Index

Francesca Comunello (LUMSA University, Rome, Italy)
Simone Mulargia (Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy)

Social Media in Earthquake-Related Communication

ISBN: 978-1-78714-792-8, eISBN: 978-1-78714-791-1

Publication date: 31 July 2018

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Comunello, F. and Mulargia, S. (2018), "Index", Social Media in Earthquake-Related Communication, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 183-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-791-120181008

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Access issues
, 53

Accuracy
, 53, 57, 139

Accurate filtering
, 50n2

Actancial model
, 32

Active content creators
, 109, 131, 158, 159

Active survivor

model
, 3, 84

paradigm
, 151

perspective
, 153

Active-audience theories
, 45

Activism
, 90, 96, 103, 112

citizen
, 159

digital
, 105

online
, 107

political
, 83

Administrative cost
, 128–129

Advisory tweet
, 9, 10

Age of population
, 30

Agency’s communication
, 32

‘Alt-Left’ movements
, 132

‘Alt-Right’ movements
, 132

Alternative media ecosystem
, 132

‘Alternative’ theories
, 133

Ambiguous attitude
, 50

American Red Cross
, 66, 100, 119, 125

Attention
, 7, 41, 105

to audiences
, 45

to dialogue
, 154

public
, 10

systematic
, 155

Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA model)
, 41

Attitude
, 67, 86, 158

broadcasting
, 127

controversial
, 16

of interviewees
, 22

positive
, 13

social
, 51

Audience demographic perspectives
, 55, 86

Audience-centric approaches
, 123–124

to crisis/disaster communication
, 85–88

Audience-oriented approach
, 83

Audiences
, 82, 86

citizens as
, 46–53

studies
, 84, 112, 155

Automated natural language processing
, 58

Automatic. See Automatico

Automatic methods
, 139

Automatic processing
, 141

Automatico
, 62

Bar-chart
, 38

Barriers
, 24–26

to collecting information through social media
, 147

to dissemination of information by social media
, 30

to gathering information from social media
, 141–149

limitations and barriers to social media adoption
, 12–14

Behaviour
, 6, 7, 45, 54, 67, 70–71, 100

citizens needs and
, 46–49

communication
, 119

user communicative
, 96

Behavioural response
, 47

Benchmarking process
, 62

Bio box
, 39, 43

Black-or-white approach
, 16

Blog
, 11

Blood pressure
, 42

Borkin’s model
, 42

Bottom-up communication practices
, 105, 108–110

Bottom-up information
, 114

activities performed through social media
, 145

automated techniques to overcome misleading content and information overload
, 138–141

barriers to collecting information through social media
, 147

barriers to gathering information from social media
, 141–149

broadcasting attitude
, 127–128

citizen-generated information
, 124–125

citizen-generated information and situational awareness
, 134–138

to digital volunteers
, 81–121

emergency services
, 125–127

networked model
, 123–124

perceived usefulness of different technological features
, 148

from social media
, 123

social media barriers for gathering information
, 128–134

See also Top-down information

Bottom-up information sharing
, 157

Bottom-up process
, 1, 2, 81

Breakout
, 39, 43

Brochures
, 21

Cause–effect nexus
, 38–39

Central-level institutions
, 156

Centro Italia’ 2016 seismic sequence
, 133

Channel effect
, 54

Citizen(s)
, 84, 161

activism
, 159

as audiences
, 1, 46

citizen-generated information
, 121, 123, 124–125, 129, 134–138

communication
, 45–46

Italian National Survey on users information-seeking practices
, 66–79

needs and behaviour
, 46–49

quali-quantitative study on user comprehension of earthquake-related tweets
, 57–66

redefinition of communication model
, 53–57

relational networks
, 45

for top-down information
, 49–53

Civic agency
, 91

Closures tweet
, 9

Co-creational framework
, 87

Co-production landscape
, 127

Collaborative reporting system
, 106

Collective coping strategies
, 87, 96, 108

Collective sensemaking
, 96

Colorado Flash Floods (2013)
, 11

Command and control model
, 3, 84, 126, 153

Common-based peer production
, 93

Common/technical language
, 61

Communication
, 7, 20, 48–49

channels
, 20

dynamics
, 3

with personal networks
, 96

practice
, 52

process
, 124, 159

redefinition of communication model
, 53–57

research
, 151

scientific information within digital media environment
, 14–17

theory
, 45

See also Crisis communication

Communicative activation
, 73

Communicative ecosystem
, 15

of Italian Internet
, 73–74

Communicative environment
, 17, 121

Communicative processes
, 81

Community-based phenomena
, 84–85

Community-centric event
, 85

Complex social agents
, 136–137

Computational methods
, 139

Confidence gap
, 17

‘Connected action’ framework to participatory cultures
, 90–93

Consolidation
, 14

Conspiracy theories
, 132, 133

Constraint recognition
, 86

Contemporary media ecologies
, 131

Contemporary societies
, 89

Convenience
, 97

Convergence culture
, 85

Conversation-monitoring tools
, 26

Conversational microstructure elements
, 9

Conversational nature of social media
, 5

Convincing theoretical framework
, 55

Correction tweet
, 9

Crafting of effective warnings message
, 6, 14, 53, 57, 153

Crisis communication
, 3, 49, 50n1, 81, 84, 152, 155

scholars
, 84

theory
, 98

See also Communication

Crisis informatics
, 3, 81–82

Crisis/disaster communication

audience-centric approaches to
, 85–88

theories
, 83

Crowdmaps
, 103

Crowdsourcing
, 92–93, 124–125, 140–141

Cultural considerations
, 3, 129, 130

Culture

convergence
, 85

of individualism
, 89

participatory
, 92

‘Culture, value and norms perspective’
, 55, 86

Dati preliminari
, 62

Deficit model
, 15

Diagrams
, 43

Dialogic communication theory
, 87

Digital divide
, 52, 53

Digital environment
, 86, 93, 108

Digital journalism
, 37

Digital literacy
, 52, 53

Digital media
, 21, 85, 91, 92, 151

communicating scientific information within digital media environment
, 14–17

ecosystem
, 105

networks
, 92

platforms
, 105, 110

See also Social media

Digital mourning
, 108

Digital skills
, 52, 53

Digital volunteering
, 83, 90

Digital volunteers
, 87, 98, 107

activities
, 106

bottom-up information to
, 81–121

practices of
, 110

Digitalisation
, 15

Disaster
, 47, 49, 138, 139

disaster-related content
, 103

magnitude determination
, 97

management
, 47, 126

media representation of
, 50n1

reasons for not using social media in
, 52–53

research
, 152

title hashtag
, 138

types
, 101–102

See also Earthquakes

Disaster communication
, 49, 81, 92, 151–153

scholarship
, 93–94

social media platforms in
, 110–112

Discrete crisis-related-affect perspectives
, 87

Discursive/schematic format
, 61

Disinformation
, 17, 23, 131

Disinformation propagated through misinformation
, 131

Disintermediation process
, 15, 91

Disseminating effective warning messages
, 6–7

Earthquake Alert and Report System (EARS)
, 141

Earthquake operational forecasting (EOF)
, 102n1

Earthquake(s)
, 41, 47, 48, 102

early warning system
, 14n1

earthquake-related communication practices
, 14

earthquake-related domain
, 136

Italian citizens sharing practices in
, 118–121

magnitude
, 59

quali-quantitative study on user comprehension of earthquake-related tweets
, 57–66

Easiness effect
, 16

Echo chambers effect
, 17, 131

Effective warning
, 47

crafting
, 57, 66

disseminating effective warning messages
, 6–7

Effective warnings message

crafting of
, 6, 14, 53, 57, 153

Email
, 20, 105

Emergency
, 135

activities performed through social media
, 145

communication
, 152

communicators
, 130

management
, 84, 143

managers
, 22–23, 24, 130, 139

response hashtag
, 138

services
, 126

Emergency response hashtag
, 138

Emergency situations
, 137, 139, 160

analysis of institutions’ communicative practices
, 5–6

barriers to social media adoption
, 24

institutions communicative practices
, 7–11

study of people’s sense-giving processes
, 153

Emergent Norm Theory
, 53

Emilia 2012 seismic sequence, tweeting in
, 112–118

Emotional sharing to networked volunteers
, 95

bottom-up communication practices
, 108–110

information content
, 99

information producing and sharing
, 100–103

making sense of world through words
, 103–108

motivations for social media
, 96–97

review of relevant empirical studies
, 98–99

social media platforms in disaster communication
, 110–112

top-down communication
, 95–96

Emotional support
, 87

finding
, 96, 97

Emotions
, 107–108

emotion-driven perspective
, 87

prevailing
, 117–118

publics
, 87

Empowerment
, 91

Engagement
, 91

Enthusiasm
, 13

Esoteric community
, 16

Evacuation tweet
, 9

Event
, 43, 51

Execution
, 65

Eyewitness

information production
, 100

tweets
, 135

Face-to-face communication
, 48, 90

Facebook
, 1, 11, 20, 21, 58, 103, 112, 143, 144

Fake news
, 129

False information
, 130

Feelings
, 107–108

Fema
, 43

Filter bubbles
, 17

‘First-hand information’ tweets
, 118

Flow charts
, 41, 43

Fly-sheets
, 21

Forecasting
, 65

earthquake
, 63n5

Formal skills
, 52–53

Fragmentation
, 18

Free-source software development
, 93

Fukushima nuclear reactor crisis
, 54

Functionalistic approach
, 96

Geo-localisation services
, 26

Geographic spread
, 138

Geolocalised tweets
, 113, 114

Geophysical agencies
, 31–32, 42

Geophysics
, 45–46

Google Docs
, 103

Google Plus
, 144

Grassroots

communication
, 94

communities
, 85

information filtering activities
, 58

Gratification approach
, 45, 56

‘Greimas’ theory
, 32, 33, 36

Haiti earthquake
, 58, 105–106, 113, 132–133

Hashtags
, 138

Hazard(s)

impact tweet
, 9

paradigm
, 152

warning
, 46

Human

intelligence
, 141

as sensors
, 82

Humour
, 52, 97

Hurricane Katrina
, 107

Hurricane Sandy (2012)
, 57

Hybrid communicative subjects
, 15

Hybrid crowdsensing
, 141

ICT

in emergency response
, 154

supported public participation
, 154

Inaccurate information
, 130

Incident Management Team (IMT)
, 11

Individual coping strategies
, 96

Individualism

culture
, 89

networked
, 88

Individualized collective actions
, 90

Influential social media creators
, 109

Infographics
, 37

formal definition and models
, 37–40

lack of interactivity
, 44

and pragmatic information
, 42–44

and scientific information
, 40–42

See also Social media; Twitter

Information
, 111

credibility
, 140

creator and propagator
, 130–131

forms
, 54

information-related citizen activities
, 83

information-seeking activities
, 45, 48–49

producing and sharing
, 100–103

seeking and sharing
, 96

sharing
, 2

skills
, 52, 53

tweet
, 9

Information gathering
, 2

practices
, 144

processes
, 100

and sharing
, 96

Information overload, automated techniques to overcome misleading content and
, 138–141

‘Informative’ messages
, 99

Instagram
, 20

Institutional communication
, 21

attention to behaviour and strategies
, 7

initiatives
, 46

practices
, 5

on social media
, 18–19

strategy
, 6, 32

Institutional messages
, 66

Institutionalisation
, 14

Institutions
, 21–22, 26, 130

communication objectives
, 56

communicative practices in emergency situations
, 7–11

European
, 10–11

Italian
, 19

scientific
, 15, 17

social media by
, 6

Instrumental approach
, 9

Integrated social media strategy
, 11

Interactivity, lack of
, 44

International time format (UTC)
, 64

Internet
, 131

revolution
, 88

studies
, 84, 93

Interpersonal communication channels
, 110

Interpersonal communication-related skills
, 52–53

Interpretations
, 86

Interviewees
, 20, 25

Involvement level
, 86

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
, 15, 58, 133

geophysical agencies
, 31–32

presentation on website
, 32–34

quali-quantitative study on user comprehension of earthquake-related tweets
, 57–66

and USGS communication strategies on web
, 31

USGS presentation on website
, 34–36

Italian citizens sharing practices in earthquake
, 118–121

Italian civil protection system
, 19, 142

Italian Geophysical Agency. See Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

Italian local-level institutions social media

qualitative study
, 18–20

quantitative study
, 26–31

Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. See Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

Italian National Statistics Institution
, 141

Italian National Survey on users information-seeking practices
, 66–79

Italy, local-level emergency managers in
, 141–149

Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA)
, 15, 33

Joint effects
, 55–56, 157

Knowledge
, 33

black-or-white approach to
, 16

communication of scientific
, 15

deficiencies
, 53

pragmatic
, 42

L’Aquila seismic sequence case
, 104

Language
, 20

common/technical
, 61

figurative
, 38

verbal
, 38

Large scale emergency response
, 154–155

Laypeople
, 16, 153

Legislative barriers
, 25

Levity
, 52, 97

Line-chart
, 38

Linear communication model
, 5, 151

Linear process
, 151

Local representatives for emergency management
, 23

Local-level emergency management
, 3

Local-level institutions
, 18, 21, 156

London Metropolitan Police Twitter communication
, 9

Macroseismic intensity data, earthquake-related domain
, 136

Mainstream platforms
, 68–69

Man-made disasters
, 15

Mass media system
, 129

Mayor
, 142

Media

ecological approach
, 94

organisations
, 58

representation of disasters
, 50n1

scholars
, 56

studies
, 83

Media ideologies
, 56, 111

from ‘connected action’ framework to
, 90–93

relating to idioms of practice
, 95

Mercedes crisis
, 54

Message
, 55–56

comprehension of institutional
, 56

encoding and decoding mass media
, 56

parsing brief and informal
, 136

text
, 72

warning
, 6

Meteorological Service Act
, 34

Military management processes
, 153

Milling
, 53, 101

e-milling
, 66, 153

process
, 153

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Mlit)
, 34

Misinformation
, 17, 130–134

propagated through disinformation
, 131

Misleading content, automated techniques to overcome
, 138–141

Misleading information
, 130–131

Monochromatic model
, 42

Multi-platform approach
, 103, 156

Narration

aspect
, 34

style
, 20, 23

Narrative Program
, 32–33, 36

‘Research’
, 35

Narratological model
, 32

Natural disaster(s)
, 15, 46, 81

infographics and
, 37–44

social media activity
, 95–112

Network society
, 90

Networked Crisis Communication Model (NCCM)
, 55, 86, 88

Networked environment
, 93

Networked individualism
, 88, 90

operating system
, 2, 89, 90, 155

Networked model
, 1, 2, 81–85, 123–124

activities performed through social media
, 145

audience-centric approaches to crisis/disaster communication
, 85–88

automated techniques
, 138–141

barriers to collecting information through social media
, 147

barriers to gathering information from social media
, 141–149

citizen-generated information and situational awareness
, 134–138

from ‘connected action’ framework to participatory cultures and ‘media ideologies’
, 90–93

from emotional sharing to networked volunteers
, 95–112

exploring affordances and constraints of social media platforms
, 93–95

Italian citizens sharing practices in earthquake
, 118–121

new social operating system
, 88–90

perceived usefulness of different technological features
, 148

social media barriers for gathering information
, 128–134

tweeting in Emilia 2012 seismic sequence
, 112–118

Networked sociability model
, 88

Networked volunteers, emotional sharing to
, 95–112

New social operating system
, 88–90

Nixle
, 11

Non-emergency information
, 138

‘Non-Firehose’ assessment
, 114n3

Non-informative phenomenon
, 139

Non-profit organisations
, 58

‘Not informative’ messages
, 99

Numeric code
, 65

Off-topic tweet
, 9, 10, 98, 99

‘On-topic’ tweets
, 98, 99

One-way information
, 83

Online communication networks
, 5

Online filtering algorithms
, 131

Online information sources
, 68

Open-peer production communities
, 92

Open-source software development
, 93

Operational skills
, 52, 53

Operators’ desiderata
, 26

Optimistic approach
, 16

Ordinary users
, 115

Organisation-based adverse events
, 85

Organisational barriers
, 25

‘Original tweet/retweet’ ratio
, 157–158

Participatory cultures

from ‘connected action’ framework to
, 90–93

literature on
, 108–109, 158

Passive audience
, 83, 151

People’s relational network
, 48

Personal interaction
, 131

Personal recommendations
, 97

Personal social networks
, 53

Personal/political communication
, 21

Physical proximity
, 48, 103

Polymedia
, 56, 95

Popularisation of science
, 16

Posters
, 21

Practical-professional

approach
, 25

attitude
, 22, 23, 24

narration style
, 20

Practices-sharing information
, 100

Pragmatic approach
, 36

Pragmatic information
, 42–44

Preliminare
, 62

Preliminary. See Preliminare

Preliminary data. See Dati preliminary

Preliminary estimate. See Stima preliminare

Privacy and security fears
, 53

Problem recognition
, 86

Process diagrams
, 41

Propagator
, 131

Provisional estimate. See Stima provvisoria

Pseudo-science
, 133

Public administrations
, 127

Public attention
, 10

Public communication
, 127, 128, 158

domain
, 158

literature
, 123, 124–125, 126

Public debate
, 6, 16, 17

Public Information Officers (PIO)
, 12

Public institutions
, 26, 33, 101, 104, 126, 127, 141–142, 163

Public participation
, 127

Public reporting hashtag
, 138

Public(s) coping strategy
, 87

Publics’ emotions and coping
, 87

Pure disinformation
, 131

Pure misinformation
, 131

Quali-quantitative approach
, 10

study on user comprehension of earthquake-related tweets
, 57–66

Qualitative study of Italian local-level institutions social media
, 18–20

Quantitative study of Italian local-level institutions social media
, 26–31

Quasi-Twitter celebrity
, 116

Queensland floods
, 98, 101

Rainbow scheme
, 42

Rational-Adaptive Model
, 47–48

Real-time nature of social media
, 49

‘Real’ world
, 106

Reception studies approach
, 56

Resilience
, 35, 108

Respondents

age
, 28

evaluation of information sources speed
, 76–77

geographical origins
, 29

level of education
, 28

perceptions
, 146

year of service
, 29

Retweet
, 9, 10, 117–118

Retweeters
, 110

Rhetorical device
, 46

Rumours
, 130–134

Saturation
, 42

‘Savoir-faire’
, 42

‘Savoir’
, 40, 42

Scholars
, 1, 48, 101, 129, 131, 135, 139–141

barriers to extensive social media usage
, 124

classifications for users
, 109–110

crisis communication
, 84–85

crisis informatics
, 82

disaster communication
, 82, 85, 93–94

experimented with social-sensing processes
, 135

extracting relevant information from social media
, 139

importance of sharing feelings and emotions
, 107

institutions and emergency managers rely on social media
, 125

Internet
, 82

internet
, 82–83, 155

media
, 56

role of citizen-generated information
, 136

role or potential of social media in enhancing situational awareness
, 134

social media
, 82–83

taxonomies
, 98

Scholarship

on disaster communication
, 151

growing body of
, 96

social media disaster-related scholarship
, 110

social media scholarship
, 111

Science

communication
, 3, 15

confidence gap
, 17

relationship with society and
, 17

Scientific information, infographics and
, 40–42

Scientific institutions
, 17

Scientific popularisations
, 15–16

Second-hand reporting
, 8–9

Seismic

Italian National Survey on users information-seeking practices in seismic event
, 66–79

networks
, 114, 136

risk
, 41

Self-mobilising tool
, 51

Self-reliant stakeholders
, 46

Sense of community
, 97

Sense-making

processes
, 87

of world through words
, 103–108

Sentiment
, 135

ShakeAlert
, 14n1

Situational awareness
, 134–138

Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT)
, 86

Situational Theory of Publics
, 86

Skype
, 105

Social attitude
, 51

Social Breakdown Model
, 48

Social media
, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10–11, 17, 53, 54, 85, 131, 134, 146, 160

activities
, 90, 145

barriers
, 24–26, 128–134

classification in emergency situation
, 51

communication practices
, 49

credibility
, 140

in disaster communication
, 110–112

emergency communication
, 142

emergency managers
, 22–23

exploring affordances and constraints of
, 93–95

followers
, 110

inactives
, 110

information
, 46

limitations and barriers to adoption
, 12–14

at local level
, 22

in natural disaster
, 95–112

news feeds
, 131

operators desiderata
, 26

platforms
, 110, 143, 144

potential risk
, 50–51

scholarship
, 111

screening practices
, 135

of user
, 81

See also Infographics

Social mediated crisis communication model
, 87

Social network
, 88–89

analysis approach
, 160

revolution
, 88

Social norms
, 97

Social support
, 87

Social vulnerability
, 152

Social-Mediated Crisis Communication Model (SMCC)
, 54

Social-sensing processes
, 135

Society
, 17, 88–89

Socio-behavioural phenomena
, 151

Socio-political ecology perspective
, 152

Sociological approach
, 47

Sociology of disaster
, 3, 84

Spectacular style
, 61

Spontaneism
, 31

Stakeholders
, 31–32

Stealing thunder effect
, 50, 54

Stima preliminare
, 62, 65

Stima provvisoria
, 62, 65

Strategic skills
, 52

Subscriber-based notification service
, 11

Sympathy and emotional support
, 99

Syncretic texts
, 39

System theory approach
, 7, 47

Systematic analysis
, 9

‘Task-oriented’ approach
, 90

Technical resources, lack of
, 24

Technological barriers
, 146

Technological determinism
, 83–84

Technology-oriented dimensions
, 52

Terse messages
, 10

Text messages
, 20

Text-oriented risk
, 45

Therapeutic sharing
, 108

Timely information
, 49, 50, 116

Top-down communication
, 26, 95–96

Top-down information
, 45, 156

citizens as audiences for
, 49, 56

information seeking
, 49–50

potential risk of social media
, 50–51

reasons for not using social media in disasters
, 52–53

sharing
, 1, 156

social media in emergency situation
, 51–52

Top-down information dissemination strategies
, 5, 12

communicating scientific information within digital media environment
, 14–17

communication channels
, 20

disseminating effective warning messages
, 6–7

disseminating top-down information at local level
, 21–22

infographics and natural disasters
, 37–44

INGV and USGS communication strategies on web
, 31–37

institutional communication practices
, 5–6

institutions communicative practices in emergency situations
, 7–11

limitations and barriers to social media adoption
, 12–14

policies type for
, 31

qualitative study of Italian local-level institutions social media
, 18–20

quantitative study of Italian local-level institutions social media
, 26–31

social media at local level
, 22–26

two different and alternative strategies
, 36–37

Top-down process
, 1, 2, 81

Top-down social media information
, 55

Traditional command and control model
, 153, 154–155

Traditional communication channels
, 21

Traditional media
, 54

Traditional model
, 1–2, 88, 100

Traditional rainbow scheme
, 42

Transformation rule
, 38

Tweet
, 63n5

content
, 116

syntax
, 60, 63, 64

types
, 9

Tweet/retweet ratio
, 100–101

Tweeting in Emilia 2012 seismic sequence
, 112–118

Twitter
, 11, 20, 58, 98, 103, 105, 112, 139

celebrities
, 121

datasets
, 109, 135

metrics
, 100

twitter-based earthquake detector
, 136

user activity
, 81

See also Social media

Twitter celebrities
, 116

Twitter Streaming API
, 114

Two-way cocreational approaches
, 87

Two-way communication
, 8

environment
, 82, 83

Two-way flow of communication
, 48

Unfiltered information
, 97

Unique information
, 49, 97

United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
, 137–138

US USGS
, 15

Use experiences
, 86

User communication processes
, 96

User-centric approach
, 100

Users information-seeking practices

behaviour
, 67–68, 70–71

channels trustworthiness
, 75–76

communication
, 78–79

communicative ecosystem of Italian Internet
, 73–74

earthquake
, 69

Italian Internet
, 72–73

Italian National Survey on
, 66

respondents evaluation of information sources speed
, 76–77

seismic event
, 68–69

sharing information
, 71–72

trustworthiness
, 74–75

user experience
, 66–67

‘Uses and Gratification’ approach
, 8

USGS communication strategies on web
, 31

geophysical agencies
, 31–32

INGV presentation on website
, 32–34

USGS presentation on website
, 34–36

Ushahidi platform
, 106, 139

Verbal text
, 43

Virtual operations support teams (VOSTs)
, 106, 146–147

‘Virtual’ world
, 106

Volcanology
, 33, 45–46, 56, 58–59

Warning messages, disseminating effective
, 6–7

Warning system
, 47

Web, INGV and USGS communication strategies on
, 31

geophysical agencies
, 31–32

INGV presentation on website
, 32–34

USGS presentation on website
, 34–36

WhatsApp
, 20, 120

See also Social media

Witnessing function
, 118, 121

Word-of-mouth communication
, 54