Index

Inequalities in the UK

ISBN: 978-1-78714-480-4, eISBN: 978-1-78714-479-8

Publication date: 8 November 2017

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Citation

(2017), "Index", Fée, D. and Kober-Smith, A. (Ed.) Inequalities in the UK, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 357-369. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-479-820171031

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INDEX

Affordable housing
, 186–188, 194–197

After housing costs (AHC)
, 25–26, 143, 308

‘Anglosphere’ countries
, 29

Anti-poverty strategies in Wales
, 328–331

Archipelago economy
, 66

Aristotelian legalistic approach
, 171

Asylum policy
, 253

Asylum seeker
, 252–265

‘At-risk-of-poverty’ rate
, 139, 141

Attainment gap
, 206, 207

Atypical employment
, 326

Austerity
, 72, 106, 142–143, 156, 158, 182, 189, 197–198, 234, 252–253, 262, 288, 354

policies
, 73, 217–228, 234, 314

reinforcing gender divide
, 239–240

Banking system contraction
, 187

Bedroom tax
, 263

Before housing costs (BHC)
, 25–26

Behaviour patterns, changing
, 318

‘Below MIS’ indicator signals
, 113

Black and minority ethnic communities (BAME communities)
, 291

Bonding social capital
, 277, 278

Bourdieu, Pierre
, 79, 80, 254

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
, 78, 81

British Sociological Association’s ethical guidelines
, 273

Buy-to-Let

housing
, 202

investment
, 191–192

investors
, 191

landlords
, 187

lending
, 193

purchases
, 200

rental sector
, 31

Cambridge Social Interaction and Stratification Scale (CAMSIS)
, 81

Cameron and May governments’ strategies for the North
, 71–72

Capital in the Twenty-First Century
, 51, 78

Capitalism
, 25, 50, 156, 157

inclusive
, 44

patrimonial
, 78

predatory
, 158

Capitals approach to class
, 78–80

Capping household benefit payments from 2013
, 171–172

Cardiff Capital Region City Deal
, 336

Case for Universalism
, 221–222

Cash benefits
, 124–131

Casual Vacancy
, 20

Catholic/Protestant social inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 347

education opportunities
, 347–348

employment
, 348

housing
, 350–351

unemployment
, 349

Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR)
, 64

Chartered Management Institute (CMI)
, 239

Child poverty
, 50, 112, 153, 306, 316, 328

Child Poverty and Social Mobility Commission’s report (2014)
, 209–210

Child Tax Credits
, 50, 153, 240

Childcare subsidy
, 240

Children and Families (Wales) Measure (2010)
, 330

Children’s social participation
, 109

Christian democracy
, 43

Chronically Sick and Disabled Act (1970)
, 169

Cities Outlook report
, 62

City Learning Centres (CLCs)
, 207

Coalition government
, 72, 189

of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats
, 168, 206, 208, 209, 212

Coalition’s Record on Schools
, 210

Combating unequal inclusion of immigrants into host society
, 285

characteristics of studied cities
, 289

integration
, 286–288

local dimension into policy
, 290–292

methodology
, 288–289

spatial distribution of immigrants
, 290, 291

tools and measures by local integration policies
, 292–300

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
, 141

Comparators use in equality impact assessments
, 179–180

Comprehensive Spending Review in October (2010)
, 168

Conservative and Labour manifestos (2010)
, 102–104

Conservative Party
, 197, 198–199, 234, 241–242

Consumer Prices Index
, 174

Contemporary government policy
, 49

Contemporary welfare debates, proportionate universalism within context of
, 221–223

Context, inequality trends in
, 25–27

Contribution-based Employment and Support Allowance
, 173

Cope with pressure of care, measures to
, 246

Corbyn, Jeremy
, 150, 158–162

Council and housing association sector
, 193

Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
, 311

Council Tax Benefit (CTB)
, 169, 239

localisation and reducing spending on
, 172–173

Credit crunch
, 186–188

Critical geopolitics approach
, 61

Crystal meth
, 280

Cultural

capital
, 80–82

integration
, 287

issues in Northern Ireland
, 353

triumph
, 264

Cyprus
, 124

Data issues
, 176

administrative data
, 177–178

Family Resources Survey
, 178–179

survey data
, 178

Davies report (2010)
, 245–246

De-industrialisation
, 324

Dead money
, 46

Department for Business Innovations and Skills (BIS)
, 245

Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF)
, 206

Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG)
, 142, 169, 172

Department for Education (DfE)
, 210, 212, 237

Department for International Development (DfID)
, 254

Department of Work and Pensions (DWP)
, 25, 27, 168, 177

officials
, 175, 178, 179

Dependency culture
, 60

Deprivation
, 60, 66, 69, 73, 111, 152, 226, 256, 343

extension to wider population
, 262–263

housing
, 259–260

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)
, 275, 309

money
, 257–258

sense of safety
, 260–262

social contact
, 260

work
, 258–259

Devolution
, 71, 72

Devolved powers

benefits
, 312–314

inequalities in workplace
, 311–312

reluctance to raise taxes
, 314–315

tackling income inequalities
, 311–315

Direct taxes
, 124–131

comparing impact of cash benefits with
, 124–131

Disability
, 254

living allowance
, 262–263, 313

social model of
, 256

Disabled asylum seekers
, 251, 255, 256

deprivation extension to wider population
, 262–263

exceptionalism
, 264–265

Immigration and Asylum Act
, 252

terminology, classifications of entitlement and resulting inequality
, 253–256

wider population of disabled people
, 262

See also Deprivation

Dispersal policy
, 263

Disposable incomes
, 21, 22, 26, 34, 41, 46, 120–122, 127, 130–131, 139–140

Gini coefficient
, 25, 136

median
, 23

Distribution question
, 43–47

Diverging fortunes of different social groups
, 27–28

Downton Abbey
, 20

Dwellings by Tenure, England
, 193

Economic

capital
, 82

crisis
, 186–188, 201, 324, 331, 333, 343, 344

impact of inequality
, 41–43

issues in Northern Ireland
, 353

policy
, 60, 62

Economic inequalities
, 41, 78–80, 98, 212, 324, 334–336

evolution of inequality and poverty
, 25–32

standard measurement of poverty and inequality
, 20–25

in United Kingdom
, 19–32

Education
, 328

Educational inequalities
, 206, 315–318

Education policy
, 245

Education Action Zones (EAZs)
, 207

Education Opportunities of Catholics/Protestants in Northern Ireland
, 347–348

Egalitarian project, Labour Party and

equality under Miliband
, 155–158

Labour under Corbyn
, 158–162

New Labour and equality
, 150–152

New Labour record
, 152–155

shrinking constituency for equality
, 158–162

Electoral spatial divide
, 61

Emergency Budget (2010)
, 194

Employment

of Catholics/Protestants in Northern Ireland
, 348

inequality in Wales
, 331–334

See also Unemployment

Employment Protection Act (1982)
, 235

England, inequalities in

Cameron and May governments’ strategies for the North
, 71–72

economic policy
, 60–61

North/South divide geopolitical issue
, 67–71

reality and relevance of North/South divide image
, 62–66

Entitlement, classifications of
, 253–256

Equal Pay Act (1970)
, 169, 235, 240–241, 242

Equality Act (2010)
, 170, 177, 240–241, 242, 298, 331

Equality

New Labour and
, 150–152

shrinking constituency for
, 158–162

under Corbyn
, 158–162

under Miliband
, 155–158

in Wales
, 328–331

See also Inequalities

Equality and Efficiency
, 42

Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)
, 173, 256

Equality and nondiscrimination legislation
, 169

capping household benefit payments from 2013
, 171–172

Equality Act (2010)
, 170

Housing Benefit
, 174–175

LHA reforms
, 174–175

localisation and reducing spending on Council Tax benefit
, 172–173

Public Sector Equality Duty
, 170–171

Substantive equality
, 171

Time Limiting Contributory Employment and Support Allowance
, 173–174

Universal Credit implementation
, 175–176

welfare measures
, 171

working-age benefits
, 175

See also Inequalities

Equality Duty
, 168, 171, 176

Equality Impact Assessments (EIA)
, 169, 171–172, 174–176

comparators use in
, 179–180

Established cultural capital
, 81

Ethical decision-making framework
, 273

EU legal and regulatory frameworks
, 141

EUROMOD model
, 121

European Commission (2014)
, 241–242

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
, 142

European Social Fund (ESF)
, 142

European Socio-Economics Classification (ESEC)
, 79

European Union (EU)
, 21, 120, 198–199, 234, 287, 311

contribution to reducing inequality
, 139–142

inequality vs. socioeconomic indicators in EU Countries
, 137–138

inequality within
, 139

European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC)
, 120, 121, 124

Eurostat approach
, 124

Excellence in Cities (EiC)
, 207

Exceptionalism
, 264–265

Fair Employment Legislation
, 352

Family Resources Survey (FRS)
, 174, 178–179, 344

Female representation on boards
, 245–246

Financial crisis
, 25–32, 42, 45, 47, 51

2008 Crash
, 41, 44, 50

post-2008 crisis
, 43

Financial Times
, 51, 209

France
, 291–292

Free school meals (FSM)
, 207

Freedom of Information requests
, 255

Fresh Start’ Stormont Agreement and Implementation Plan
, 354

Full employment
, 330, 331, 336

Funding for Lending Scheme (FLS)
, 189

Future Generations Wales Act (FGW Act)
, 330

GCSEs
, 207–208, 275, 347

Gender Equality Duty (2006)
, 241

Gender inequalities in Britain
, 243

austerity reinforced gender divide
, 239–240

education policy
, 245

increasing female representation on boards
, 245–246

mandatory gender pay reporting
, 241–243

See also Social inequalities

Gender pay and prospects gap in Britain, bridging
, 240

Gender pay gap (GPG)
, 234, 239, 240, 244, 230

Gender policy
, 241–242

‘Gig’ economy
, 327

Gini coefficients
, 22–23, 47, 121, 127, 154, 307, 309

changes in
, 125, 132

cross-country differences in levels of
, 131

Gini index
, 120

‘Glass ceiling’ effect
, 234

Glassdoor Economic Research (2016)
, 235

‘Golden Triangle’
, 82

Good Friday Agreement (GFA)
, 342, 352

Government Equalities Office
, 242–243

Government priority
, 206–208

Great British Class Survey (GBCS)
, 78, 80–81

Great Crash (1929)
, 42

‘Great Moderation’ years (2008)
, 46

Great Recession 2008

UK labour market
, 325

in Wales
, 331–334

Greater London Authority (GLA)
, 82, 295

Gross Domestic Product
, 44, 45, 53, 137, 152, 247, 311, 336

Gross incomes
, 22, 124, 126, 127, 130, 131

Gross value added (GVA)
, 63, 325

Health and education inequalities
, 315–318

Health and Social Care Act (2012)
, 220

Health inequalities
, 218, 224–228, 311, 316

case-study methods
, 223–224

policy
, 219–221

proportionate universalism
, 221–222

in Scotland
, 218–219

Health policy
, 223

Healthy life expectancy (HLE)
, 219

Help-to-Buy
, 191, 200, 210

Home Office equality impact assessment
, 255

Home ownership
, 31, 186, 189–191, 198, 344–346, 350

Homelessness policy
, 186, 196–197, 199, 259, 280

Homeownership, decline of
, 31

Homes and Communities Agency (HCA)
, 187

Horizontal and vertical segregation
, 238–239

House of Commons Library report (2016)
, 239, 240

House of Commons’ Scottish Affairs committee
, 312

Household

income
, 82, 92

value of household savings
, 92

Households below average income (HBAI)
, 25, 26, 103, 177

Housing
, 31, 185–187, 259–260, 344–345, 351

associations
, 174, 187, 191, 193–195, 197–201, 350–351

Catholic/Protestant social inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 350–351

Housing and Communities Inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 345

Housing and Planning Act (2016)
, 198

Housing and Regeneration Act (2008)
, 187

Housing Benefit
, 174–175, 180, 193, 195

Housing policy and making of inequality

affordable housing
, 194–197

austerity
, 189–194, 197–200

credit crunch and economic crisis
, 186–188

impact of housing costs
, 31

Human capital theory
, 235–236

Human Rights in Northern Ireland
, 352–353

Immigrants
, 161, 253, 286, 287, 289

characteristics of studied cities
, 289

integration
, 286–288

local dimension into policy
, 290–292

methodology
, 288–289

spatial distribution of immigrants
, 290, 291

tools and measures by local integration policies
, 292–300

Immigration Agency
, 295

Immigration and Asylum Act (1999)
, 252, 254, 259, 262–263

Immigration and Asylum Appeals Act
, 253

Income

disparities
, 40, 307–309, 343

inequalities
, 20, 22–25, 31, 34, 112, 120, 121, 127, 154, 219, 308, 311–315, 342–344

Income-related Employment and Support Allowance
, 173

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)
, 275, 309

Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
, 27

Integration of immigrants
, 286–289, 292–300

Inter-city patterns of inequality in United Kingdom
, 89–98

International Labour Organisation (ILO)
, 44, 45, 235

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
, 44

Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA)
, 272

Kingmill Report on Women’s Employment and Pay
, 238

Labour market
, 27, 28, 48, 153, 324, 325, 331

inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 345–346

Labour Party and egalitarian project

equality under Miliband
, 155–158

Labour under Corbyn
, 158–162

New Labour and equality
, 150–152

New Labour record
, 152–155

shrinking constituency for equality
, 158–162

Learning Support Units (LSUs)
, 207

Legal frameworks and social inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 351–355

Lewisham
, 288, 295

Lewisham Civic Leadership Programme
, 297–298

Lewisham Council
, 296, 297

Lewisham Young Mayor Scheme
, 298

Living standards
, 24, 27, 41, 42, 45, 48, 102–104, 110–114, 159

MIS as rich description of
, 104–109

Local dimension into policy
, 290

British case
, 290–291

French case
, 291–292

Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs)
, 71

Local Government Association
, 209

Local Government Districts (LGDs)
, 344, 348

Local Housing Allowance (LHA)
, 174, 195, 196

reforms
, 174–175

Local integration policies

London
, 295–300

Paris
, 292–294

tools and measures used by
, 292–300

Localism
, 72, 272, 282

Localism Act (2011)
, 189, 196

London

combating inequalities
, 288

local integration policies
, 295–300

spatial distribution of immigrants in
, 290

London, East and South East (LESE)
, 325

Long-term unemployment in Northern Ireland
, 345

Lowestoft
, 272, 274–275

churn between insecure jobs
, 276–277

consequences of unemployment
, 278–281

methodological approach
, 273–274

young people’s perspectives
, 275–276

Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
, 120

Mandatory gender pay reporting
, 241–243

Market
, 52

adjustments
, 200

capitalism
, 44

income
, 124

inequalities on labour market
, 345

labour
, 27, 28, 48, 153, 324, 325, 331

market-based approach
, 52

Mediterranean capitalism
, 29

Meritocracy
, 155, 162, 211

Meritocratic vision
, 153

social mobility and
, 154–155

Milburn Commission
, 306–307

Minimum Income Guarantee
, 153

Minimum Income Standard (MIS)
, 102, 104

charting income adequacy and living standards
, 110–114

Median Equivalised Income
, 103

as rich description of living standards
, 106–109

thematic analysis of group discussions
, 105

in two key methodological aspects
, 104–105

Minimum living standard
, 52, 102, 104, 109, 110, 114–115

Ministerial Task Force on Health Inequalities (2007)
, 219

Modern Conservatism
, 21

Money

dead
, 46

policies
, 49

role in inequality
, 257–258, 271–281

Multicultural approach
, 289

National Assembly of Wales
, 324, 330

National Audit Office report (NAO report)
, 212

National Citizen Service
, 211

National Housing Federation
, 197–198

National minimum wage
, 43, 153

National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC)
, 79, 80, 86, 89

National-level inequalities in United Kingdom
, 82–89

Neo-liberal reforms
, 52

Neoliberalism
, 218, 237

Net disposable income
, 31, 126

See also Disposable incomes

‘New Deal’ welfare-to-work programmes
, 153

New Labour
, 150

and equality
, 150–152

initiatives
, 207

meritocratic project
, 152

National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies
, 210

performance in terms of tackling inequalities
, 207

poverty of expectation
, 213

New Labour record

poverty alleviation
, 152–154

social mobility and meritocratic vision
, 154–155

New Policy Institute (NPI)
, 173

NHS Health Scotland
, 223

Nondiscrimination legislation, development of equality and
, 169

Equality Act (2010)
, 170

LHA reforms
, 174–175

localisation and reducing spending on Council Tax benefit
, 172–173

Public Sector Equality Duty
, 170–171

substantive equality
, 171

Time Limiting Contributory Employment and Support Allowance
, 173–174

Universal Credit implementation
, 175–176

welfare measures
, 171

working-age benefits
, 175

Non-profit organisations (NGOs)
, 293

‘Non-standard’ forms of employment
, 326

Normalization of everyday hardship
, 279

North/South divide
, 60, 61

geopolitical issue
, 67–71

reality and relevance of
, 62–66

Northern England
, 62, 73

Northern Ireland

Catholic/Protestant social inequalities
, 347–351

homosexual acts
, 169

income inequalities
, 342–344

legal frameworks
, 351–355

savings capacity vs. home ownership as indicator
, 344–346

social inequalities in
, 342, 351–355

unemployment rate in
, 346

Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA)
, 347

Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action report (NICVA report)
, 342–345

Northern Ireland Housing Executive
, 350, 352

Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure (NIMDM)
, 343–344

Northern Powerhouse
, 63, 72, 73

Not in education, employment or training (NEET)
, 272

Office for National Statistics (ONS)
, 20, 27, 86, 198, 239

Office of Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister (OPMDPM)
, 342, 347

Operation Black Vote
, 297–298

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 23, 29, 41, 44–45, 50, 236–237

Palma ratio
, 307, 311

Paradox of redistribution
, 222

Paris

combating inequalities
, 288

local integration policies
, 292–294

spatial distribution of immigrants
, 291

Part-time penalty
, 236–238

Participatory social minimum
, 104, 106

Patrimonial capitalism
, 78

Pay and prospects gap
, 234

horizontal and vertical segregation
, 238–239

human capital theory
, 235–236

part-time penalty
, 236–238

Pension Credit
, 153

Pensioners
, 34, 105, 107, 108, 112, 153, 172

Persistent poverty
, 32, 34

Personal wealth accumulation
, 46

Policy

to address health inequalities
, 219–221

asylum
, 253

contemporary government
, 49

economic
, 60

education
, 245

gender
, 241–242

homelessness
, 196–197

local dimension into
, 290–292

macroeconomic
, 49

makers
, 168

and planning
, 225–226

Political/politics
, 224–225

consequences
, 310–311

political cleavage
, 21

Post-1979 counterrevolution
, 43

Post-war social democracy
, 43

Poverty
, 21–22, 278

alleviation
, 152–154

drugs
, 272

evolution in United Kingdom
, 25–32

line
, 21

rate
, 31–33

standard measurement of
, 20–25

Predistribution
, 157

Private housing promotion
, 189–194

Pro-equality strategy
, 52–53

Pro-independence parties
, 310

Property value
, 80, 92, 94

Property-owning democracy
, 197

Proportionate universalism
, 218

case-study methods
, 223–224

within context of contemporary welfare debates
, 221–223

findings and discussion
, 224

health inequalities in Scotland
, 218–219

policy and planning
, 225–226

policy to address health inequalities
, 219–221

politics
, 224–225

practicing
, 226–228

Protected characteristics
, 176–178, 298, 329

Equality Duty and
, 171

equality legislation
, 170

impact of measure
, 169

Protestant community in Northern Ireland
, 342

Public Health England documentation (2014)
, 225–226

Public Sector Equality Duties in Equality Act (2010)
, 241

Public Sector Equality Duty (PSED)
, 168, 170–171, 329

Public sector housing investment
, 191

Pupil Premium effect
, 208–211

Quantitative easing (QE)
, 31, 49

Race relations
, 290

Race Relations Act (1965)
, 169

Redistribution
, 44, 157

changes to
, 131

paradox of
, 222

reverse
, 49

service
, 224

within-country
, 141

Refused asylum seeker
, 253, 257, 263

Regional Development Authorities (RDAs)
, 63

Regional Development Strategy
, 353

Regional disparities
, 61, 63, 66, 71

Regionalism
, 73

of discontent
, 69

political
, 72–73

Relative poverty
, 21, 22, 32, 112, 308

‘Rent-seeking’ process
, 46

Responsible capitalism
, 156–158, 162

Road to Wigan Pier, The
, 20

Safe spaces
, 260

Safer Stronger Communities Select Committee
, 296

Savings capacity
, 344–346

Schools
, 206

expanding opportunities at school level (1980–2010)
, 206–208

expanding opportunities at school level (1997)
, 212–213

expanding opportunities at school level (2010–2017)
, 208–212

primary
, 207

secondary
, 207

Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM)
, 234, 245

Scotland

health and education inequalities
, 315–318

health inequalities in
, 218–219

reducing inequalities in
, 305

tackling income inequalities, objective constrained by devolved powers
, 311–315

unequal society
, 306–311

Scotland Act (1998)
, 314

Scottish government
, 219, 223, 312–318

Scottish index of multiple deprivation
, 309

Scottish social security system
, 313

Scottish Socialist Party (SSP)
, 310

Scottish Survey of Numeracy (2015)
, 309

‘Scroungers’
, 258

Second World War
, 40, 42, 52

Segregation
, 187, 198

horizontal and vertical
, 238–239

Sense of safety
, 260–262

Severe deprivation
, 73, 141, 143

Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
, 169, 235

‘Shirkers’
, 258

Shrinking

constituency for equality
, 158–162

disability category
, 263

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
, 142

Social capital
, 78, 80, 81, 94

Social conditions, inequality to
, 136–139

Social contact
, 81, 86, 94, 257, 260

Social Exclusion Unit
, 153, 154

Social housing
, 194–197

Social Housing Sales England (1980–2016)
, 192

Social inclusion
, 105, 139, 306, 353

Social inequalities
, 206

Catholic/Protestant social inequalities in Northern Ireland
, 347–351

income inequalities
, 342–344

legal frameworks and
, 351–355

savings capacity vs. home ownership as indicator
, 344–346

See also Substantive equality; Tackling inequality

Social integration process
, 286–287

Social issues in Northern Ireland
, 353

Social mobility
, 152, 154–155

Social model of disability
, 256

Social-Class Inequalities in Education in England and Scotland (2006)
, 212

Socio-economic

duty
, 330

indicators
, 66

inequality
, 334–336

status
, 218–219

Socio-economically shaped services
, 224

Spatial distribution of immigrants
, 290, 291

St Andrew’s Agreement
, 353

Stormont House Agreement (SHA)
, 354–355

Strategy for Integration (2009)
, 291

Structural and institutional weaknesses at play
, 234–239

Structural integration
, 286–287

Substantive equality

comparators use in equality impact assessments
, 179–180

data issues
, 176–179

development of equality and nondiscrimination legislation
, 169–176

diluting
, 168

impacts of reforms
, 169

See also Social inequalities

Syrian migrants
, 264, 265

Tackling inequality

distribution question
, 43–47

economic impact of inequality
, 41–43

OECD
, 41

secular stagnation
, 50–53

in United Kingdom
, 47–49

See also Social inequalities

Tax
, 49

credits
, 108, 153–154, 175

cuts
, 49

Tax-benefit system
, 121

Thatcherism
, 67, 237

The Executive Office (TEO)
, 354–355

Time Limiting Contributory Employment and Support Allowance
, 173–174

Top quintile share
, 121

Trade-off theory
, 44

Treasury-commissioned reviews
, 186–187

Treasury-driven approach
, 187

Trilemma
, 222–223

UN Convention on Rights of Disabled People
, 262

UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
, 354

UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
, 241

Unemployment
, 272, 274, 281

in Britain
, 64

of Catholics/Protestants in Northern Ireland
, 349

consequences of
, 278

normalization of everyday hardship
, 279

poverty
, 278

rate in Northern Ireland
, 346

See also Employment

Unequal capabilities
, 309–310

Unequal societies
, 40, 306

income disparities
, 307–309

political consequences
, 310–311

proportion of individuals living in relative poverty
, 308

unequal capabilities
, 309–310

UNISON-Equality Coalition Conference
, 354

United Kingdom (UK)
, 104, 106, 110–111, 120

annual spend on cash benefits
, 142

Conservative and Labour manifestos (2010)
, 102–104

Davies report (2010)
, 245–246

Department for Education
, 237

inter-city patterns of inequality in
, 89–98

labour market
, 48

macroeconomic policy
, 49

National Border Agency
, 295

NEP report
, 328

United Kingdom, inequality in
, 47–49, 50, 82–89, 121–123

changes in inequality (2008–2015)
, 124

changes to redistribution (2008–2014)
, 131

comparing impact of cash benefits and direct taxes
, 124–131

compositional changes
, 131–136

contribution of EU to reducing inequality
, 139–142

country composition by income deciles
, 140

evolution of inequality and poverty in
, 25–32

inequality within EU
, 139

S80/S20 Income Quintile Share Ratio
, 123

social conditions
, 136–139

standard measurement of poverty and inequality
, 20–25

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
, 330

Universal credit
, 175–176, 313

Universal Infant Free School Meals (UIFSM)
, 209, 210

Universalism
, 222, 317–318

See also Proportionate universalism

Voluntary Action Lewisham funding priorities
, 296–297

Vulnerable groups
, 168

Vulnerable Person’s Relocation Scheme for Syrian nationals
, 256, 264

Wage share
, 45, 46

Wales
, 323

equalities and anti-poverty strategies in
, 328–331

great recession and employment inequality in
, 331–334

hourly pay gap by gender and disability
, 334

non-employment, precarious employment and under-employment by gender and disability
, 332

potential of well-being of future generations
, 334–336

Welsh economic context
, 324–328

Wealth
, 52, 79, 342

creation
, 46

diversion
, 46

inequality
, 20, 22–25, 30–31, 78

Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS)
, 30

Welfare

measures
, 171

reforms
, 168, 171, 176, 177, 182

state
, 221, 229

Welfare Act (2012)
, 195

Welfare Reform Act (2012)
, 252, 263

Well-being of Future Generations Act (2015)
, 334–335

Welsh economic context
, 324

atypical employment
, 326

de-industrialisation
, 324

education
, 328

‘gig’ economy
, 327

GVA
, 325

responding to great recession
, 327

Welsh Labour Market and Great Recession
, 325

White Paper ‘Partnership for Equality’
, 353

Within-country redistribution
, 141

Women’s Budget Group (2016)
, 239

Work
, 28, 44, 49, 51, 199, 221, 258–259, 272, 275–276, 282, 324, 327, 328, 336, 337

childcare and domestic
, 236

family-friendly
, 236

part-time
, 236–237

repeated seasonal
, 277

total reorganisation
, 247

women
, 235

Work Capability Assessment
, 173

Work-Related Activity Group
, 173

Time Limiting Contributory Employment and Support Allowance in
, 173–174

Working Tax Credit
, 153

See also Child Tax Credits; Tax credits

Working-age benefits
, 35, 175, 181

Workless households
, 141

World Economic Forum (2014)
, 40, 239

World Health Organisation (WHO)
, 220, 255

Young people’s perspectives
, 275–276

Youth Investment Fund (YIF)
, 211

Prelims
Introduction
Part I Mapping Inequalities in the United Kingdom Today: The Changing Face of Inequalities?
Chapter 1 Economic Inequalities in the United Kingdom Since 2008
Chapter 2 Tackling Inequality is an Economic Imperative
Chapter 3 Inequalities in England: Regional Differences and New Perspectives on a Geopolitical Issue
Chapter 4 ‘A Classless Society?’ Making Sense of Inequalities in the Contemporary United Kingdom with the Great British Class Survey
Chapter 5 What the Minimum Income Standard Tells us About Living Standards in the United Kingdom
Chapter 6 Inequality in the United Kingdom in a Comparative Perspective
Part II The Equality Agenda then and Now: Political Debates, Public Policies and Outcomes
Chapter 7 The Labour Party and the Egalitarian Project
Chapter 8 Diluting Substantive Equality: Why the UK Government doesn’t Know if its Welfare Reforms Promote Equality
Chapter 9 Housing Policy and the Making of Inequality
Chapter 10 Expanding Opportunities at School Level in England in the Early 21st Century: A Government Priority?
Chapter 11 Proportionate Universalism as a Route to Mitigating Health Inequalities? Exploring Political, Policy and Practice Uncertainties in Times of Austerity
Chapter 12 Gender Inequalities in Britain: Bridging the Gap in Pay and Prospects
Chapter 13 Disabled Asylum Seekers as Experimental Subjects in a Broader Systemic Agenda of Inequality
Part III The Governance of Inequality: Local Initiatives and Responses in a Multi-Level Polity
Chapter 14 It’s Terrible Having No Job, People Look Down on You and You’ve Never Enough Money: Lowestoft Case Study
Chapter 15 Combating Unequal Inclusion of Immigrants into the Host Society: Comparing Policy Responses in London and Paris
Chapter 16 Reducing Inequalities in Scotland: Firm Commitments, Mixed Results After 10 Years of SNP Governments
Chapter 17 Devolution, Recession and the Alleviation of Inequality in Wales
Chapter 18 Social Inequalities in Northern Ireland
Index