Index

Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West

ISBN: 978-1-78714-639-6, eISBN: 978-1-78714-638-9

Publication date: 7 November 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2017), "Index", Flynn, M., Li, Y. and Chiva, A. (Ed.) Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West (The Changing Context of Managing People), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 271-285. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-638-920171014

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Active Ageing agenda
, 53, 145, 226

Age Action Alliance
, 229

Age-based seniority pay systems
, 10

Ageing workplaces
, 2

in China
, 5–7

in Europe
, 7–9

Tiger economies. See Tiger economies

Ageism and manager attitudes, learning and training

ageist stereotypes
, 197

age norming
, 198–199

external stereotyping
, 197

human capital theory
, 197

individual career trajectories
, 198

inter-generational conflict and tension
, 198

older worker learning and development
, 196–197

productivity and return-on-investment
, 198

Age Management (AM)
, 36, 176, 181, 182

policies, Korea
, 131

All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)
, 146–147

Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach
, 12

Anti-age discrimination legislation
, 114

Authoritarian state control
, 125

Auto-enrollment pension scheme
, 87, 118, 120

Average life expectancy
, 5

Bismarckian PAYG scheme
, 56

Block model
, 57

‘Business case’ arguments
, 114

Career-stage model
, 188

Caring responsibilities, eldercare management
, 210

demographic change
, 210–212

welfare state
, 218–219

Cascade Healthcare
, 219

Central Statistical Office
, 30–31

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
, 181, 186, 215

Chemical, Steel and Retail sectors, collective agreements
, 9

Chile’s pension reforms
, 25

China Aging Problem National Commission Office
, 218–219

Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
, 147

Chinese government’s Development Research Foundation
, 4

Class-based and enterprise unions

ageing populations
, 142

challenge-facing representatives
, 142

Civil Service, Hong Kong
, 158–159

collective bargaining
, 156–157

dependency ratio
, 142

employment relations
, 143

lifelong learning opportunities
, 142

lump of labour theory
, 142–143

macro-level balance
, 142

older workers’ perceptions

agency model
, 154

awareness of
, 151–152

careers and retirement plans
, 154

datasets
, 151

finial solidarity factor
, 152

linear regressions
, 150, 154

pension and retirement income
, 154

planned retirement age
, 154

pre-retirement planning services
, 153–154

retirement age
, 154

service-related unionism
, 150, 160

solidarity-based unionism
, 151

survey responses
, 154

Western trade unionism
, 152

see also Older workers

social equality
, 143

trade unions and retirement. See Trade unions

Collective bargaining
, 156–157

Community Business
, 228, 229

Community care
, 216

Community social service stations
, 216

Company-based early retirement offers
, 53

Company-based enterprise unions
, 148

Comparative public policy research
, 244

Comparative welfare states
, 244–245

Confidence interval (CI)
, 97

Consumer Price Index
, 156

Continuity theory
, 190

Coordinated Market Economy
, 125

Cross-sector strategy
, 31

Data Centre of the German Centre of Gerontology
, 66

Defined Contribution (DC) pension scheme
, 88

Demographic window
, 4, 226

Department for Work and Pensions UK (DWP)
, 201

Disability-free longevity
, 3

Diversity and Inclusion in Asia Network (DIAN)
, 228

Domestic economy
, 20–21

Domestic labour market
, 25

Eastern welfare states
, 149

Educational level
, 68

Education, labour market resource
, 54, 65

Elder Academy
, 190

Eldercare management, United Kingdom and China

care requirements
, 209

caring responsibilities
, 210

demographic change
, 210–212

welfare state
, 218–219

Cascade Healthcare
, 219

cognitive dissonance
, 210

cultural dimension

care and work coordination
, 213

economic opportunities
, 214

family planning policy
, 212–213

family responsibilities
, 214

household structure
, 214

pivot generation
, 213

public policy
, 215

sandwich generation
, 213

employment rights
, 215–217

medical treatment and public health promotion
, 208

multiple health conditions
, 208

one-child policy (OCP)
, 208

sandwich carers
, 210

social and cultural values
, 209

survey results
, 220–222

‘unexpected career,’
, 211

women’s labour force participation
, 219

workplace flexibility policies
, 208

Employees’ Social Security Act
, 180

Employer defined-benefit pension schemes
, 117

Employer networking organisations
, 227

Employers’ Forum on Age (EFA)
, 229

Employers’ Network for Equality and Inclusion (enei)
, 229

Employer-sponsored pension plans
, 25

Employment Equality (Age) Regulations
, 61, 145, 146

Equal Employment Opportunity Law
, 29

Equal Opportunities Commission
, 62, 233–234

Ethical/value-based agencies
, 227

European Agency for Safety and Health
, 175–176, 181

European Employment Strategy
, 8

European Social Survey
, 13

European Working Conditions Survey
, 13

European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations (EY2012)
, 35

Europe’s growth strategy
, 35–36

EUROSTAT
, 8

Exploratory data analysis (EDA)
, 95

Family care
, 216

Family planning policy
, 212–213

Family Status Discrimination Ordinance
, 218

Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth
, 65–66

Financial planning security
, 31

Financial situation
, 54–55, 65

Financing retirement

confidence interval (CI)
, 97

demographic components
, 108

economic growth and movement
, 84

empirical models
, 109

employee data
, 84

household income
, 108

logistic regression analysis results
, 97, 105–107

policy makers
, 84

quality of life
, 84

respondents characteristics
, 91–95

retirement and retirement income
, 109

saving options
, 97, 101–103

social change and attitudes
, 84

statistical analysis
, 90–95

test of associations
, 97, 98–100

in United Kingdom and Hong Kong, pension systems
, 85–89

welfare and non-welfare states
, 84

zero-order correlation analysis
, 95, 96

Finnish Institute for Occupational Health
, 9

Finnish Workability Model
, 9, 122

Firm-based mandatory retirement ages
, 10

Flat-rate pension
, 85

Formal-based learning
, 196

Gender, retirement preferences
, 54

Gender-segregated labour markets
, 54

German Ageing Survey
, 65–66

German policy makers
, 57

Government-established labour policy
, 35

Government Programme for Promoting Senior Citizens Social Activity
, 28

Hazard Identification Risk Assessment & Risk Control (HIRARC)
, 174

Health management programmes
, 242

Health, retirement preferences
, 54

Healthy life expectancy
, 211

Healthy workplaces

creation
, 180

economic and social development
, 171

global life expectancy
, 167

hazard exposure reduction
, 172–174

hazardous working conditions
, 166

hazards identification
, 167–168

indirect costs
, 171

management systems approach
, 171

mental/physical health
, 171

occupational risks
, 166

older workers

ability to work
, 180

Age Management
, 181, 182

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
, 181

chronic illness
, 179–180

European Agency for Safety and Health
, 181

health status
, 180

injury risks
, 180

participatory approach
, 182

physical changes
, 178–179

Retirement and Re-employment Act (RRA)
, 181

Scottish Centre for Healthy Working Lives
, 181

Special Employment Credit (SEC)
, 181–182

violence and stress
, 180

see also Older workers

personal health resources
, 168

policies
, 174–175

practices

Age Management framework
, 176

European Agency for Safety and Health
, 175–176

implementation
, 175

Industrial Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality
, 176

internal and external drivers
, 175

Occupational Safety and Health in the Service Sector and Health Management System (OSHMS)
, 176

risk reduction measures
, 176–177

Systematic Occupational Health Enhancement-Level Programme (SOHELP)
, 176

psychosocial work environment. See Psychosocial work environment

risk management measures
, 171–172

skills and experience
, 167

State Pension Age
, 167

Work Ability concept
, 177–178

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 168

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)
, 50–51, 55, 78–79, 148, 233

see also Retirement plans

Household income
, 68

Human capital theory
, 197

Ikigai concept
, 33

Individual learning
, 239

Individual level
, 68

factors
, 54

Individual psychology models
, 120

Individual retirement plans
, 52

Industrial Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality
, 176

Institutional and workplace contexts change

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)
, 50–51

see also Retirement plans

multi-pillar pension structure
, 77

pension reform cohorts
, 77

political and management interventions
, 50

political level
, 50

retirement ages

level differences
, 68

multivariate linear regression analyses
, 69, 70–75

orientation marker
, 68

sectoral characteristics
, 69

workplace characteristics and conditions
, 69

retirement preferences

demographic ageing
, 51–52

individual financial situation
, 55

individual level
, 54–55

institutional characteristics
, 55

institutional level
, 52–53

nation-specific survey
, 55

plans, in countries. See Retirement plans

workplace level
, 53–54

Institutional care
, 216

International financial institutions
, 2

International Labour Organization (ILO)
, 2

International Social Survey Project and National Adult Learning Survey
, 13

International Trade Union Confederation
, 147

Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Affairs
, 27

Japanese old-age employment regime
, 11

Japanese pension system
, 24

Japan Institute for Labour Policy and practical training (JILPT)
, 34

Japan NGO Council on Ageing (JANCA)
, 34

Job retention system
, 27

Keynesian welfare state
, 125

Korean Federation of Trade Unions (KFTU)
, 147

Labour force participation rate
, 23

Labour Force Surveys
, 13

Labour market developments

business perspective
, 36

governmental perspective
, 34–36

individual perspective
, 37–39

Labour Retirement Benefit
, 149

Learning and Talent Development’ (L&TD)
, 187

Learning and training
, 200–202

ageism and manager attitudes. See Ageism and manager attitudes, learning and training

in Asia
, 199–200

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)
, 186

definition
, 186

EU labour force survey
, 188

heterogeneity
, 193–194

Learning and Talent Development’ (L&TD)
, 187

learning organisations
, 195–196

life stages

cognitive changes
, 191–193

motivation
, 188–191

organisation culture and climate
, 194–195

reactive learning
, 187

service-learning
, 187

skills maintenance and enhancement
, 186

training rates
, 187–188

Life-cycle approach
, 8

Lifelong learning opportunities
, 142

Lifetime employment model
, 148

Linear regressions
, 150

union membership and retirement plans
, 154–155

Lisbon Council
, 8

Lisbon Protocol
, 145

Logistic regression analysis, financing retirement
, 97, 105–107

Lump of labour theory
, 142–143, 236, 241

Malaysian Social Security Organization (SOCSO)
, 179, 180

Management systems approach
, 171

Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) Ordinance
, 60, 85–88, 149

Manual Handling Operations Regulations
, 173

Mentoring and reverse mentoring
, 241

Mid-Career Review (MCR)
, 237, 239

Multi-generational workforces
, 244

National Council of Social Services
, 85

National Employment Savings Trust (NEST)
, 59, 86–88

National-funded pension schemes
, 149

National Health Service (NHS)
, 156, 157

National Institute for Care Excellence
, 124–125

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
, 169

National Insurance system
, 86

National labour markets
, 52

National social security systems
, 114

Nation-specific institutional configurations
, 52

Neo-liberal global economic order
, 125

Non-financial Defined Contribution model
, 147–148

Non-regular employment

employment proposition
, 29, 30

motivational factors
, 33

Normative life stages models
, 188

Occupational Retirement Scheme Ordinance (ORSO)
, 60, 87, 88

Occupational Safety and Health Act
, 170

Occupational safety and health (OSH) hazard
, 170

Occupational Safety and Health in the Service Sector and Health Management System (OSHMS)
, 176

Occupational Safety & Health Master Plan (OSH-MP)
, 172

Office for National Statistics (ONS)
, 210, 211

Old Age Allowance
, 59

Old-age dependency ratio
, 26

Old-age poverty
, 3

Older workers

European Social Survey
, 13

European Working Conditions Survey
, 13

experience dataset
, 13

Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach
, 12

attitudes
, 12

quality of life
, 12

retirement plans
, 12, 13

risk factors
, 12

skills and abilities
, 12

work choices
, 1

work environments and context
, 12

International Social Survey Project and National Adult Learning Survey
, 13

Labour Force Surveys
, 13

learning and training. See Learning and training

UK and Hong Kong Survey

demographic profile
, 249–251

survey question responses
, 252–266

One Child Policy
, 4, 208

Organisational workforce planning
, 115

Organisation culture and climate
, 194–195

Pay-as-you-go pension scheme
, 24

‘Peak wage’ system
, 129

Pension Commission Report
, 86

Pension Kosei nenkin
, 24

Pension Reform Act
, 116

Pension systems
, 2

in Europe
, 7

Tiger economies
, 10

in United Kingdom and Hong Kong
, 59–60

auto-enrollment scheme
, 87

data
, 90

Defined Contribution (DC) pension scheme
, 88

flat-rate pension
, 85

income and wealth sources
, 89

National Employment Savings Trust (NEST)
, 86–88

National Insurance system
, 86

occupational pensions
, 86, 87

Occupational Retirement Scheme Ordinance (ORSO)
, 87, 88

pension age
, 86

Pension Commission Report
, 86

residual welfare states
, 85

retirement plans
, 89–90

satisfaction/dissatisfaction level
, 89

security model
, 85

self-employed workers
, 86

social insurance contributions
, 85

UK Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)
, 87

welfare states
, 88–89

work and career
, 90

workplace pension scheme
, 86

Personal responsibility agenda
, 118

Polish pension system
, 25–26

Positive working environments
, 233

precariousness in work
, 3, 29, 57, 119, 128, 131, 148, 150, 154

quality of work
, 12, 198, 233

Productive ageing society, Japan and Poland

baby boomer generation
, 20

broad-based social media campaign
, 40

characteristic work motivation
, 23–24

definition
, 20, 23

domestic economy
, 20–21

early retirement
, 24

economic and social contributions
, 20

employment proposition

attitudes and behaviours characteristics
, 31

Central Statistical Office
, 30–31

cross-sector strategy
, 31

dependency ratio
, 30

employment rate of population
, 30

Equal Employment Opportunity Law
, 29

feature
, 29

financial planning security
, 31

non-regular employment
, 29, 30

psychological maturity
, 32

work culture
, 29

external and internal stakeholders
, 41

external factors
, 22

financial situation
, 24

framework of
, 23

labour costs
, 22

labour force participation rate
, 23

labour market developments

business perspective
, 36

governmental perspective
, 34–36

individual perspective
, 37–40

motivational factors

ikigai concept
, 33

Japan Institute for Labour Policy and practical training (JILPT)
, 34

labour force participation rate
, 32–33

mental balance
, 33–34

regular/non-regular employment
, 33

retirement age
, 32, 33

national economies
, 21

pensions

Chile’s pension reforms
, 25

domestic labour market
, 25

employer-sponsored pension plans
, 25

individual pension savings programs
, 25

life expectancy
, 24

national and occupational pension funds
, 24–25

old-age dependency ratio
, 26

open pension funds
, 25

participation rate, labour market
, 26

pay-as-you-go pillar
, 25

pension Kosei nenkin
, 24

policies
, 21

population structure
, 26

provident fund Kyosai nenkin
, 24

public social security programme
, 25

retirement pension
, 25

state/quasi-state pension fund
, 24

see also Pension systems

personnel policy
, 21

productive activities
, 23

Rhineland economies
, 21

silver economy concept
, 40

stability employment act
, 39

welfare policies. See Welfare policies

working lifetime
, 22

Provident fund Kyosai nenkin
, 24

Psychological development theories
, 189

Psychosocial work environment
, 168

decision-making processes
, 170

impact of
, 169

inter-personal and social interactions
, 168

job demand
, 168

job satisfaction
, 169

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
, 169

Occupational Safety and Health Act
, 170

occupational safety and health (OSH) hazard
, 170

poor psychosocial work environments
, 168

positive psychosocial work environments
, 168

violence and stress
, 170

workers’ mental health
, 169

work-related stress
, 170

Public social security programme
, 25

Quality of life
, 12, 84, 189–190

Reactive learning
, 187

Residual first-tier pension
, 85

Residual welfare states
, 85

Retirement Age Act (RAA)
, 234

Retirement and Re-employment Act (RRA)
, 181, 234

Retirement benefits
, 52

Retirement plans

in Germany
, 55, 78

contribution-based German system
, 76

data
, 65–66

education
, 77

employer policies
, 58

labour market
, 57

multivariate linear regression analyses, planned retirement age
, 74–75

operationalisation and methods
, 66–68

pension systems and retirement pathways
, 56–57

institutional features
, 62, 63

planned retirement age
, 62, 64

trade unions. See Trade unions

in United Kingdom and HKSAR
, 55, 78–79

age discrimination regulation and retirement age
, 60–61

company policies
, 61–62

data
, 65–66

education
, 73

liberal system
, 76

multivariate linear regression analyses, planned retirement age
, 70–73

operationalisation and methods
, 66–68

pension
, 59–60

welfare state and labour market
, 58–59

Retirement policy

in China
, 5, 6

in Europe
, 9

Retrospective analyses
, 51

Return-to-work (RTW) assistance
, 179

Rhineland economies
, 21

Riester reform
, 56

Scottish Centre for Healthy Working Lives
, 181

Second-tier pension system
, 85, 87

Self-employed workers
, 86

Sequential life stages
, 189

Service-learning
, 187

Service-related unionism
, 150, 160

Silver economy concept
, 40

Single Equality Act
, 146

Social Care Service System Construction Plan
, 216–217

Social inequalities
, 3

Social Security Act
, 144

Social security systems
, 51

Social welfare policies
, 3

Social welfare states
, 3

Socio-economic recovery
, 26–27

Socio-emotional theory
, 189

Special Employment Credit (SEC)
, 181–182

Stability employment act
, 27, 39

State-controlled enterprises
, 119

State-financed and state-organised early retirement schemes
, 114

State pension age (SPA)
, 116

State-run Social Insurance Institution
, 25

Statistical analysis, financing retirement
, 90–95

Stockholm Council
, 8

Systematic Occupational Health Enhancement-Level Programme (SOHELP)
, 176

Taiwanese unions
, 148

Tax-benefit systems
, 8

The Age and Employment Network (TAEN)
, 229

Tiger economies
, 4

age-based seniority pay systems
, 10

features
, 9–10

firm-based mandatory retirement ages
, 10

Japanese old-age employment regime
, 11

pension systems
, 11

phased retirement
, 10

trade unions and retirement
, 147

Trades Union Congress
, 146, 229

Trade unions

Active Ageing framework
, 145

All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)
, 146–147

ancillary social unrest
, 144

Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
, 147

company-based enterprise unions
, 148

duality strategies
, 146

Eastern welfare states as Productivist
, 149

economic security
, 144

Employment Equality (Age) Directive
, 145, 146

four-year part-time phased retirement
, 145

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)
, 148

International Trade Union Confederation
, 147

Korean Federation of Trade Unions (KFTU)
, 147

Labour Retirement Benefit
, 149

lifetime employment model
, 148

Lisbon Protocol
, 145

Mandatory Provident Fund
, 149

mass unemployment
, 144

national-funded pension schemes
, 149

Non-financial Defined Contribution model
, 147–148

post-war enterprise unionism
, 143

Single Equality Act
, 146

Social Security Act
, 144

state and occupational pension schemes
, 144

state early retirement welfare scheme
, 145

state pension systems
, 143–144

Taiwanese unions
, 148–149

Tiger economies
, 147

Trades Union Congress
, 146

Western state pension systems
, 149

worker solidarity
, 148

Two Child Policy
, 5

UK Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)
, 87

UN International Plan of Action on Ageing
, 2

Uniwersytety Trzeciego Wieku (UTW)
, 28–29

UN Political Declaration
, 2

Varieties of Capitalism framework
, 125

Walking the Tightrope Report
, 215

Welfare policies

age-appropriate workplace design
, 28

baby boomer generation
, 27

job retention system
, 27

personnel policy
, 28

socio-economic recovery
, 26–27

stability employment act
, 27

state-interventional measures
, 28

Uniwersytety Trzeciego Wieku (UTW)
, 28–29

Welfare states

caring responsibilities
, 218–219

labour market, United Kingdom and HKSAR
, 58–59

subsystems
, 52

workplace age diversity
, 236

Western economies
, 51

Western Pacific Region (WPRO) Guideline
, 171

Western state pension systems
, 149

Western trade unionism
, 152

Work Ability concept
, 177–178

Work and Families Act
, 215

Workforce management and older staff retention

age-diverse teams
, 114

age-positive HRM
, 114

Age Related Human Resource Management (ARHRM)
, 1, 61, 114–115

competitive pay packages
, 113

employees’ employment status
, 113

externalisation strategies
, 115

Human Resource Management (HRM)
, 112–116, 130

institutional contingencies
, 113

Korea

age management policies
, 131

authoritarian state control
, 125

contractual mandatory retirement
, 127

Coordinated Market Economy
, 125

developmental welfare regime
, 125–126

early retirement pathways
, 130

export-dominated economy
, 126

free market mechanisms
, 125

‘honourable retirement’ policies
, 127

income inequality and old-age poverty
, 129

labour force
, 127

labour market flexibility
, 130

life-time employment contracts
, 130

national pension scheme
, 126

neo-liberal global economic order
, 125

‘peak wage’ system
, 129

pension eligibility age
, 129–130

policy-makers
, 128–129

policy solutions
, 125

post-retirement career
, 127–128

post-secondary institutions
, 128

public pension benefits
, 127

retirement age
, 127

social policies
, 126

Varieties of Capitalism framework
, 125

younger workers
, 128

labour market group
, 113

national and international competitiveness
, 112

national labour market
, 116

national social security systems
, 114

negative stereotypes
, 113–114

older job applicants and staff
, 115

organisational politics
, 113

organisational workforce planning
, 115

‘reserve army’ employers
, 115

retirement saving
, 114

small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
, 115

state-financed and state-organised early retirement schemes
, 114

strategic organisational goals
, 112

United Kingdom

auto-enrolment pension scheme
, 118, 120

decision architecture
, 123

decision-making
, 123

dependency ratio
, 116–117

employer defined-benefit pension schemes
, 117

experience and skill-set
, 122

financial implications
, 116

Finnish workability concept
, 122

government-funded research
, 120

individual psychology models
, 120

individual responsibility
, 124

manipulative motives
, 118–119

National Institute for Care Excellence
, 124–125

neo-liberal orientation
, 117

occupational pension membership
, 119

opt-out rates
, 119

pension failures
, 120

personal responsibility agenda
, 118

public policy reticence
, 124

public sector pension eligibility
, 116

socio-technical and psycho-social components
, 123

State-controlled enterprises
, 119

State pension age
, 116

taxation arrangements
, 123

tax liabilities and impacts
, 121

traditional apprenticeship opportunities
, 121

welfare state regulation
, 116

see also Older workers (OWs)

Working hours systems
, 66

Chinese law
, 217

Working Longer Review partnership group
, 156

‘Working pensioner’ policies
, 2

Work–life balance (WLB)
, 211

Workplace age discrimination
, 3

Workplace age diversity

Active Ageing agenda
, 226

active ageing policy and research agendas

age intersection
, 244

business case
, 245–246

comparative public policy research
, 244

comparative welfare states
, 244–245

generational perspectives
, 243

joblessness and age
, 245

multi-disciplinary perspective
, 243

multi-generational workforces
, 246

training and development, life course
, 239

Age Action Alliance
, 229

Age and Employment Network (TAEN)
, 229

ageing demographics
, 226

ageing workplaces
, 230–231

benefits
, 231

challenges

baby boomers
, 240

economic development and transformation
, 241

health management programmes
, 242

intergenerational work teams
, 240

long-term employment
, 240

lump of labour theory
, 241

mentoring and reverse mentoring
, 241

multi-generational workforce
, 241

UK National Health Service
, 242

Community Business
, 228, 229

demographic dividend
, 226–227

demographic window
, 226

Diversity and Inclusion in Asia Network (DIAN)
, 228

eldercare employees challenge
, 232

employer networking organisations
, 227

Employers’ Forum on Age (EFA)
, 229

Employers’ Network for Equality and Inclusion (enei)
, 229

generational diversity
, 228

Government agencies
, 230

large-scale loss of expertise
, 231

multi-generational workforces
, 227

personnel management profession
, 227

positive working environments
, 233

public policy

age discrimination ordinances
, 235

career development and planning
, 239

employer identify training/development needs
, 235

employment regulations and pension rules
, 233

Equal Opportunities Commission report
, 233–234

individual learning
, 239

job security
, 237

knowledge transfer
, 237

‘lump of labour’ theory
, 235

Mid-Career Review (MCR)
, 237, 239

Retirement Age Act (RAA)
, 234

Retirement and Re-employment Act (RRA)
, 234

retirement plans
, 234

sectoral agreements
, 238

skills/vocational training
, 238

Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) government
, 233

tax and pension rules
, 235

training
, 238

welfare states
, 236

working conditions improvement
, 238

silver dollar and marketing strategies change
, 232

support career development
, 233

Trades Union Congress
, 229

traditional retirement ages
, 231

workplace networking organisations
, 228

young talent shortage
, 231–232

Workplace conditions
, 66

Workplace level
, 50

Workplace pension scheme
, 86

Work strains
, 66

Work tasks satisfaction
, 66

Zero-order correlation analysis
, 95, 96