Chapter 11 Social Media Communication During Disease Outbreaks: Findings and Recommendations
Chapter 12 Social Media and Situation Awareness during Terrorist Attacks: Recommendations for Crisis Communication
Index