Index

Neven Šerić (Faculty of Economics, University of Split, Croatia)
Jasenko Ljubica (Tec de Monterrey – Campus Santa Fe, México City, Mexico)

Market Research Methods in the Sports Industry

ISBN: 978-1-78754-192-4, eISBN: 978-1-78754-191-7

Publication date: 15 May 2018

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Šerić, N. and Ljubica, J. (2018), "Index", Market Research Methods in the Sports Industry, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78754-191-720181023

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:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Accuracy rule
, 199–200

Acrobatic dance club
, 165

Adjustments
, 119

Amateur sports
, 13, 81

entities
, 7, 106, 207

Amateurs
, 2

Analytical models
, 19

Annulment technique
, 148

Anonymity
, 116–117, 136, 194

Archer club
, 165

Archival research
, 83

Astro-turfing approach
, 66

Athletes
, 2, 21, 23

amateur athletes
, 3

development of specific records or archives of
, 3–4

growth of
, 13

professional
, 14, 107

top-level professional
, 141

Attitude
, 126–127, 199

measurement through test methods
, 126–132

psychological attitudes
, 103

in sports industry
, 111–113

synergy of
, 93

Attractive factors of sports
, 33

Avalanche effect
, 93

Average family, standard of
, 173

Basic set
, 42, 116–117, 123, 155, 157–158, 159, 161

Benchmark(ing)
, 51

benefits and disadvantages
, 59–61

entity
, 54, 55

method
, 33, 201–202, 207

phases of benchmarking implementation process
, 57–59

project
, 47

sport entity
, 51–52

in sports industry
, 51

types
, 53–57

Business

philosophy
, 15

records of sport entity
, 86

strategy
, 107

Business intelligence (BI)
, 73

completeness of application
, 76–77

data collection approaches
, 73–74

decision-making
, 78–79

market research in sports industry
, 74–75

ORI
, 75–76

strategic decision-making
, 79–80

technology development
, 77–78

Capital inflow
, 74

Capital-intensive sports
, 81

Causal research
, 42, 152, 153

Causality
, 8, 23, 34, 102, 171, 174

Central epistemological principle
, 174

Central statistical bureaus
, 87

Clusters. See Groups

Code of ethics
, 192–193

Collected data evaluation
, 119

College sport competitions
, 3

Communicative factors
, 33

Competitive intelligence
, 76

Competitor intelligence (CI)
, 76

See also Business intelligence (BI)

Complex

quantitative methods
, 167

questions
, 119

sports phenomena
, 38

Computer-aided interviewing (CAI)
, 118

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)
, 118

Concept (definition)
, 40

Connoisseurs sample
, 68, 91, 162, 164

Consistency rule
, 199–200

Consumer intelligence
, 75

Contemporary marketing principles
, 16

Contemporary sport
, 1

marketing
, 32, 206

Content analysis method
, 133–134, 187–188

Content marketing
, 65, 66

Continuity of revenues
, 15–16

Continuous long-term monitoring
, 181

Continuous research
, 102

Continuous systematic process
, 114–115

Control settings of experiment method implementation
, 147

Cookie
, 68

Core sample category
, 159

Corporate entities
, 206

Costs
, 210

reduction
, 124

Crawling process
, 66

Crisis management
, 51

Cross-cultural competencies
, 75–76

Cross-tabulation
, 201–202

Cultural anthropology
, 111

Cultural intelligence (CQ)
, 75

Culture
, 2

Customer relationship management (CRM)
, 70

Customer-related information
, 20

Customization
, 27

of market research
, 35

Data
, 158, 174, 181

analysis
, 179

coding
, 43

mining
, 78

Data collection
, 42–43

process
, 13

techniques
, 42

Database
, 80

De-objectification principle
, 175

Decision support systems
, 77

Decision-making
, 11, 78–79, 164

based on findings of exploratory research
, 98–100

process
, 18–19, 83

secondary data for decision-making in management
, 81–82

in sports entities management
, 43–45, 96–98

Deming Prize
, 51

Demographic characteristics
, 84, 103–104, 110

Demographic variables
, 27

Dependent variable of sport phenomenon
, 147

Description method
, 174

Descriptive analysis
, 101–102, 201–202

in sports industry
, 105–106

Descriptive data
, 90

Descriptive research
, 41

descriptive analysis in sports industry
, 105–106

MIS
, 102–103

panels types
, 104

sport
, 101

See also Exploratory research

Descriptive statistics application
, 169

Desk research
, 83–84, 109

Development incentives
, 173

Dichotomous questions
, 119–120, 133–134

Direct observation
, 138

Direct scales
, 126–127

Directorate-General for Education and Culture
, 108

Display advertising
, 65, 67

Documentary secondary data
, 83

Draft
, 58

E Post experiment form
, 149–150

E Post–K Post experiment form
, 151

E Pre–post experiment form
, 150

E Pre–Post–K Pre–Post experiment form
, 151

E-mail

discussion groups
, 65

marketing
, 65, 71

Economic

factors
, 5

phenomena
, 171

recession
, 8

Elasticity of demand
, 34

Elimination technique
, 148

Emotions in sports industry
, 111–113

Entity’s decision-making
, 172

Environment(al)
, 2, 171

adaptation
, 206

awareness of sport entity’s activities
, 112–113

changes monitoring
, 26–28

intelligence
, 75

research
, 16

terms
, 84

Epistemological principle
, 171

Epistemology
, 178

Errors

of interviewers and research organizers
, 123

in processing of results
, 123–124

in selection of sample units
, 123

ESPN sports channel
, 4

Ethical

conflicts
, 193

factors
, 5

principles in market research in sports industry
, 191–195

standards
, 73

Ethnography
, 168

knowledge
, 184

study
, 181

Ethnomethodology
, 167, 168

European Quality Award
, 51

European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR)
, 194–195

Evaluative sample
, 162

Ex Post Facto experiment form
, 151

Exclusivity
, 200

Experiences
, 9, 69

analysis
, 12, 81

research on previous experiences with sport phenomenon
, 90–91

Experiment method
, 42, 48

advantages and disadvantages
, 152–154

application in sports industry
, 144

implementation
, 145

implementation methods of primary research
, 115

practical implementation in sports industry
, 146–152

sports industry
, 110

Expert concept
, 142

Expert samples
, 164

Exploratory research
, 41, 89, 90, 187

analysis of selecting sport case studies
, 91–92

decision-making based on findings
, 98–100

findings
, 161

pilot studies
, 92–96

research on previous experiences with sport phenomenon
, 90–91

secondary data analysis for decision-making in management
, 96–98

secondary data collection for management of sport entities
, 90

in sports industry
, 98–100

See also Descriptive research

External benchmarking
, 54–57

External competitive benchmarking
, 54

External data sources
, 47

External generic benchmarking
, 55–57

External intelligence (EXI)
, 75

External non-competitive benchmarking
, 55

External sources
, 84

of secondary data in sports industry market research
, 87–88

Facebook profile use
, 69

Factorial experiment
, 152

Fan panels
, 102–103

Fans
, 10, 196

FC Bayern Munich, football clubs
, 70

FC Bayern TV (FCB.TV)
, 70

Field implementation of market research

additional guidelines
, 195–197

ethical principles in market research in sports industry
, 191–195

Field researchers
, 190, 193–195

Financial resources redistribution
, 14

Financial support intelligence
, 76

Focus group
, 182–184

Follower intelligence
, 76

Formal approach
, 56

Formal benchmarking process
, 56

Free-time culture
, 23

Fullness
, 200

Funnel technique
, 135

Genealogical approach
, 181

General data
, 48

Generalization methods
, 88

Generic benchmarking
, 60

Generic external benchmarking
, 56

Geographic characteristics
, 110

Global business
, 208

Global market
, 25, 37

Global sports industry income projections
, 109

Globalization
, 45, 74, 82

fostered development
, 23

processes
, 24

of sports commercialization
, 108

of sports industry results
, 81–82

Google analytics tools
, 78

Gradualism rule
, 199–200

Groups
, 160

interview
, 93–94, 183

sample
, 160–161

sample survey
, 161

size criterion
, 161

Guerilla marketing
, 66

Hajduk Football Club
, 58, 59

Hawthorne effect
, 95, 194

Heterogeneity
, 34

Highly complex questions
, 119

Historical approach
, 176, 177

Holistic approach
, 176

Homogenization process
, 175

Human factor
, 123

Human resource management
, 189

Humanitarian attributes
, 71

Hypocritical method
, 144

Hypothesis
, 40, 41, 199–200

of primary research
, 113–114

setting
, 147

Image creation in sports industry
, 77

Implementation methods of primary research in sports industry
, 115

Implementation process
, 163, 178–180

In-depth analysis of experience
, 102

In-depth interviews
, 94–95, 179

Income
, 160

structure of FIFA World Cup, Brazil
, 108

Independent variables of sport phenomenon
, 147

Indexing
, 66

Indirect observation
, 138

Indirect scales
, 126–127, 128–129

Individual

phenomenon
, 186

selection method
, 159

Informal benchmarking
, 56, 58

Informal data in sports industry
, 9–14

Informal surveys
, 12

Innovations
, 107

Integrated marketing
, 16, 17

communications
, 113

function
, 16

See also Web marketing

Intelligence of integrated process
, 76

Intentional sample
, 156–157, 159, 163

of sport entities
, 91

types
, 162

Inter-cultural level intelligence (IQ)
, 75

Interactive online communication
, 181

Interactive process
, 177

Internal benchmarking
, 53–54

Internal data sources
, 85–86

Internal databases
, 47

Internal market
, 38

Internal sources
, 84

of secondary data in sports industry market research
, 85–86

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
, 194–195

International competitions
, 3

International Cup competitions
, 3

Internet
, 62, 68, 77, 205

articles
, 70

services
, 67

software
, 66

Interpretative approach
, 167

Interpretative research
, 167

Interpretive validity–objectivity
, 176

Interval scale
, 128, 129

Interviews
, 115–116

protocol
, 94

questionnaire
, 133–134, 136

Introspection
, 177

‘Judgement sample’
, 162

Karate Association of City of Split
, 165

Latin square experiment method
, 152

‘Learning’ entity
, 54–55

Legal factors
, 5

Legal sports entity
, 1

Leisure concept
, 142

Life history method
, 180–182

Lifestyle sports
, 22

Likert scale
, 129–130, 131

Local community
, 165

Local sport federations
, 82–83

Mailing lists
, 65, 68

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
, 51

‘Manoeuvre space’
, 168

Market

liberalization
, 74

in sports
, 32

variables
, 27

Market intelligence (MI)
, 75, 76

Market monitoring
, 37

data in sports industry
, 9–14

in narrow sense
, 37–38

Market research
, 35, 81, 163, 206

activities
, 3

approaches to
, 38–43

case study method
, 185–187

classification and control of collected data
, 199–200

content analysis method
, 187–188

creating market research reports in sports industry
, 202–204

data in sports industry
, 9–14, 28, 45–49

focus group
, 182–184

general limitations of samples
, 163–165

implementation of marketing tools
, 4–5

in sports entities management
, 43–45

life history method
, 180–182

method
, 195

objectives and types
, 46–49

observation method
, 136–144

optimal development
, 36–37

personal diaries
, 184–185

quantitative research
, 30–31

reports creation in sports industry
, 202–204

research instrument design for
, 133–136

results analysis in sports industry

seasonality
, 34–35

secondary data
, 29–30

special factors
, 33–34

sport federations
, 1–2

sports entities
, 2–3, 28–29

in sports industry
, 2, 3–4, 7, 126–127, 155, 160

sports marketing
, 5–6

sports offer
, 32–33

statistical data processing
, 201–202

technologies
, 31–32

types of samples
, 159–163

utilizations of market research
, 35–36

See also Descriptive research; Exploratory research

Marketing
, 77

concepts
, 14, 37

function
, 17

in market research
, 14–18

See also Web marketing

Marketing information systems (MIS)
, 18, 102

of sport entity
, 18–21

Mass sports
, 20, 144

Mass-media sports
, 157

Mathematical data processing
, 180–181

Media
, 11–12, 33, 140, 181, 187

Median
, 127–128

Mediators
, 29

Membership fees
, 205

Metadata system
, 79

Michigan Wolverines, web marketing in sports industry
, 69–70

Mixed martial arts (MMA)
, 164

Mobile advertising
, 65

Mobile networks
, 67

Mode
, 127–128

Moderator
, 184

Modern marketing concepts
, 17

Money in professional and amateur sports
, 73

Monitoring
, 18, 26, 179

continuous monitoring
, 15, 18–19

and controlling of business
, 25

direct monitoring
, 181

of environmental changes surrounding sport entities
, 26–28

market monitoring
, 9–14

Monopoly position, business
, 195–196

Motives for market research in sports industry

approaches to market research in sports industry
, 38–43

invisibility of services
, 7–8

market research, market monitoring and informal data
, 9–14

market research and decision-making
, 43–45

market research in sports industry
, 28–37, 45–49

marketing concepts
, 14–18

MIS of sport entity
, 18–21

monitoring of environmental changes surrounding sport entities
, 26–28

research of trends in sports industry
, 21–26

sports entities
, 8–9

sports industry market monitoring and market research
, 37–38

Multi-method streamlined process
, 167

Multidimensional scales
, 132

Multiple theoretical frameworks
, 168

Multiple-choice questions
, 120, 133–134

National sports federations
, 3, 82–83

National statistics
, 87

Natural factors
, 5

Naturalistic approach
, 168

Naturalistic research
, 167

Neo-functionalism
, 170

Networks
, 66

Neuro-marketing in observation
, 138

Nominal scale
, 126, 127

Non-competitive benchmarking
, 60

Non-mass sports
, 157, 164

Non-verbal

communication
, 184, 190–191

response
, 96

Notable observation
, 138

Objective external variables
, 34

Objective method
, 160

Observation method
, 42, 48, 137–138

advantages and disadvantages
, 139–140

case study
, 140–144

implementation methods of primary research
, 115

in market research in sports industry
, 136

neuro-marketing in observation
, 138

stakeholders
, 137

Olympic Games
, 3, 4, 65, 108

Olympic sports
, 87

Omnibus research in sports industry
, 104

One-time research
, 102

Online analytical processing (OLAP)
, 79

Online market research
, 68

Online research
, 69

Online surveys
, 69

Online testing, sport entities
, 117–118

Ontology
, 178

Open-ended questions
, 120, 133–134

Operational decisions
, 10, 12, 20

Opinions analysis in sports industry
, 111–113

Optimization process
, 65–66

Ordinal scale
, 127–128

Organizational Intelligence (ORI)
, 75–76

Organizers, representatives of
, 94

Orientation to target segments
, 15

Panel(s)

experiment
, 152

types
, 104

Paradigm
, 170

Paradigmatic framework
, 178

Paralympic Games
, 3

Participants
, 103–104

Participating entities
, 91

Participating sport entities
, 109

Personal diaries
, 184–185

Personal judgement
, 162

Personal observation
, 138

Pertinent sample
, 162

Phenomenology
, 163, 168, 176

Phone testing
, 116–117

Physical entity
, 2

Pilot studies, in sports industry
, 92

group interview
, 93–94

in-depth interviews
, 94–95

projective techniques
, 95–96

Political factors
, 5

Pop-under ads
, 67

Pop-up advertising
, 67

Popularity of martial arts
, 164

Post-coding administers
, 200

Postal survey
, 69, 117–118

Pre-test examination, sports industry
, 119–120

Preliminary data
, 44

Preliminary research
, 139, 189

Preparation and planning of implementation phase
, 119

Prestigious quality awards
, 51–52

Pricing

policy
, 20

strategies
, 64

Primary data collection method
, 107–108

Primary data in market research in sports industry

analysis of opinions, attitudes, emotions and psychological variables
, 111–113

application of experiment method in sports industry
, 144–154

conducting primary research in sports industry
, 113–115

global sports industry income projections
, 109

implementation methods of primary research in sports industry
, 115

income structure of FIFA World Cup
, 108

observation method in market research in sports industry
, 136–144

primary research
, 110

research instrument design for market research in sports industry
, 133–136

testing method for sport entities
, 115–132

Primary method
, 180

Primary offer of sports entity
, 33

Primary research
, 30, 42, 108, 109–110

conducting in sports industry
, 113–115

implementation methods in sports industry
, 115

Probability

of inclusion of individuals
, 161–162

theory
, 156

Problem-solving techniques
, 74

Professional sport

club
, 1

entities
, 73, 98–99

Projective techniques
, 42, 95–96

Psychological characteristics
, 103–104

Psychological variables in sports industry
, 111–113

Psychology
, 111

Public loyalty enhancement
, 209

Public relations
, 77

Publications
, 13

‘Purposive sample’
, 162

Qualitative approach
, 178

Qualitative methods
, 167, 185

Qualitative research
, 31, 49, 167, 168–169, 170

basic characteristics
, 169–171

case study method in market research in sports industry
, 185–187

common methods
, 180

content analysis method in market research in sports industry
, 187–188

criteria for implementation
, 172–177

focus group in market research in sports industry
, 182–184

implementation process
, 178–180

life history method in market research in sports industry
, 180–182

limitations
, 171–172

methodology
, 169, 180

personal diaries in market research in sports industry
, 184–185

principles
, 175

strategy
, 178

See also Descriptive research; Exploratory research

Qualitative social research
, 172

Quantitative data
, 90, 171

Quantitative findings
, 169

Quantitative indicators
, 171, 187

Quantitative methods
, 30, 31, 167, 185

Quantitative research
, 30, 168–169, 171

fundamental approach
, 175

selection of appropriate methods
, 182

See also Descriptive research; Exploratory research

Quantitative studies
, 49

Questionnaire
, 133–134, 199–200

Quota sample
, 68, 162, 165

Random numbers
, 160

Random sample
, 68, 156, 159

group sample
, 160–161

simple
, 160

stratified sample
, 160

surface sample
, 161

systematic sample
, 160

Randomization process
, 175

Ratio scales
, 128

Readability rule
, 199–200

Receptive factors
, 33

Recession reality
, 23

Recorded fans
, 159

Recreational part
, 33

Research

coordinators
, 191, 192–193

design
, 168

instrument design for market research in sports industry
, 133–136

phenomenon
, 89, 156, 158, 163

problem
, 156, 168, 177, 183

process
, 168, 170, 176

sample
, 155

strategy
, 167

variables
, 40–41

Researchers
, 124, 190–191, 194

Respondent(s)
, 95, 120, 193–195

sport entities
, 116–117

Revenues
, 209–210

Role-play techniques
, 95, 96

Rotation technique
, 148

Sample/sampling
, 42, 155–158, 160–161, 163

of connoisseurs
, 162, 164

error
, 158

frame
, 157, 158

group
, 161

limitations in market research in sports industry
, 163–165

research
, 41

scope of
, 158

selection
, 157

and selection criteria determination phase
, 119

types of samples in market research in sports industry
, 159–163

unit
, 155

Search engine marketing (SEM)
, 65

Search engine optimization (SEO)
, 66

Search engines
, 65, 66, 71

Seasonality of demand
, 34–35

Secondary data
, 44

analysis for decision-making in management of sport entities
, 96–98

collection for management of sport entities
, 90

decision-making process
, 83

external sources of secondary data in sports industry market research
, 87–88

globalization
, 82

internal and external sources
, 84

internal sources of secondary data in sports industry market research
, 85–86

in market research in sports industry
, 81

research in sports industry
, 84–85

special records of secondary data of sport entity
, 86–87

two basic categories of secondary data
, 82–83

Segmentation
, 42

of environment
, 27–28

optimal
, 28

of total population
, 42

Segments
, 21, 29, 110, 156, 185

Semantic scales
, 130, 131

Simple market research in sports industry

benchmarking in sports industry
, 51–61

web marketing and
, 61–71

Simple questions
, 119

Simple random sample
, 160

Single variable analysis
, 201–202

Single-degree

cluster
, 161

surface samples
, 161

Skype
, 91

Social media marketing
, 65, 66

Social networks
, 67, 71, 205

Social process
, 185, 186

Socio-cultural factors
, 5

Socio-demographic

changes
, 24

characteristics
, 48, 118

Socioeconomic characteristics
, 103–104, 110

Socioeconomic variables
, 27

Software solutions
, 77

Sport case studies, analysis of selecting
, 91–92

Sport entities
, 77, 80, 81, 89, 90, 174, 186, 188, 199–200, 202–203, 205, 206, 208

application
, 118–122

environment
, 61

fan population
, 161

followers
, 160

measuring attitudes through test methods
, 126–132

members
, 160

online testing
, 117–118

phone testing
, 116–117

secondary data analysis for decision-making in management
, 96–98

secondary data collection for sport entities management
, 90

special records of secondary data of
, 86–87

testing method for
, 115

weaknesses
, 122–125

Sport federation’s activities
, 2

Sport phenomenon
, 46, 82, 89, 99, 159, 162, 163, 175, 177, 193, 199–200, 202–203

research on previous experiences with
, 90–91

Sport(s)
, 1, 7–8, 9, 23, 26, 101, 145, 156, 157, 168, 170, 174, 205, 208

clubs
, 1

competitions
, 3

databases
, 13

event
, 33

federations
, 1–2

federations
, 3

managers
, 159

marketing
, 5–6

offer
, 32–33

practice
, 94–95

recreational organizations
, 1

strategy
, 107

types
, 20

Sports entities
, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8–9, 17, 27–29

market research and decision-making in
, 43–45

marketing concept
, 15–16

monitoring of environmental changes surrounding
, 26–28

Sports industry
, 91, 160, 163, 172, 195

analysis of opinions, attitudes, emotions and psychological variables
, 111–113

basic characteristics of qualitative research in sports industry
, 169–171

common methods of qualitative research in sports industry
, 180

conduct primary research in
, 113–115

criteria for implementation of qualitative research in sports industry
, 172–177

decision-making based on findings of exploratory research in
, 98–100

descriptive analysis in
, 105–106

external sources of secondary data in
, 87–88

implementation methods of primary research in
, 115

implementation process of qualitative research in sports industry
, 178–180

internal sources of secondary data in
, 85–86

limitations of qualitative research in sports industry
, 171–172

market monitoring and informal data in market research
, 9–14

market monitoring and market research in narrow sense
, 37–38

market research in
, 28–37, 174

qualitative market research in
, 169

secondary data research in
, 84–85

Stakeholders
, 2, 3, 11, 12, 90, 101, 191–192

Statistical analysis
, 148, 201–202

Statistical data processing
, 180, 201–202

Strategic benchmarking
, 57

Strategic decision-making
, 36, 79, 100, 106, 122, 171, 175, 181, 186

Stratification
, 127, 160, 195

Stratified sample
, 160, 161

Stratums
, 160

Structured observation
, 138

Structured questions

with hidden objectives
, 120–121

with unhidden goals
, 120

Structured statistics
, 85–86

Subjective external variables
, 34

Subject–object relationship
, 175

Surface sample
, 161

Surveys
, 115–116

SVPETRVS Fight Night, mixed martial arts tournament
, 105

Swim swam community website
, 67

SWOT analysis
, 53

System oriented towards data
, 77

System oriented towards decision-making support
, 77

Systematic sample
, 160

Tactical benchmarking
, 56, 57

Tactical decision-making
, 21, 36, 79, 81, 153, 175, 181, 186

Tactical decisions
, 10, 79, 81, 98

Target group
, 155, 157, 158

Target population
, 7, 20, 26, 43, 65, 101, 181, 207

Target(ed) segments
, 2, 16, 20, 63, 64, 143, 188

authentication
, 37

orientation to
, 15

perceptions
, 16

Technical/electronic devices, observation using
, 138

Technological development
, 25

Technological factors
, 5, 77

Tertiary method
, 180

Test(ing) method
, 42, 48, 110

application
, 118–122

implementation methods of primary research
, 115

measuring attitudes through test methods
, 126–132

online testing
, 117–118

phone testing
, 116–117

for sport entities
, 115

weaknesses of
, 122–125

Textual argumentation
, 171

Thematic-perception techniques
, 95, 96

Theoretical paradigms
, 167, 168, 170

Third-party technique
, 95, 96

Thurston scale
, 128, 129, 130

Ticket revenues
, 15

Traditional MMA martial tournament
, 164

Transcoding
, 200

Triangulation of research methods
, 98–99

Two variable analysis
, 201–202

Two-degree cluster
, 161

Two-degree surface samples
, 161

Two-way tabulation
, 201–202

Un-notable observation
, 138

Unfinished sentences test
, 95, 96

Unrecorded fans
, 159

Unstructured observation
, 138

Unstructured question(s)
, 133–134

with hidden agendas
, 121

with unhidden goals
, 120

URLs
, 66

Validation
, 83, 179

Variables
, 40, 122, 152, 202

causal
, 186

dependent
, 145, 147, 149

independent
, 146, 147, 148

internal and external
, 34

psychological
, 49, 110

research
, 40–41

Verbal communication
, 184

Verbal response
, 96

Virtual services
, 63

Volley Ball Team Camp–Porech, Croatia
, 140–144

Web bots
, 66

Web crawlers
, 66

Web marketing
, 62

case study analysis
, 69

commercial activities
, 63–64

communication with target segments
, 65–68

exploratory research
, 61–62

FC Bayern Munich
, 70

final insights into
, 68–69

forms
, 71

and market research
, 61

Michigan Wolverines
, 69–70

pricing strategies
, 64–65

sport entity
, 62–63

Wings for Life
, 70–71

Web platform
, 64, 68, 184

Web server
, 68

Web-marketing platform
, 207

Website ranking process
, 66

Whims
, 21–23

Wings for Life marathon
, 70

Word-association tests
, 95–96

World and Continental Championships
, 3

World Football Championship
, 108

YouTube
, 63, 65, 66, 71