Comunello, F. and Mulargia, S. (2018), "References", Social Media in Earthquake-Related Communication, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 165-182. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-791-120181010
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2018 Emerald Publishing Limited
Abercrombie & Longhurst (1998) Abercrombie, N. , & Longhurst, B. J. (1998). Audiences: A sociological theory of performance and imagination. London: Sage.
Achterberg, de Koster, & van der Waal (2015) Achterberg, P. , de Koster, W. , & van der Waal, J. (2015). A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States. Public Understanding of Science, 26(6), 704–720.
Agostino (2013) Agostino, D. (2013). Using social media to engage citizens: A study of Italian municipalities. Public Relations Review, 39(3), 232–234.
Albris (2017) Albris, K. (2017). The switchboard mechanism: How social media connected citizens during the 2013 floods in Dresden. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 1–8. First published online August 31, 2017. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12201
Alexander (2014) Alexander, D. E. (2014). Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Science and Engineering Ethics, 20(3), 717–733.
American Red Cross (2010) American Red Cross . (2010). Social media in disasters and emergencies. American Red Cross Disaster Newsroom, 1–19. Retrieved from http://www.redcross.org/wwwfiles/Documents/pdf/other/SocialMediaSlideDeck.pdf
Andò (2007) Andò, R. (Ed.). (2007). Audience reader: saggi e riflessioni sull'esperienza di essere audience. Milano: Guerini scientifica.
Ang (1991) Ang, I. (1991). Desperately seeking the audience. New York, NY: Routledge.
Arpan & Roskos-Ewoldsen (2005) Arpan, L. M. , & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (2005). Stealing thunder: Analysis of the effects of proactive disclosure of crisis information. Public Relations Review, 31(3), 425–433.
Austin, Fisher Liu, & Jin (2012) Austin, L. , Fisher Liu, B. , & Jin, Y. (2012). How audiences seek out crisis information: Exploring the social-mediated crisis communication model. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 40(2), 188–207.
Avvenuti, Bellomo, Cresci, La Polla, & Tesconi (2017) Avvenuti, M. , Bellomo, S. , Cresci, S. , La Polla, M. N. , & Tesconi, M. (2017). Hybrid crowdsensing: A novel paradigm to combine the strengths of opportunistic and participatory crowdsensing. Proceedings of the 26th international conference on World Wide Web companion (pp. 1413–1421). International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.
Avvenuti, Cimino, Cresci, Marchetti, & Tesconi (2016) Avvenuti, M. , Cimino, M. G. , Cresci, S. , Marchetti, A. , & Tesconi, M. (2016). A framework for detecting unfolding emergencies using humans as sensors. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 43.
Avvenuti, Cresci, Del Vigna, & Tesconi (2017) Avvenuti, M. , Cresci, S. , Del Vigna, F. , & Tesconi, M. (2017). On the need of opening up crowdsourced emergency management systems. AI & SOCIETY, 33(1), 55–60.
Avvenuti, Cresci, Marchetti, Meletti, & Tesconi (2014) Avvenuti, M. , Cresci, S. , Marchetti, A. , Meletti, C. , & Tesconi, M. (2014). EARS (earthquake alert and report system): A realtime decision support system for earthquake crisis management. Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining, August (pp. 1749–1758). New York, NY: ACM.
Axelrod (1997) Axelrod, R. M. (1997). The complexity of cooperation: Agent-based models of competition and collaboration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bakardjieva (2015) Bakardjieva, M. (2015). Do clouds have politics? Collective actors in social media land. Information, Communication & Society, 18(8), 983–990.
Baran & Davis (2013) Baran, S. J. , & Davis, D. K. (2013). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Barnes (2008) Barnes, S. B. , (2008). Understanding social media from the media ecological perspective. Mediated interpersonal communication (pp. 14–33). New York, NY: Routledge.
Baym (2010) Baym, N. (2010). Personal connections in the digital age. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Beck, Giddens, & Lash (1994) Beck, U. , Giddens, A. , & Lash, S. (1994). Reflexive modernization: Politics, traditions and aesthetics in the modern social order. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Benali & Ghomari (2017) Benali, M. , & Ghomari, A. R. (2017). Towards a crowdsourcing-based approach to enhance decision making in collaborative crisis management. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, M. Lauras, & A. Montarnal (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Benkler (2006) Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. Yale, CT: Yale University Press.
Bennett (2008) Bennett, W. L. (Ed.). (2008). Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bennett & Segerberg (2012) Bennett, W. L. , & Segerberg, A. (2012). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 739–768.
Bennett & Segerberg (2013) Bennett, W. L. , & Segerberg, A. (2013). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bennett & Segerberg (2014) Bennett, W. L. , & Segerberg, A. (2014). Organization in the crowd: Peer production in large-scale networked protests. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 232–260.
Bessi et al. (2015) Bessi, A. , Petroni, F. , Del Vicario, M. , Zollo, F. , Anagnostopoulos, A. , Scala, A. … Quattrociocchi, W. (2015). Viral misinformation: The role of homophily and polarization. Proceedings of the 24th international conference on World Wide Web, May (pp. 355–356). New York, NY: ACM.
Betsch et al. (2012) Betsch, C. , Brewer, N. T. , Brocard, P. , Davies, P. , Gaissmaier, W. , Haase, N. , & Rossmann, C. (2012). Opportunities and challenges of Web 2.0 for vaccination decisions. Vaccine, 30(25), 3727–3733.
Blumler & Katz (1974) Blumler, J. G. , & Katz, E. (1974). The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (Vol. 1974). New York, NY: Sage Publications, Inc.
Boase (2008) Boase, J. (2008). Personal networks and the personal communication system: Using multiple media to connect. Information, Communication & Society, 11(4), 490–508.
Bode & Vraga (2015) Bode, L. , & Vraga, E. K. (2015). In related news, that was wrong: The correction of misinformation through related stories functionality in social media. Journal of Communication, 65(4), 619–638.
Boase & Wellman (2006) Boase, J. , & Wellman, B. (2006). Personal relationships: On and off the Internet. In A. L. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 709–723). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borkin et al. (2011) Borkin, M. A. , Gajos, Z. K. , Peters, A. E. , Mitsouras, D. , Melchionna, S. , Rybicki, F. J. … Pfister, H. (2011). Evaluation of artery visualizations for heart disease diagnosis. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12), 2479–2488.
Börner & Polley (2014) Börner, K. , & Polley, D. E. (2014). Visual insights: A practical guide to making sense of data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Botan & Taylor (2004) Botan, C. H. , & Taylor, M. (2004). Public relations: State of the field. Journal of Communication, 54(4), 645–661.
Boyd (2011) Boyd, d. , (2011). Social network sites as networked publics: Affordances, dynamics and implications. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), A networked self: Identity, community and culture on social network sites. London: Routledge.
Bronner (2013) Bronner, G. (2013). La démocratie des crédules. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Brubaker, Hayes, & Dourish (2013) Brubaker, J. R. , Hayes, G. R. , & Dourish, P. (2013). Beyond the grave: Facebook as a site for the expansion of death and mourning. The Information Society, 29(3), 152–163.
Brummett (2010) Brummett, B. (2010). Techniques of close reading. London: Sage.
Bruns (2008) Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, second life, and beyond: From production to produsage. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Bruns & Burgess (2014) Bruns, A. , & Burgess, J. (2014). Crisis communication in natural disasters: The Queensland floods and Christchurch earthquakes. In K. Weller , A. Bruns , J. Burgess , M. Mahrt , & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 373–384). Berlin: Peter Lang.
Bruns, Burgess, Crawford, & Shaw (2012) Bruns, A. , Burgess, J. E. , Crawford, K. , & Shaw, F. (2012). #qldfloods and @QPSMedia: Crisis communication on Twitter in the 2011 south east Queensland floods. Retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/48241/1/floodsreport.pdf
Bruns, Burgess, Mahrt, & Puschmann (2014) Bruns, A. , Burgess, J. , Mahrt, M. , & Puschmann, C. (Eds.). (2014). Twitter and society. Berlin: Peter Lang.
Bruns & Moe (2014) Bruns, A. , & Moe, H. (2014). Structural layers of communication on Twitter. In K. Weller , A. Bruns , J. Burgess , M. Mahrt , & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 15–28). New York: Peter Lang.
Bruns & Stieglitz (2014) Bruns, A. , & Stieglitz, S. (2014). Metrics for understanding communication on Twitter. In K. Weller , A. Bruns , J. Burgess , M. Mahrt , & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 69–82). Berlin: Peter Lang.
Brynielsson et al. (2017) Brynielsson, J. , Granåsen, M. , Lindquist, S. , Narganes Quijano, M. , Nilsson, S. , & Trnka, J. (2017). Informing crisis alerts using social media: Best practices and proof of concept. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. First published online August 29, 2017. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12195
Bucchi & Trench (2008) Bucchi, M. , & Trench, B. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of public communication of science and technology. Abingdon: Routledge.
Bucher (2002) Bucher, H. J. (2002). Crisis communication and the Internet: Risk and trust in a global media. First Monday, 7(4).
Burkett, Sellnow, Jones, & Sellnow (2014) Burkett, E. R. , Sellnow, D. D. , Jones, L. , & Sellnow, T. L. (2014). Earthquake early warning: User education and designing effective messages. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. abstract id. S33C-4547.
Cairo (2013) Cairo, A. (2013). The functional art. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
Carpenter (2010) Carpenter, S. (2010). A study of content diversity in online citizen journalism and online newspaper articles. New Media & Society, 12(7), 1064–1084.
Castells (1996) Castells, M. (1996). The rise of the network society: The information age. Economy, society, and culture (Vol. 1). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Castells (2004) Castells, M. (2004). The network society: A cross-cultural perspective. Cheltenhan: Edward Elgar.
Castells (2009) Castells, M. (2009). Communication power. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Castells (2012) Castells, M. (2012). Networks of outrage and hope: Social movements in the Internet age. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Castells, Fernandez-Ardevol, Qiu, & Sey (2007) Castells, M. , Fernandez-Ardevol, M. , Qiu, J. L. , & Sey, A. (2007). Mobile communication and society: A global perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Castillo, Mendoza, & Poblete (2011) Castillo, C. , Mendoza, M. , & Poblete, B. (2011). Information credibility on twitter. Proceedings of the 20th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 675–684). New York, NY: ACM.
Castillo, Mendoza, & Poblete (2013) Castillo, C. , Mendoza, M. , & Poblete, B. (2013). Predicting information credibility in time-sensitive social media. Internet Research, 23(5), 560–588.
Chadwick (2013) Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: politics and power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cobb et al. (2014) Cobb, C. , McCarthy, T. , Perkins, A. , Bharadwaj, A. , Comis, J. , Do, B. , & Starbird, K. (2014). Designing for the deluge: Understanding & supporting the distributed, collaborative work of crisis volunteers. Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 888–899). New York, NY: ACM.
Comunello (2011) Comunello, F. (2011). Networked sociability and individualism: Technology for personal and professional relationships. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Comunello (2014) Comunello, F. (Ed.). (2014). Social media e comunicazione d’emergenza. Milano: Guerini e Associati.
Comunello & Mulargia (2017) Comunello, F. , & Mulargia, S. (2017). A# cultural change is needed. Social media use in emergency communication by Italian local level institutions. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, & A. Lauras (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Comunello, Mulargia, Belotti, & Fernández-Ardèvol (2015) Comunello, F. , Mulargia, S. , Belotti, F. , & Fernández-Ardèvol, M. (2015). Older people’s attitude towards mobile communication in everyday life: Digital literacy and domestication processes. In J. Zhou & G. Salvendy (Eds.), International conference on human aspects of it for the aged population (pp. 439–450). Cham: Springer.
Comunello, Mulargia, Polidoro, Casarotti, & Lauciani (2015) Comunello, F. , Mulargia, S. , Polidoro, P. , Casarotti, E. , & Lauciani, V. (2015). No misunderstandings during earthquakes: Elaborating and testing a standardized tweet structure for automatic detection of earthquakes. In L. Palen, M. Büscher, T. Comes, & A. Highes (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th ISCRAM conference, May, Kristiansand, Norway.
Comunello, Parisi, Lauciani, Magnoni, & Casarotti (2016) Comunello, F. , Parisi, L. , Lauciani, V. , Magnoni, F. , & Casarotti, E. (2016). Tweeting after an earthquake: User localization and communication patterns during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. Annals of Geophysics, 59(5), S0537.
Coombs (2007) Coombs, W. T. (2007). Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 10(3), 163–176.
Coombs (2015) Coombs, W. T. (2015). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Coombs (2017) Coombs, W. T. (2017). Revising situational crisis communication theory. In L. Austin & Y. Jin (Eds.), Social media and crisis communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
Coombs, Claeys, & Holladay (2017) Coombs, W. T. , Claeys, A. S. , & Holladay, S. (2017). Social media’s value in a crisis: Channel effect or stealing thunder? In L. Austin & Y. Jin (Eds.), Social media and crisis communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
Cooper, Yeager, Burkle, & Subbarao (2015) Cooper, G. P. , Yeager, V. , Burkle, F. M. , & Subbarao, I. (2015). Twitter as a potential disaster risk reduction tool, Part I, Part II, Part III and Part IV. Plos Currents, 7.
Dahlgren (2009) Dahlgren, P. (2009). Media and political engagement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dahlgren (2012) Dahlgren, P. (2012). Reinventing participation: Civic agency and the web environment. Geopolitics, History and International Relations, 4(2), 27–45.
Denef, Bayerl, & Kaptein (2013) Denef, S. , Bayerl, P. S. , & Kaptein, N. , (2013). Social media and the police: Tweeting practices of British police forces during the August 2011 Riots. Proceedings of the conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI) (pp. 3471–3480).
Dieckmann et al. (2017) Dieckmann, N. F. , Johnson, B. B. , Gregory, R. , Mayorga, M. , Han, P. K. , & Slovic, P. (2017). Public perceptions of expert disagreement: Bias and incompetence or a complex and random world? Public Understanding of Science, 26(3), 325–338.
Drabek & Stephenson (1971) Drabek, T. , & Stephenson, S. J. (1971). When disaster strikes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1(2), 187–203.
Drury, Cocking, & Reicher (2009) Drury, J. , Cocking, C. , & Reicher, S. (2009). The nature of collective resilience: Survivor reactions to the 2005 London bombings. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 27, 66–95.
Dynes (1970) Dynes, R. R. (1970). Organized behavior in disaster. Lexington, MA: Heath Lexington Books.
Earle et al. (2010) Earle, P. , Guy, M. , Buckmaster, R. , Ostrum, C. , Horvath, S. , & Vaughan, A. (2010). OMG earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response? Seismological Research Letters, 81(2), 246–251.
Earle, Bowden, & Guy (2012) Earle, P. S. , Bowden, D. C. , & Guy, M. (2012). Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world. Annals of Geophysics, 54(6), 708–715.
Faccioli (2016) Faccioli, F. (2016). Comunicazione pubblica e media digitali: la prospettiva del public engagement. Problemi dell’informazione, 1(2016), 13–36.
Fallis (2015) Fallis, D. (2015). What is disinformation? Library Trends, 63(3), 401–426.
Farinosi & Treré (2010) Farinosi, M. , & Treré, E. (2010). Inside the “People of the Wheelbarrows”: Participation between online and offline dimension in the post-quake social movement. The Journal of Community Informatics, 6(3).
Farinosi & Treré (2014) Farinosi, M. , & Treré, E. (2014). Challenging mainstream media, documenting real life and sharing with the community: An analysis of the motivations for producing citizen journalism in a post-disaster city. Global media and communication, 10(1), 73–92.
Festinger (1957) Festinger, L. (1957/1979). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fiske (1989) Fiske, J. (1989). Understanding popular culture. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.
Fleck (1935) Fleck, L. (1935/1979). Genesis and development of a scientific fact. English translation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Flizikowski, Hołubowicz, Stachowicz, Hokkanen, & Delavallade (2014) Flizikowski, A. , Hołubowicz, W. , Stachowicz, A. , Hokkanen, L. , & Delavallade, T. (2014). Social media in crisis management: The iSAR + project survey. In S. R. Hiltz, M. S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, & P. C. Shih (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th international ISCRAM conference, May, University Park, PA.
Fraustino & Liu (2017) Fraustino, J. D. , & Liu, B. F. (2017). Toward more audience-oriented approaches to crisis communication and social media research. In L. Austin & Y. Jin (Eds.), Social media and crisis communication (Kindle version). New York, NY: Routledge.
Fraustino, Liu, & Jin (2012) Fraustino, J. D. , Liu, B. , & Jin, Y. (2012). Social media use during disasters: A review of the knowledge base and gaps. Final Report to Human Factors/Behavioral Sciences Division, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, College Park, MD: START. Retrieved from https://hazdoc.colorado.edu/handle/10590/2913
Fraustino, Liu, & Jin (2017) Fraustino, J. D. , Liu, B. F. , & Jin, Y. (2017). Social media use during disasters. In L. Austin & Y. Jin (Eds.), Social media and crisis communication. New York, NY: Routledge. (Kindle version).
Gaffney & Puschmann (2014) Gaffney, D. , & C. Puschmann (2014). Data collection on Twitter. In K. Weller , A. Bruns , J. Burgess , M. Mahrt , & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 55–67). Berlin: Peter Lang.
Gershon (2010) Gershon, I. (2010). The breakup2.0: Disconnecting over new media. Itaha, NY: Cornell University Press.
Giddens (1990) Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Giddens (1991) Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University press.
Giglietto, Iannelli, Rossi, & Valeriani (2016) Giglietto, F. , Iannelli, L. , Rossi, L. , & Valeriani, A. (2016). Fakes, news and the election: A new taxonomy for the study of misleading information within the hybrid media system. Convegno AssoComPol 2016 (Urbino, 15–17 December 2016). Retrieved from SSRN https://ssrn.com/abstract=2878774
Gillmor (2006) Gillmor, D. (2006). We the media: Grassroots journalism by the people, for the people. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Glaser & Strauss (1967/2017) Glaser, B. G. , & Strauss, A. L. (1967/2017). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Routledge.
Goltz & Mileti (2011) Goltz, J. D. , & Mileti, D. S. (2011). Public response to a catastrophic southern California earthquake: A sociological perspective. Earthquake Spectra, 27(2), 487–504.
Goode (2009) Goode, L. (2009). Social news, citizen journalism and democracy. New Media & Society, 11(8), 1287–1305.
Grasso & Crisci (2016) Grasso, V. , & Crisci, A. (2016). Codified hashtags for weather warning on Twitter: An Italian case study. PLoS Currents, 8.
Gray, Weal, & Martin (2016) Gray, B. , Weal, M. , & Martin, D. (2016). Social media and disasters: A new conceptual framework. In A. H. Tapia, P. Antunes, V. A. Bañuls, K. Moore, & J. Porto (Eds.), Proceedings of the ISCRAM 2016 conference, May, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Greimas (1990) Greimas, A. J. (1990). The social sciences: A semiotic view. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
Greimas & Courtés (1982) Greimas, A. J. , & Courtés, J. (1982). Semiotics and language: An analytical dictionary. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Grunig (1997) Grunig, J. E. (1997). A situational theory of publics: Conceptual history, recent challenges and new research. Public Relations Research: An International Perspective, 3, 48.
Hall (1980) Hall, S. (1980). Encoding and decoding in the television discourse. In S. Hall (Ed.), Culture, media, language. London: Hutchinson.
Halse, Tapia, Squicciarini, & Caragea (2016) Halse, S. E. , Tapia, A. H. , Squicciarini, A. C. , & Caragea, C. (2016). Tweet factors influencing trust and usefulness during both man-made and natural disasters. In A. H. Tapia, P. Antunes, V. A. Bañuls, K. Moore, & J. Porto (Eds.), Proceedings of the ISCRAM 2016 conference, May, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Han & Baldwin (2011) Han, B. , & Baldwin, T. (2011). Lexical normalisation of short text messages: Maknsens a# twitter. In Proceedings of the 49th annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human language technologies-volume 1, June, Association for Computational Linguistics.
Hargittai (2002) Hargittai, E. (2002). Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. First Monday, 7(4).
Haythornthwaite & Wellman (2002) Haythornthwaite, C. , & Wellman, B. (2002). The Internet in everyday life: An introduction. In B. Wellman & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Internet in everyday life (pp. 1–41). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Hernandez & Rue (2016) Hernandez, R. K. , & Rue, J. (2016). The principles of multimedia journalism: Packaging digital news. London: Routledge.
Herring (2013) Herring, A. (2013). Sociology of disaster. In P. T. Bobrowsky (Ed.), Encyclopedia of natural hazards. Dordrecht: Springer.
Hiltz, Kushma, & Plotnick (2014) Hiltz, S. R. , Kushma, J. A. , & Plotnick, L. (2014). Use of social media by US Public Sector Emergency Managers: Barriers and wish lists. In S. R. Hiltz, M. S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, & P. C. Shih (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th international ISCRAM conference, May, University Park, PA.
Hjorth & Kim (2011) Hjorth, L. , & Kim, K. H. Y. (2011). The mourning after: A case study of social media in the 3.11 earthquake disaster in Japan. Television & New Media, 12(6), 552–559.
Hong (2013) Hong, H. (2013). Government websites and social media's influence on government-public relationships. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 346–356.
Hope, Ost, Gabbert, Healey, & Lenton (2008) Hope, L. , Ost, J. , Gabbert, F. , Healey, S. , & Lenton, E. (2008). “With a little help from my friends …”: The role of co-witness relationship in susceptibility to misinformation. Acta Psychologica, 127(2), 476–484.
Houston et al. (2015) Houston, J. B. , Hawthorne, J. , Perreault, M. F. , Park, E. H. , Goldstein Hode, M. , Halliwell, M. R. , & Griffith, S. A. (2015). Social media and disasters: A functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research. Disasters, 39(1), 1–22.
Huang, Starbird, Orand, Stanek, & Pedersen (2015) Huang, Y. L. , Starbird, K. , Orand, M. , Stanek, S. A. , & Pedersen, H. T. (2015). Connected through crisis: Emotional proximity and the spread of misinformation online. Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work & social computing, February (pp. 969–980). New York, NY: ACM.
Hughes & Palen (2009) Hughes, A. L. , & Palen, L. (2009). Twitter adoption and use in mass convergence and emergency events. International Journal of Emergency Management, 6(3–4), 248–260.
Hughes & Palen (2012) Hughes, A. L. , & Palen, L. (2012). The evolving role of the public information officer: An examination of social media in emergency management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 9(1), 1–20.
Hughes, Peterson, & Palen (2014) Hughes, A. L. , Peterson, S. , & Palen, L. (2014). Social media in emergency management. Issues in disaster science and management: A critical dialogue between scientists and emergency managers. FEMA in Higher Education Program.
Hughes, St Denis, Palen, & Anderson (2014) Hughes, A. L. , St Denis, L. A. , Palen, L. , & Anderson, K. M. (2014). Online public communications by police & fire services during the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1505–1514). New York, NY: ACM.
Hughes & Tapia (2015) Hughes, A. L. , & Tapia, A. H. (2015). Social media in crisis: When professional responders meet digital volunteers. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 12(3), 679–706.
Imran, Castillo, Diaz, & Vieweg (2015) Imran, M. , Castillo, C. , Diaz, F. , & Vieweg, S. (2015). Processing social media messages in mass emergency: A survey. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 47(4), 67.
Imran, Castillo, Lucas, Meier, & Rogstadius (2014) Imran, M. , Castillo, C. , Lucas, J. , Meier, P. , & Rogstadius, J. (2014). Coordinating human and machine intelligence to classify microblog communications in crises. In S. R. Hiltz, M. S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, & P. C. Shih (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th international ISCRAM conference, May, University Park, PA.
Jenkins (2006) Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Jenkins, Boyd, & Ito (2015) Jenkins, H. , Boyd, D. , & Ito, M. (2015). Participatory culture in a networked era: A conversation on youth, learning, commerce, and politics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Jenkins, Ito, & boyd (2015) Jenkins, H. , Ito, M. , & boyd, d. (2015). Participatory culture in a networked era. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Jenkins, Purushotma, Weigel, Clinton, & Robison (2009) Jenkins, H. , Purushotma, R. , Weigel, M. , Clinton, K. , & Robison, A. J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jensen (2011) Jensen, K. B. (2011). New media, old methods: Internet methodologies and the online/offline divide. In M. Consalvo & C. Ess (Eds.), The handbook of Internet studies (pp. 14–43). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Jin, Pang, & Cameron (2010) Jin, Y. , Pang, A. , & Cameron, G. T. (2010). The role of emotions in crisis responses: Inaugural test of the integrated crisis mapping (ICM) model. Corporate communications: An International Journal, 15(4), 428–452.
Jordan et al. (2011) Jordan, T. , Chen, Y. T. , Gasparini, P. , Madariaga, R. , Main, I. , Marzocchi, W. … Zschau, J. (2011). Operational earthquake forecasting: State of knowledge and guidelines for implementation. Annals of Geophysics, 54(4).
Katz, Blumler, & Gurevich (1974) Katz, E. , Blumler, J. G. , & Gurevich, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communication: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19–32). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas (1973) Katz, E. , Gurevitch, M. , & Haas, H. (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review, 38(2), 164–181.
Katz & Lazarsfeld (1955) Katz, E. , & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal Influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communications. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Kaufhold, Valenzuela, & De Zúniga (2010) Kaufhold, K. , Valenzuela, S. , & De Zúniga, H. G. (2010). Citizen journalism and democracy: How user-generated news use relates to political knowledge and participation. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87(3–4), 515–529.
Kaufhold & Reuter (2016) Kaufhold, M. A. , & Reuter, C. (2016). The self-organization of digital volunteers across social media: The case of the 2013 European floods in Germany. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 13(1), 137–166.
Kaufmann (2015) Kaufmann, M. (2015). Resilience 2.0: Social media use and (self-) care during the 2011 Norway attacks. Media, Culture & Society, 37(7), 972–987.
Kavada (2012) Kavada, A. (2012). Engagement, bonding, and identity across multiple platforms: Avaaz on Facebook, YouTube, and MySpace. MedieKultur. Journal of Media and Communication Research, 28(52), 28–48.
Kent (2013) Kent, M. L. (2013). Using social media dialogically: Public relations in the reviving democracy. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 337–345.
Knight (2006) Knight, D. (2006). Public understanding of science: A history of communicating scientific ideas. London: Routledge.
Kreps (1978) Kreps, G. A. (1978). The organization of disaster response: Some fundamental theoretical issues. In E. L. Quarantelli (Ed.), Disasters: Theory and research (pp. 65–85). London: Sage.
Lachlan, Spence, & Lin (2017) Lachlan, K. , Spence, P. , & Lin, X. (2017). Natural disasters, twitter, and stakeholder communication. In L. Austin & Y. Jin (Eds.), Social media and crisis communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
Lasswell (1948) Lasswell, H. D. (1948). The structure and function of communication in society. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas. New York, NY: Harper.
Latonero & Shklovski (2011) Latonero, M. , & Shklovski, I. (2011). Emergency management, Twitter, and social media evangelism. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 3(4), 1–16.
Lazard & Atkinson (2015) Lazard, A. , & Atkinson, L. (2015). Putting environmental infographics center stage: The role of visuals at the elaboration likelihood model’s critical point of persuasion. Science Communication, 37(1), 6–33.
Lazarsfeld, Berelson, & Gaudet (1948) Lazarsfeld, P. F. , Berelson, B. , & Gaudet, H. (1948). The people’s choice. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Lee & Kwak (2012) Lee, G. , & Kwak, Y. H. (2012). An open government maturity model for social media-based public engagement. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 492–503.
Leetaru, Wang, Cao, Padmanabhan, & Shook (2013) Leetaru, K. H. , Wang, S. , Cao, G. , Padmanabhan, A. , & Shook, E. (2013). Mapping the global Twitter heartbeat: The geography of Twitter. First Monday, 18 (5/6).
Lenhart (2007) Lenhart, A. (2007). Teens and social media: The use of social media gains a greater foothold in teen life as they embrace the conversational nature of interactive online media. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/Reports/2007/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf.pdf
Lévy (1995) Lévy, P. (1995). Qu'est-ce que le virtuel? Paris: Éditions La Découverte.
Leykin, Aharonson-Daniel, & Lahad (2016) Leykin, D. , Aharonson-Daniel, L. , & Lahad, M. (2016). Leveraging social computing for personalized crisis communication using social media. PLoS Currents, 8.
Li, Caragea, & Caragea (2017) Li, H. , Caragea, D. , & Caragea, C. (2017). Towards practical usage of a domain adaptation algorithm in the early hours of a disaster. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, & A. Lauras (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Linders (2012) Linders, D. (2012). From e-government to we-government: Defying a typology for citizens coproduction in the age of social media. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 446–454.
Lindsay (2011) Lindsay, B. R. (2011). Social media and disasters: Current uses, future options, and policy considerations. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://ofti.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/42245_gri-04-11-2011.pdf
Liu, Austin, & Jin (2011) Liu, B. F. , Austin, L. , & Jin, Y. (2011). How publics respond to crisis communication strategies: The interplay of information form and source. Public Relations Review, 37(4), 345–353.
Liu & Fraustino (2014) Liu, B. F. , & Fraustino, J. D. (2014). Beyond image repair: Suggestions for crisis communication theory development. Public Relations Review, 40(3), 543–546.
Liu, Fraustino, & Jin (2015) Liu, B. F. , Fraustino, J. D. , & Jin, Y. (2015). How disaster information form, source, type, and prior disaster exposure affect public outcomes: Jumping on the social media bandwagon? Journal of Applied Communication Research, 43(1), 44–65.
Liu, Fraustino, & Jin (2016) Liu, B. F. , Fraustino, J. D. , & Jin, Y. (2016). Social media use during disasters: How information form and source influence intended behavioral responses. Communication Research, 43(5), 626–646.
Liu, Jin, & Austin (2013) Liu, B. F. , Jin, Y. , & Austin, L. L. (2013). The tendency to tell: Understanding publics' communicative responses to crisis information form and source. Journal of Public Relations Research, 25(1), 51–67.
Lombardi (2005) Lombardi, M. (2005). Comunicare nell’emergenza. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
Ludwig, Reuter, & Pipek (2015) Ludwig, T. , Reuter, C. , & Pipek, V. (2015). Social haystack: Dynamic quality assessment of citizen-generated content during emergencies. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 22(4), 17.
Lovari & Parisi (2015) Lovari, A. , & Parisi, L. (2015). Listening to digital publics. Investigating citizens’ voices and engagement within Italian municipalities’ Facebook Pages. Public Relations Review, 41(2), 205–213.
MacEachren et al. (2011) MacEachren, A. M. , Robinson, A. C. , Jaiswal, A. , Pezanowski, S. , Savelyev, A. , Blanford, J. , & Mitra, P. (2011). Geo-Twitter analytics: Applications in crisis management. Proceedings of 25th international cartographic conference, France.
Maddock et al. (2015) Maddock, J. , Starbird, K. , Al-Hassani, H. J. , Sandoval, D. E. , Orand, M. , & Mason, R. M. (2015). Characterizing online rumoring behavior using multi-dimensional signatures. Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 228–241). New York, NY: ACM.
Madianou & Miller (2012) Madianou, M. , & Miller, D. (2012). Polymedia: Towards a new theory of digital media in interpersonal communication. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 16(2), 169–187.
Marbouti, Mayor, Yim, & Maurer (2017) Marbouti, M. , Mayor, I. , Yim, D. , & Maurer, F. (2017). Social media analyst responding tool: A visual analytics prototype to identify relevant tweets in emergency events. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, M. Lauras, & A. Montarnal (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM Conference, May, Albi, France.
Matei & Bruno (2011) Matei, S. , & Bruno, R. (2011). Individualist motivators and community functional constraints in social media: The case of Wikis and Wikipedia. In F. Comunello (Ed.), Networked sociability and individualism (pp. 1–23). Hershey, PA: IGI Global
McQuail (1997) McQuail, D. (1997). Audience analysis. London: Sage.
McQuail, Blumler, & Brown (1972) McQuail, D. , Blumler, J. , & Brown, J. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In D. McQuail (Ed.), Sociology of mass communications. Middlesex, England: Penguin.
Mergel & Bretschneider (2013) Mergel, I. , & Bretschneider, S. I. (2013). A three-stage adoption process for social media use in government. Public Administration Review, 73(3), 390–400.
Meyer (1997) Meyer, E. K. (1997). Designing infographics. Indianapolis, IN: Hayden Books.
Micheletti (2003) Micheletti, M. (2003). Political virtue and shopping. Individuals, consumerism, and collective action. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mileti (1975) Mileti, D. S. (1975). Response to the unlikely. In D. S. Mileti , T. E. Drabek , & J. E. Haas (Eds.), Human systems in extreme environments: A sociological perspective. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado.
Mileti (1999) Mileti, D. S. (1999). Disasters by design: A reassessment of natural hazards in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Mileti & Sorensen (1990) Mileti, D. S. , & Sorensen, J. H. (1990). Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment (No. ORNL-6609). Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. Retrieved from http://www.cires.org.mx/docs_info/CIRES_003.pdf
Miller & Madianou (2012) Miller, D. , & Madianou, M. (2012). Should you accept a friends request from your mother? And other Filipino dilemmas. International Review of Social Research, 2(1), 9–28.
Morley (1980) Morley, D. (1980). The “nationwide” audience: Structure and decoding. London: British Film Institute.
Morrow, Mock, Papendieck, & Kocmich (2011) Morrow, N. , Mock, N. , Papendieck, A. , & Kocmich, N. (2011). Independent evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti project. Development Information Systems International, 8.
Morstatter, Pfeffer, Liu, & Carley (2013) Morstatter, F. , Pfeffer, J. , Liu, H. , & Carley, K. M. (2013). Is the sample good enough? Comparing Data from Twitter’s Streaming API with Twitter’s Firehose, arXiv preprint. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.5204
Mossberger, Wu, & Crawford (2013) Mossberger, K. , Wu, Y. , & Crawford, J. (2013). Connecting citizens and local governments? Social media and interactivity in major US cities. Government Information Quarterly, 30(4), 351–358.
Muralidharan, Rasmussen, Patterson, & Shin (2011) Muralidharan, S. , Rasmussen, L. , Patterson, D. , & Shin, J. H. (2011). Hope for Haiti: An analysis of Facebook and Twitter usage during the earthquake relief efforts. Public Relations Review, 37(2), 175–177.
Neubaum, Rösner, Rosenthal-von der Pütten, & Krämer (2014) Neubaum, G. , Rösner, L. , Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A. M. , & Krämer, N. C. (2014). Psychosocial functions of social media usage in a disaster situation: A multi-methodological approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 28–38.
Niederer & van Dijck (2010) Niederer, S. , & van Dijck, J. (2010). Wisdom of the crowd or technicity of content? Wikipedia as a sociotechnical system. New Media & Society, 12(8), 1368–1387.
Norman (2013) Norman, D. , (2013). The design of everyday things: Revised and expanded edition. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Norman & Draper (1986) Norman, D. A. , & Draper, S. W. (Eds.). (1986). User centred system design. New perspective on human-computer interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Norris (2011) Norris, P. (2011). Democratic deficit: Critical citizens revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ogie, Forehead, Clarke, & Perez (2017) Ogie, R. I. , Forehead, H. , Clarke, R. J. , & Perez, P. (2017). Participation patterns and reliability of human sensing in crowd-sourced disaster management. Information Systems Frontiers, 1–16. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10796-017-9790-y
Oh, Agrawal, & Rao (2013) Oh, O. , Agrawal, M. , & Rao, H. R. (2013). Community intelligence and social media services: A rumor theoretic analysis of tweets during social crises. Mis Quarterly, 37(2), 407–426.
Olteanu, Vieweg, & Castillo (2015) Olteanu, A. , Vieweg, S. , & Castillo, C. (2015). What to expect when the unexpected happens: Social media communications across crises. Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work & social computing, February (pp. 994–1009). New York, NY: ACM.
Ortiz & Ostertag (2014) Ortiz, D. G. , & Ostertag, S. F. (2014). Katrina bloggers and the development of collective civic action: The web as a virtual mobilizing structure. Sociological Perspectives, 57(1), 52–78.
Ostrom (1990) Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Palen et al. (2010) Palen, L. , Anderson, K. M. , Mark, G. , Martin, J. , Sicker, D. , Palmer, M. , & Grunwald, D. (2010). A vision for technology-mediated support for public participation & assistance in mass emergencies & disasters. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM-BCS visions of computer science conference. Swindon: British Computer Society.
Palen & Hughes (2018) Palen, L. , & Hughes, A. L. (2018). Social media in disaster communication. In Handbook of disaster research (pp. 497–518). Cham: Springer.
Palen & Liu (2007) Palen, L. , & Liu, S. B. (2007). Citizen communications in crisis: anticipating a future of ICT-supported public participation. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 727–736). New York, NY: ACM.
Palen, Vieweg, Liu, & Hughes (2009) Palen, L. , Vieweg, S. , Liu, S. B. , & Hughes, A. L. (2009). Crisis in a networked world: Features of computer-mediated communication in the April 16, 2007, Virginia Tech event. Social Science Computer Review, 27(4), 467–480.
Pantti & Sumiala (2009) Pantti, M. , & Sumiala, J. (2009). Till death do us join: Media, mourning rituals and the sacred centre of the society. Media, Culture & Society, 31(1), 119–135.
Pariser (2011) Pariser, E. (2011). The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. London: Penguin.
Parisi, Comunello, & Amico (2014) Parisi, L. , Comunello, F. , & Amico, A. (2014). #allertameteoSAR: analisi di un hashtag di servizio tra dinamiche di influenza e nuove forme di engagement. In F. Comunello (Ed.), Social media e comunicazione d’emergenza. Milano: Guerini.
Parisi & Rega (2010) Parisi, L. , & Rega, R. (2010). La comunicazione degli attori politici: tra disintermediazione e media sociali. In E. Cioni & A. Marinelli (Eds.), Le reti della comunicazione politica. Firenze: Firenze University Press.
Peary, Shaw, & Takeuchi (2012) Peary, B. D. , Shaw, R. , & Takeuchi, Y. (2012). Utilization of social media in the east Japan earthquake and tsunami and its effectiveness. Journal of Natural Disaster Science, 34(1), 3–18.
Perry (2005) Perry, R. W. (2005). Disasters, definitions and theory construction. In R. W. Perry & E. L. Quarantelli (Eds.). What is a disaster?: New answers to old questions. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation.
Perry (2007) Perry, R. W. (2007). What is a disaster? In H. Rodríguez , E. L. Quarantelli , & R. R. Dynes (Eds.), Handbook of disaster research. New York, NY: Springer.
Perry & Quarantelli (2005) Perry, R. W. , & Quarantelli, E. L. (2005). What is a disaster?: New answers to old questions. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation.
Petersen, Fallou, Reilly, & Serafinelli (2017) Petersen, L. , Fallou, L. , Reilly, P. , & Serafinelli, E. (2017). Public expectations of social media use by critical infrastructure operators in crisis communication. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, M. Lauras, & A. Montarnal (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Pew Research Center (2014) Pew Research Center . (2014). Beyond red vs. blue: The political typology. Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2014/06/26/the-political-typology-beyond-red-vs-blue/. Accessed on May 27, 2017.
Plotnick, Hiltz, Kushma, & Tapia (2015) Plotnick, L. , Hiltz, S. R. , Kushma, J. A. , & Tapia, A. H. (2015). Red tape: Attitudes and issues related to use of social media by US county-level emergency managers. In L. Palen, M. Büscher, T. Comes, & A. Highes (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th ISCRAM conference, May, Kristiansand, Norway.
Poell (2014) Poell, T. (2014). Social media and the transformation of activist communication: exploring the social media ecology of the 2010 Toronto G20 protests. Information, Communication & Society, 17(6), 716–731.
Polidoro (2016) Polidoro, P. (2016). ¿Que es la semiótica visual? Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco.
Popoola et al. (2013) Popoola, A. , Krasnoshtan, D. , Toth, A. P. , Naroditskiy, V. , Castillo, C. , Meier, P. , & Rahwan, I. (2013). Information verification during natural disasters. Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web (pp. 1029–1032). New York, NY: ACM.
Potts (2014) Potts, L. (2014). Social media in disaster response: How experience architects can build for participation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Procopio & Procopio (2007) Procopio, C. H. , & Procopio, S. T. (2007). Do you know what it means to miss New Orleans? Internet communication, geographic community, and social capital in crisis. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35(1), 67–87.
Quarantelli (1987) Quarantelli, E. L. (1987). Disaster studies: An analysis of the social and historical factors affecting the development of research in the area. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 5, 285–310.
Quarantelli (1991) Quarantelli, E. L. (1991). Lessons from research: Findings on mass communication system behavior in the pre, trans, and postimpact periods (article # 227). Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.
Quarantelli (2000) Quarantelli, E. L. (2000). Disaster research. In E. Borgatta & R. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sociology. New York, NY: Macmillian.
Rainie & Wellman (2012) Rainie, L. , & Wellman, B. (2012). Networked. The new social operating system. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Raymond (1999) Raymond, E. (1999). The cathedral and the bazaar. Philosophy & technology, 12(3), 23.
Reuter, Heger, & Pipek (2013) Reuter, C. , Heger, O. , & Pipek, V. (2013). Combining real and virtual volunteers through social media. In T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann, & T. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th ISCRAM conference, May, Baden-Baden, Germany.
Reuter, Kaufhold, Leopold, & Knipp (2017) Reuter, C. , Kaufhold, M. , Leopold, I. , & Knipp, H. (2017). Katwarn, Nina, or Fema? Multi-method study on distribution, use, and public views on crisis apps. Proceedings of the 25th European conference on information systems (ECIS), June 5–10, Guimarães, Portugal (pp. 2187–2201).
Reuter, Ludwig, Kaufhold, & Spielhofer (2016) Reuter, C. , Ludwig, T. , Kaufhold, M. A. , & Spielhofer, T. (2016). Emergency services’ attitudes towards social media: A quantitative and qualitative survey across Europe. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 95, 96–111.
Reuter & Spielhofer (2016) Reuter, C. , & Spielhofer, T. (2016). Towards social resilience: A quantitative and qualitative survey on citizens’ perception of social media in emergencies in Europe. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 121, 168–180.
Rodríguez, Quarantelli, & Dynes (2007) Rodríguez, H. , Quarantelli, E. L. , & Dynes, R. R. (2007). Editors’ introduction. In H. Rodríguez , E. L. Quarantelli , & R. R. Dynes (Eds.), Handbook of disaster research. New York, NY: Springer.
Rudra et al. (2016) Rudra, K. , Banerjee, S. , Ganguly, N. , Goyal, P. , Imran, M. , & Mitra, P. (2016). Summarizing situational tweets in crisis scenario. Proceedings of the ACM conference on hypertext and social media, July, Halifax, Nova Scotia (pp. 137–147).
Sakaki, Okazaki, & Matsuo (2010) Sakaki, T. , Okazaki, M. , & Matsuo, Y. (2010). Earthquake shakes Twitter users: Real-time event detection by social sensors. Proceedings of the 19th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 851–860). Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, April 26-30, 2010.
Sarter & Woods (1991) Sarter, N. B. , & Woods, D. D. (1991). Situation awareness: A critical but ill-defined phenomenon. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 1(1), 45–57.
Sbarra, Tosi, & De Rubeis (2010) Sbarra, P. , Tosi, P. , & De Rubeis, V. (2010). Web-based macroseismic survey in Italy: Method validation and results. Natural Hazards, 54(2), 563–581.
Scamuzzi & Tipaldo (a cura di) (2015) Scamuzzi, S. , & Tipaldo (a cura di), G. (2015). Apriti scienza. Bologna: il Mulino.
Scanlon (2007) Scanlon, J. (2007). Unwelcome irritant or useful ally? The mass media in emergencies. In H. Rodríguez , E. L. Quarantelli , & R. R. Dynes (Eds.), Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer .
Scharrer, Britt, Stadtler, & Bromme (2013) Scharrer, L. , Britt, M. A. , Stadtler, M. , & Bromme, R. (2013). Easy to understand but difficult to decide: Information comprehensibility and controversiality affect laypeople’s science-based decisions. Discourse Processes, 50, 361–387.
Scharrer, Rupieper, Stadtler, & Bromme (2016) Scharrer, L. , Rupieper, Y. , Stadtler, M. , & Bromme, R. (2016). When science becomes too easy: Science popularization inclines laypeople to underrate their dependence on experts. Public Understanding of Science, 26(8), 1003–1018.
Scharrer, Stadtler, & Bromme (2014) Scharrer, L. , Stadtler, M. , & Bromme, R. (2014). You’d better ask an expert: Mitigating the comprehensibility effect on laypeople’s decisions about science-based knowledge claims. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 465–471.
Schradie (2011) Schradie, J. (2011). The digital production gap: The digital divide and Web 2.0 collide. Poetics, 39(2):145–168.
Schultz, Utz, & Göritz (2011) Schultz, F. , Utz, S. , & Göritz, A. (2011). Is the medium the message? Perceptions of and reactions to crisis communication via Twitter, blogs and traditional media. Public Relations Review, 3(1), 20–27.
Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer (1998) Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T. L. , & Ulmer, R. R. (1998). Communication, organization, and crisis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 21(1), 231–276.
Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer (2003) Seeger, M. W. , Sellnow, T. L. , & Ulmer, R. R. (2003). Communication and organizational crisis. Greenwood: Publishing Group.
Segel & Heer (2010) Segel, E. , & Heer, J. (2010). Narrative visualization: Telling stories with data. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 16(6), 1139–1148.
Segerberg & Bennett (2011) Segerberg, A. , & Bennett, W. L. (2011). Social media and the organization of collective action: Using Twitter to explore the ecologies of two climate change protests. The Communication Review, 14(3), 197–215.
Sellnow, Iverson, & Sellnow (2017) Sellnow, D. D. , Iverson, J. , & Sellnow, T. L. (2017). The evolution of the operational earthquake forecasting community of practice: The L’Aquila communication crisis as a triggering event for organizational renewal. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 45(2), 121–139.
Sellnow & Seeger (2013) Sellnow, T. L. , & Seeger, M. W. (2013). Theorizing crisis communication (Vol. 4). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Shibutani (1966) Shibutani, T. (1966). Improvised news: A sociological study of rumor. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
Shirky (2008) Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. London: Penguin Press.
Sirianni (2009) Sirianni, C. (2009). Investing in democracy. Engaging citizens in collaborative governance. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institutions.
Sorensen (2000) Sorensen, J. H. (2000). Hazard warning systems: Review of 20 years of progress. Natural Hazards Review, 1(2), 119–125.
Spatharioti & Cooper (2017) Spatharioti, S. E. , & Cooper, S. (2017). On variety, complexity, and engagement in crowdsourced disaster response tasks. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, & A. Lauras (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Spatharioti, Govoni, Carrera, Wylie, & Cooper (2017) Spatharioti, S. E. , Govoni, R. , Carrera, J. S. , Wylie, S. , & Cooper, S. (2017). A required work payment scheme for crowdsourced disaster response: Worker performance and motivations. In T. Comes, F. Bénaben, C. Hanachi, & A. Lauras (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th ISCRAM conference, May, Albi, France.
Spence, Lachlan, Lin, & del Greco (2015) Spence, P. R. , Lachlan, K. A. , Lin, X. , & del Greco, M. (2015). Variability in Twitter content across the stages of a natural disaster: Implications for crisis communication. Communication Quarterly, 63(2), 171–186.
Spiegelhalter, Pearson, & Short (2011) Spiegelhalter, D. , Pearson, M. , & Short, I. (2011). Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science, 333(6048), 1393–1400.
Spiro, Irvine, DuBois, & Butts (2012) Spiro, E. , Irvine, C. , DuBois, C. , & Butts, C. (2012). Waiting for a retweet: modeling waiting times in information propagation. Proceedings of the 2012 NIPS workshop of social networks and social media conference, December, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
St. Denis, Hughes, & Palen (2012) St. Denis, L. A. , Hughes, A. L. , & Palen, L. (2012). Trial by fire: The deployment of trusted digital volunteers in the 2011 Shadow Lake Fire. In L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, & Z. Franco (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th international ISCRAM conference, April, Vancouver, Canada.
St. Denis, Palen, & Anderson (2014) St. Denis, L. A. , Palen, L. , & Anderson, K. M. (2014). Mastering social media: An analysis of Jefferson County's communications during the 2013 Colorado floods. In S. R. Hiltz, M. S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, & P. C. Shih (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th international ISCRAM conference, May, University Park, PA.
Stallings & Quarantelli (1985) Stallings, R. A. , & Quarantelli, E. L. (1985). Emergent citizen groups and emergency management. Public Administration Review, 45, 93–100.
Starbird (2011) Starbird, K. (2011). Digital volunteerism during disaster: Crowdsourcing information processing. Proceedings of the CHI conference on human factors in computing systems, May, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 7–12).
Starbird (2017) Starbird, K. (2017). Examining the alternative media ecosystem through the production of alternative narratives of mass shooting events on twitter. Proceedings of ICWSM (pp. 230–239). Retrieved from https://faculty.washington.edu/kstarbi/Alt_Narratives_ICWSM17-CameraReady.pdf
Starbird & Palen (2011) Starbird, K. , & Palen, L. (2011). Voluntweeters: Self-organizing by digital volunteers in times of crisis. Proceedings of the CHI conference on human factors in computing systems, May, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 1071–1080).
Starbird et al. (2016) Starbird, K. , Spiro, E. , Edwards, I. , Zhou, K. , Maddock, J. , & Narasimhan, S. (2016). Could this be true?: I think so! Expressed uncertainty in online rumoring. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems, San Jose, CA (pp. 360–371).
Starbird & Stamberger (2010) Starbird, K. , & Stamberger, J. (2010). Tweak the tweet: Leveraging microblogging proliferation with a prescriptive syntax to support citizen reporting. In S. French, B. Tomaszewski, & C. Zobel (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th international ISCRAM conference, May, Seattle, WA.
Sunstein (2009) Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Republic.com 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sutton, Palen, & Shklovski (2008) Sutton, J. N. , Palen, L. , & Shklovski, I. (2008). Backchannels on the front lines: Emergency uses of social media in the 2007 southern California wildfires. In F. Fiedrich & B. Van de Walle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th international ISCRAM conference, May, Washington, DC.
Sutton et al. (2014) Sutton, J. , Spiro, E. S. , Fitzhugh, S. M. , Johnson, B. , Gibson, B. , & Butts, C. T. (2014). Terse message amplification in the Boston bombing response. In S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, & P.C. Shih (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th international ISCRAM conference, May, University Park, PA.
Sutton et al. (2014) Sutton, J. , Spiro, E. S. , Johnson, B. , Fitzhugh, S. , Gibson, B. , & Butts, C. (2014). Warning tweets: Serial transmission of messages during the warning phase of a disaster event. Information, Communication, & Society, 17(6), 765–787.
Sutton et al. (2013) Sutton, J. , Spiro, E. , Butts, C. , Fitzhugh, S. , Johnson, B. , & Greczek, M. (2013). Tweeting the spill: Online informal communications, social networks, and conversational microstructures during the Deepwater Horizon oilspill. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM), 5(1), 58–76.
Takahashi, Tandoc, & Carmichael (2015) Takahashi, B. , Tandoc, E. C. , & Carmichael, C. (2015). Communicating on Twitter during a disaster: An analysis of tweets during Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 392–398.
Tanaka, Sakamoto, & Matsuka (2012) Tanaka, Y. , Sakamoto, Y. , & Matsuka, T. (2012). Transmission of rumor and criticism in Twitter after the Great Japan Earthquake. Annual meeting of the cognitive science society (p. 2387). Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2150290
Tandoc & Takahashi (2016) Tandoc, E. C. , & Takahashi, B. (2016). Log in if you survived: Collective coping on social media in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. New Media & Society, 19(11), 1778–1793.
Taylor, Wells, Howell, & Raphael (2012) Taylor, M. , Wells, G. , Howell, G. , & Raphael, B. (2012). A Facebook study from ‘Cyclone Yasi Update’: The role of social media as psychological first aid as a support to community resilience building. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 27(1), 20–26.
Taylor, Poorthuis, Graham, & Zook (2014) Taylor, S. , Poorthuis, A. , Graham, M. , & Zook, M. (2014). Mapping the data shadows of Hurricane Sandy: Uncovering the sociospatial dimensions of Big Data. Geoforum, 52, 167–179.
Turner & Killian (1972) Turner, R. H. , & Killian, L. M. (1972). Collective behavior (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
UNOCHA (2014) UNOCHA . (2014). Hashtag standards for emergencies. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, OCHA Policy and Studies series, November. Retrieved from https://www.unocha.org/publication/policy-briefs-studies/hashtag-standards-emergencies
Utz, Schultz, & Glocka (2013) Utz, S. , Schultz, F. , & Glocka, S. (2013). Crisis communication online: How medium, crisis type and emotions affected public reactions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 40–46.
Vaccari & Valeriani (2015) Vaccari, C. , & Valeriani, A. (2015). Follow the leader! Direct and indirect flows of political communication during the 2013 Italian general election campaign. New Media & Society, 17(7), 1025–1042.
Van Deursen & van Dijk (2010) Van Deursen, A. , & van Dijk, J. (2010). Inequalities of digital skills and how to overcome them. In E. Ferro , Y. K. Dwivedi , R. Gil-Garcia , & M. D. Williams (Eds.), Overcoming digital divides: Constructing an equitable and competitive information society. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Van Dijck (2013) Van Dijck, J. (2013). The culture of connectivity: A critical history of social media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vieweg, Castillo, & Imran (2014) Vieweg, S. , Castillo, C. , & Imran, M. (2014). Integrating social media communications into the rapid assessment of sudden onset disasters. In L. M. Aiello & D. McFarland (Eds.), Social informatics: International conference on social informatics (pp. 444–461). Cham: Springer.
Vieweg, Hughes, Starbird, & Palen (2010) Vieweg, S. , Hughes, A. L. , Starbird, K. , & Palen, L. (2010). Microblogging during two natural hazards events: What Twitter may contribute to situational awareness. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, April, Atlanta, GA (pp. 1079–1088).
Wald, Quitoriano, Worden, Hopper, & Dewey (2012) Wald, D. J. , Quitoriano, V. , Worden, C. B. , Hopper, M. , & Dewey, J. W. (2012). USGS “Did You Feel It?” Internet-based macroseismic intensity maps. Annals of Geophysics, 54(6), 688–707.
Warschauer (2003) Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and social inclusion rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wellman (2001) Wellman, B. (2001). Physical place and cyberplace: The rise of personalized networking. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25(2), 227–252.
Wellman (2004) Wellman, B. (2004). The three ages of internet studies: Ten, five and zero years ago. New Media & Society, 6(1), 123–129.
Wilken (2014) Wilken, R. (2014). Twitter and geographical location. In K. Weller , A. Bruns , J. Burgess , M. Mahrt , & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 155–167). Berlin: Peter Lang.
Wölfflin (1915) Wölfflin, H. (1915). Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe. München: Bruckmann.
Wood et al. (2017) Wood, M. M. , Mileti, D. S. , Bean, H. , Liu, B. F. , Sutton, J. , & Madden, S. (2017). Milling and Public Warnings. Environment and Behavior. First published online May 2017. doi:0013916517709561
Wood et al. (2012) Wood, M. M. , Mileti, D. S. , Kano, M. , Kelley, M. M. , Regan, R. , & Bourque, L. B. (2012). Communicating actionable risk for terrorism and other hazards. Risk Analysis, 32, 601–615.
Yuan & Gasco (2017) Yuan, Q. , & Gasco, M. (2017). Citizens’ use of microblogging during emergency: A case study on water contamination in Shanghai. Proceedings of the 18th annual international conference on digital government research, June, Staten Island, New York (pp. 110–119).
Zaman, Hossain, & Kautz (2017) Zaman, A. , Hossain, N. , & Kautz, H. A. (2017). Twitter911: A cautionary tale. Proceedings of the eleventh international AAAI conference on web and social media (ICWSM 2017), May, Montreal, Canada (pp. 712–715).
Zheng & Zheng (2014) Zheng, L. , & Zheng, T. (2014). Innovation through social media in the public sector: Information and interactions. Government Information Quarterly, 31(1), S106–S117.
- Chapter 1 Top-down Information Dissemination during Natural Disasters
- Chapter 2 Citizens as Audiences for Top-down Information
- Chapter 3 The ‘Networked Model’: From Bottom-up Information Sharing to Digital Volunteers
- Chapter 4 The ‘Networked Model’: How Institutions Gather ‘Bottom-up’ Information from Social Media