Index

Matt Bower (Department of Educational Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)

Design of Technology-Enhanced Learning

ISBN: 978-1-78714-183-4, eISBN: 978-1-78714-182-7

Publication date: 3 August 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Bower, M. (2017), "Index", Design of Technology-Enhanced Learning, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 429-449. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78714-182-720171002

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Abstraction
, 40, 365–402

defined
, 366–367

importance of
, 366–367

Access control affordances
, 69

Accessibility

promoting
, 132–133

of social networking
, 229–230

Access to learning
, 9–10, 321–322, 368

Accommodation
, 42

Accretion
, 135

Acquisition
, 135

Active Worlds
, 305, 310, 311–312, 315, 317, 331, 334

Adaptive media
, 134

Affordances
, 14, 65–74, 87, 88, 128, 174

defined
, 66–68

of learning technologies, classification of
, 69–71

mobile technology
, 266–267

in practice
, 71–72

of technologies
, 68–69, 72–73, 407

AirDisk
, 270

Alignment within designs
, 132

Anderson and Krathwohl’s taxonomy
, 93, 94–97, 106, 116, 407

Apple’s App Store
, 295

Art Rage
, 268

Assessment

mobile learning
, 279, 282

social networking
, 234–235, 240, 248

technology-enhanced learning
, 373

virtual worlds
, 328–329, 335

Web 2.0
, 185, 205

Assimilation
, 41–42

Assistive technologies
, 3

Attention
, 39

AudioNote
, 271

Auditory information
, 75–76

Augmented reality
, 272

Australian Curriculum
, 6

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA)
, 6

Australian Government

Transforming Australia’s Higher Education System
, 7

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL)
, 8

Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST)
, 8

Australian Professional Teaching Standards
, 8

Australian Universities Teaching Committee (AUTC)

ICTs and Their Role in Flexible Learning
, 143–144

Learning Design Visual Sequence
, 144, 145, 148, 151

Authentic learning
, 56, 57, 274

Behaviorism
, 36–38

Blogs
, 161, 167, 169–172, 194

Blogsy
, 270

Blurb
, 285

Book Creator
, 268

BridgeIT initiative
, 279

British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA)

Next Generation Learning
, 7

Brushes
, 268

BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) policy
, 289, 389

Calculator
, 268

Catering to special needs
, 278

Catering to today’s learners
, 10–11

Challenge-Experience-Reflect-Plan-Apply model
, 289

Classroom 2.0
, 196

Classroom boundaries, expanding
, 232

Cloud computing
, 162

Cognitive constructivism
, 44

Cognitive load
, 76, 77, 346–347

technology-enhanced learning
, 377, 392

Cognitive overload
, 76

during fieldwork
, 281

virtual worlds and
, 332

Cognitive process dimension, levels of
, 96

Cognitive realism
, 57

Cognitivism
, 39–41

Coherence effect. See Redundancy effect

Collaboration
, 5

effective collaboration, design for
, 198

mobile learning
, 292

social networking
, 228–229

technology-enhanced learning
, 369, 378, 393

virtual worlds
, 332–333

Web 2.0 technologies
, 183, 184

Collaborative knowledge building
, 176

Collaborative learning
, 3, 50, 407

mobile learning
, 276–278

virtual worlds
, 321

Collaborative remixability
, 176

Communal constructivism
, 353

Communication
, 5

mobile learning and
, 274

online technologies and
, 368–369

potentials, leveraging
, 247

social networking and
, 227–228

virtual worlds and
, 320–321, 332–333, 349

Web 2.0 technologies and
, 174–175

Communicative media
, 134

Communities of practice
, 233

Community building

virtual worlds and
, 329

Web 2.0 technologies and
, 199

Community development

social networking and
, 233–234

technology and
, 373–374

Web 2.0 and
, 181

Community engagement
, 232–233

virtual worlds and
, 329

Community of praxis
, 226

Compendium LD
, 144, 149, 151

Competence

digital
, 4

technological
, 5

Comprehension
, 39

Computational thinker
, 4

Computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)
, 50

Computing, content representation in
, 104–105

Conceptual knowledge
, 95, 107

Conditions of Learning framework
, 40

Connectivism
, 46–49, 227

Constructionism
, 51

Constructionist learning
, 51, 407

Constructive alignment
, 97

Constructivism
, 41–44

cognitive
, 44

social
, 44–46, 227

Content knowledge (CK)
, 18, 21

Content representation
, 93–117, 370

Anderson and Krathwohl’s taxonomy
, 93, 94–97, 106, 116, 407

computing
, 104, 105

English
, 98–99

geography
, 104

history
, 103

learning assessment using technology
, 107–110

mathematics
, 101–103

open education revolution
, 110–115

science
, 99–100

using technology
, 105–107

Context
, 20

Cooperative learning
, 276–278

Co-presence
, 326–327

Copyright
, 282

Corrections
, 37

Cost of virtual world
, 337

Coursera
, 115

Creative Commons
, 93

4.0 scheme
, 114

licenses
, 113–114, 116, 407

Creative communicator
, 4–5

Creative design
, 123

Creativity
, 5, 372

Critical thinking
, 5

Croquet
, 310

C21 Canadians for 21st Century Learning & Innovation “Shifting Minds” framework
, 5

Cueing effect
, 83–84

Curricula
, 6–7, 54

Cyberbullying
, 239–240

Cybersafety
, 239–240

of participants, monitoring and managing
, 251

Decision maker
, 189

Design

alignment within
, 132

creative
, 123

defined
, 121, 122–124

engineering
, 123

good
, 130

learning. See Learning design; Learning Design field

models, critical reflection on
, 136–138

teaching as
, 126–127

thinking. See Design thinking

Design-based learning
, 51–52, 407

Designing for learning
, 129–133, 139

accessibility, promoting
, 132–133

alignment within designs
, 132

defined
, 129

tasks according to intended learning outcomes
, 131–132

understanding and catering to students
, 130–131

using social networking
, 219–254

Design thinking
, 121–154, 408

challenge of developing
, 127–129

creative search
, 125

current state of
, 150–151

flexibility in
, 125

learning and
, 125

previous design knowledge, leveraging
, 125

problem framing
, 125

prototyping
, 125

social
, 125

solution focused
, 124–125

tolerance for ambiguity
, 125

user focused
, 125

Design Thinking for Educators
, 136

Differentiation
, 131, 132

Diffusion of Innovations theory
, 412, 415, 417–418

Digital capability
, 372

inadequate
, 377

Digital citizen
, 4

Digital competence
, 4

Digital creativity
, 278

Digital Economy and Society Index
, 4

Digital expectancy
, 11

Digital immigrants
, 11–12

Digital natives
, 1, 11–13

Digitization
, 3

Diigo
, 162

Disequilibrium
, 42

Distraction

mobile learning and
, 282

social networking and
, 237–238

technology-enhanced learning
, 380

virtual worlds and
, 334

Docs2PDF
, 270

Draw Free
, 271

Dropbox
, 269, 270, 276

Dynamic conditionality
, 327

Ecology of learning
, 295

Edmodo
, 222, 223–224, 225

Educational affordances
, 69

Educational culture

Web 2.0 technologies
, 188

Educational design models

conversational framework
, 133–134, 150

Learning Development Cycle
, 134–135

7Cs model
, 135–136

Educators

negative dispositions
, 336, 382

professional requirements for
, 7–9

supporting
, 418–420

EdX
, 115

Elgg
, 224

Embodiment
, 322

Emergence
, 134

Emphasis affordances
, 69

Empowered learner
, 4

Engagement

mobile learning
, 275

social networking
, 231–232

technology-enhanced learning
, 371, 394

virtual worlds
, 327–328

Web 2.0-based learning
, 178–179, 201

Engagement-Exploration-Explanation-Elaboration-Evaluation (5E) model
, 289

Engineering design
, 123

English, content representation in
, 98–99

English as a Second Language
, 227, 235, 244

Epistemological knowledge
, 42

E-portfolios
, 170, 176, 178, 203, 227, 242, 243, 372

Equilibration
, 42

Equitable access to education
, 279

Equity

mobile learning
, 283

technology-enhanced learning
, 380–381

European Commission

Digital Competence Framework for Citizens
, 5

Digital Economy and Society Index
, 4

Evernote
, 276

Executive control
, 39

Experiential learning
, 326, 345

Extended abstract representation
, 108

Facebook
, 152, 173, 219, 222–223, 225–242, 248, 252, 269, 270

FaceTime
, 270

Factual knowledge
, 95, 106, 107

Feedback

peer
, 185, 203–204

regular
, 293–294

technology-enhanced learning
, 373, 379

through Web 2.0
, 176

Feedblender
, 194

Feedburner
, 194

Fidelity
, 331, 346

Flashcards
, 38

Flexible narrative worlds
, 306

Flickr
, 161, 194

FlipSnack
, 71–72

Folksonomies
, 161

4 Component Instructional Design Model
, 136

Friending
, 233, 387

Games-based learning
, 52–53, 279–280, 407

Gamification
, 3

Gartner’s Hype Cycle
, 415–416, 417

GeoGebra
, 102, 102

Geographical Information Systems (GISs)
, 104

Geography, content representation in
, 104

Geometer’s Sketchpad
, 101

Global collaborator
, 5

Global Positioning System (GPS)
, 266, 274

Glogster
, 21

Good design
, 130

Google
, 170

Google Apps. See G Suite

Google Docs
, 172, 180, 192, 193, 269

Google Earth
, 306

Google Play
, 295

Google Plus
, 224

Google Reader
, 194

Group work processes

strategies for managing
, 250

strategies to support, applying
, 202–203

Web 2.0 technologies and
, 183–184

G Suite
, 173, 174, 371

Higher education
, 7

mobile learning in
, 269–271

small groups learning multiple Web 2.0 tools in, supporting
, 193–194

virtual worlds in
, 316–319

High school business studies, social networking in
, 242–244

History, content representation in
, 103

HTML
, 144, 180, 370

Human anatomy, teaching of
, 338–340

iAnnotate
, 270

iBooks
, 270

ICTs and Their Role in Flexible Learning
, 143–144

Identity construction
, 322

IDRISI GIS system
, 104

iGoogle
, 193

Image sharing
, 161

Immersion
, 326–327

iMovie
, 268

IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD)
, 142–143, 148, 151

Inappropriate design, and technology-enhanced learning
, 382

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
, 3, 6, 24, 28, 183, 411

affordances of
, 69

Information processing
, 39

Innovative designer
, 4

Inquiry-based learning
, 50–51, 407

Institutional culture

Web 2.0 technologies
, 188

Institutional infrastructure
, 132

Institutional support

in mobile learning
, 284

in social networking
, 241–242

in technology-enhanced learning
, 383–384

virtual worlds
, 337

Web 2.0 learning design
, 195

Instructional Design
, 138

Intellectual property
, 282

Interactive media
, 134

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

Standards for Students
, 4–5

Standards for Teachers
, 8

Intrinsic desire to improve learning outcomes
, 2–3

iPads
, 266

and assessment
, 279

BYOD policy
, 289

collaborative and cooperative learning
, p 285

distraction and misuse
, 282

encouraging media literacies
, 278

flexible access to learning
, 273

in higher education
, 270-271

motivating and engaging learners
, 275

personalizing learning
, 276

pre-service teacher reflection
, 287-288

professional learning
, 294

role of teacher
, 293

in schools
, 268-277

tasks
, 291-300

technical issues
, 281

iTunes
, 270

Jibe
, 310

Justice

social
, 11

Keynote
, 268

Kitely
, 310

Knowing-in-action
, 128

Knowledge

conceptual
, 95, 105–107

constructor
, 4

content
, 18, 21

developer
, 190

epistemological
, 42

factual
, 95, 106, 107

learning
, 47

metacognitive
, 95

pedagogical
, 18–19, 21

pedagogical content
, 18–19, 25

procedural
, 95, 106, 107

technological
, 18, 19, 21, 25, 26

technological content
, 19, 21, 25, 94

technological pedagogical
, 19, 21, 25, 26

TPACK model
, 13–14, 17–29, 66, 94, 133, 136, 145, 406

Kodu
, 53

K-12 education
, 267, 274, 293, 295

KWL
, 285

Laurillard’s Conversational Framework
, 108

Leadership
, 7

Learner agency, promoting
, 230

Learning

access to
, 9–10, 321–322, 368

activity
, 129, 138

authentic
, 56, 57, 274, 390

collaborative
, 3, 50, 276–278, 321, 407

computer supported collaborative
, 50

constructionist
, 51, 407

cooperative
, 276–278

design-based
, 51–52, 407

experiential
, 326, 345

games-based
, 52–53, 279–280, 407

inquiry-based
, 50–51, 407

learning. See Learning design; Learning Design field

meaningful
, 56–57, 390

mobile
, 261–297

outcomes, intrinsic desire to improve
, 2–3

peer
, 231

problem-based
, 50, 407

reflective
, 394–395

seamless
, 265, 276

situated
, 274, 326, 345

skills
, 4

task
, 129

ubiquitous
, 276

vicarious
, 177, 371–372, 394–395

Learning Activity Management System (LAMS)
, 147–148, 149, 151, 408

Learning by design
, 17, 23, 24, 52

Learning design
, 150

defined
, 139

as product
, 139

Learning Designer
, 146, 149, 151

Learning designers, directions forward for
, 151–152

Learning Design field
, 121–154, 408

conceptual map
, 140–141

current state of
, 150–151

defined
, 138–140

Learning Activity Management System
, 147–148, 408

pattern descriptions
, 143

pedagogical planner tools
, 145–147

representation and sharing of
, 148–150

technical standards
, 141–142

visualization approaches
, 143–145

visualization tools
, 145

Learning Design Support Environment
, 145–146

Learning Design Visual Sequence (LDVS)
, 144, 145, 148–149, 151

Learning Development Cycle
, 134–135, 137, 150

Learning management system (LMS)
, 377, 382

Learning objects
, 111–112

Linden Dollars
, 317

Linden Scripting Language (LSL)
, 311, 319, 325

LinkedIn
, 152, 221

Long-term memory
, 39, 42, 76

Macquarie ICT Innovations Centre

3-D Virtual Worlds Project 3.0
, 340

MapIT
, 285

Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs)
, 308

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
, 47, 48, 93, 114–115, 116, 407, 415

Mathematica
, 101

Mathematics, content representation in
, 101–103

Meaningful learning
, 56–57, 390

Media

adaptive
, 134

affordances
, 69

communicative
, 134

interactive
, 134

literacies
, 278

narrative
, 134

productive
, 134

social
, 162, 222

MediaWiki
, 168

Memorization
, 40

Memory

long-term
, 39, 42, 76

working
, 39, 42, 76

Mental models
, 77, 108, 109

Metacognitive knowledge
, 95

Microblogging
, 161, 167, 172

Mindmeister
, 172, 192

Minecraft
, 53, 268, 305, 310, 313–314, 315

Mobile computer supported collaborative learning (mCSCL)
, 295

Mobile games
, 272

Mobile learning (m-learning)
, 261–297

assessment issues
, 282

benefits and potentials of
, 272–280

categories of
, 264–265

catering to special needs
, 278

cognitive overload during fieldwork
, 281

collaborative and cooperative learning, enabling
, 276–278

communication, enabling
, 273–274

defined
, 262–265

design and implementation recommendations. See Mobile learning design and implementation recommendations

distraction and misuse
, 282

equitable access to education
, 279

equity issues
, 283

flexible and convenient access to learning, providing
, 273

games-based learning, facilitating
, 279–280

in higher education
, 269–271

in-situ reflections, capturing
, 279

institutional issues in
, 284

intellectual property and copyright
, 282

iPads supported pre-service teacher reflection
, 287–288

issues and limitations of
, 280–284

lack of pedagogical and technical support
, 283–284

media literacies and digital creativity, encouraging
, 278

mobile games and augmented reality
, 272

Mobilized 5E Science Curriculum
, 285–286

motivating and engaging learners
, 275

new forms of assessment, promoting
, 279

personalized student-centered learning, promoting
, 275–276

QR codes
, 271

in schools
, 267–269

situated and authentic learning, facilitating
, 274

student safety
, 283

teachers and students, technical skills of
, 283

technical issues in
, 280–281

technologies
, 265–267

time of
, 284

ubiquitous and seamless access, enabling
, 276

Mobile learning design and implementation recommendations

active role in learning experience
, 293

authentic contexts
, 293

BYOD policy
, 289–290

collaboration and cooperation
, 292

learning types and pedagogical objectives
, 290

pedagogical shift
, 294

pedagogies
, 288–289

prerequisite learning skills
, 291

productive and open-ended mobile learning tasks, utilizing
, 291–292

quality of apps
, 290–291

regular feedback to students, providing
, 293–294

safe and responsible use of technology
, 291

sort of mobile devices
, 289

teacher professional learning support and communities, leveraging
, 294–295

technological environment and enlist support, constraints of
, 289

user-friendly content based on multimedia learning effects
, 292–293

Mobile phone operating systems
, 266

Mobilized 5E Science Curriculum (M5ESC)
, 285–286

Modality effect
, 79–80, 85

Moore’s Law
, 412

Motivation

Mobile learning
, 275

technology and
, 371

virtual worlds
, 327–328

Web 2.0-based learning
, 179–180, 200

Multimedia

defined
, 74

learning effects. See Multimedia learning effects

skills, developing
, 177–178

Multimedia learning effects
, 65, 66, 74–87, 407

assumptions of
, 75–77

caveat to application of learning principles
, 86–87

defined
, 74

modality effect
, 79–80

personalization effect
, 84

redundancy effect
, 80–81

signaling (or cueing) effect
, 83–84

split-attention effect
, 81–83

technology-enhanced learning
, 391–392

transfer-appropriate processing
, 85

Multimodality
, 74

Multiple choice questions
, 38

Multistructural representation
, 108

Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs)
, 307–308

MySpace
, 224

Narrative media
, 134

Navigational affordances
, 69

Navigational aids to support wayfinding
, 347–348

Negative educator dispositions

technology-enhanced learning
, 382

virtual worlds
, 336

Negative reinforcement
, 36–37

Negative reinforcers
, 37

Negative staff perceptions
, 187

Negative student dispositions

social networking in education
, 236–237

technology-enhanced learning
, 378

virtual worlds
, 333–334

Web 2.0 in education
, 184

Negative teacher dispositions

social networking in education
, 241

New literacies, developing
, 230

New Media Consortium (NMC)

Horizon Reports
, 412–414

New millennium learners
, 12

Next Generation Learning (BECTA)
, 7

Ning
, 222, 224, 225, 227, 235

Notepad
, 285

Notes
, 268

Office HD
, 268

Office2HD
, 270

Off-task behavior
, 294

Online technologies, and communication
, 368–369

Open Cobalt
, 310

Open Educational Practices (OEPs)
, 117

Open Educational Resources
, 116, 407

Open education revolution
, 110–115

Creative Commons licenses
, 113–114

learning objects
, 111–112

Massive Open Online Courses
, 114–115, 407

resources for
, 112–113

Open Sim
, 53, 305, 310, 312, 315, 331, 343

as architectural design environment for school students
, 340–342

Open Wonderland
, 310

Pages
, 268

Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21)
, 5, 6

Pattern descriptions
, 143

PBWorks
, 167, 168

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)
, 18–19, 21

Pedagogical knowledge (PK)
, 18, 21

Pedagogical patterns
, 143, 148

Pedagogical Patterns Project
, 143

Pedagogical planner tools
, 145–147, 149, 151

Pedagogy
, 13, 18, 407

approaches to
, 49–53

attributes of
, 53

meanings of
, 35–36

perspectives of
, 36–49

reflecting on aims of
, 56–57

strategies to promote learning
, 54–56

in virtual spaces
, 347

Peer feedback
, 185

high-quality
, 203–204

Peer learning
, 231

Peer-to-peer support
, 3

Penultimate
, 271

Personal digital assistants, educational affordances
, 266

Personalization effect
, 84, 86, 87

Personal learning environments for school students, creating
, 189–193

PhET Interactive Simulation
, 99, 100

PhotoPeach
, 21

Physical contiguity
, 82

Pinterest
, 221–222

Plagiarism
, 185–186, 205–206

monitoring
, 249

technology-enhanced learning
, 379–380, 396

Policy documents
, 6–7

PollEverywhere
, 270

Positive behavior
, 36

Positive learning community

social networking learning
, 250

technology-enhanced learning
, 396–397

Practitioner’s Guide to Technology Pedagogy and Content Knowledge
, 20, 21, 136

Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Teach with Technology (PT3)
, 23

Presence
, 326–327

Prestructural representation
, 108

Prezi
, 97, 172, 270

Prezi Viewer
, 270

Privacy

social networking in education
, 238–239, 246

technology-enhanced learning
, 380–381, 387–388

Web 2.0 in education
, 186

Problem-based learning
, 50, 407

Procedural knowledge
, 95, 106, 107

Productive media
, 134

Professional learning

social networking learning
, 253–254

technology-enhanced learning
, 383

virtual world learning
, 354

Web 2.0 learning
, 206

Professional requirements, for educators
, 7–9

Project Wonderland
, 306

Pseudoanonymity
, 340

Quest Atlantis
, 316

Quickpolls
, 270

Quick Response codes (QR codes)
, 271

ReactionGrid
, 310

Read-write web. See Web 2.0

Realism

cognitive
, 57

visual
, 57

Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
, 394

RealXtend
, 310

Recorder
, 285

Redundancy effect
, 80–81, 86

Reflection
, 128

in-situ, capturing
, 279

iPads supported pre-service teacher
, 287–288

social networking and
, 232, 248

Web 2.0 and
, 178

Reflection-in-action
, 128

Reflection-on-action
, 128, 248

Reflective learning
, 394–395

Reflective thinking
, 199

Relational representation
, 108

Relationships, fostering
, 233–234

ResearchGate
, 221

Retrieval
, 39

Rewards
, 37

River City
, 316, 328

Role-play
, 325–326

Safety

cybersafety
, 239–240, 251

student
, 283

technology-enhanced learning
, 380–381, 387–388

virtual worlds
, 334–335

Web 2.0 technologies
, 186, 205

Scaffolding
, 44–45, 199–200, 348, 390–391, 416

Schema. See Long-term memory

Scholarship of teaching
, 1, 2, 13, 160, 422

Schools

mobile learning in
, 267–269

virtual worlds in
, 314–316

Science, content representation in
, 99–101

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
, 188

Scratch
, 104, 105

Seamless learning
, 265, 276

Second language learning

social networking in
, 244–245

Second Life
, 305, 306, 310–311, 315–320, 324–328, 331, 334, 335, 337, 343, 351, 354

human anatomy, teaching of
, 338–340

Second Life
, 53

Selection
, 39

Sensory perception
, 39

Seven Cs model
, 135–136, 137, 150

Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)
, 142

Sharing of content
, 370

Signaling (or cueing) effect
, 83–84, 86

SimCity
, 52

Simulation
, 3, 323

Simulation worlds
, 306

Singapore National ICT Masterplan
, 7

Situated learning
, 274, 326, 345

Situational model
, 39

Sketchbook
, 285

Skype
, 226, 270

Slideshare
, 270

Slides Shark
, 270

SLOODLE
, 311

Smore
, 21

Snapchat
, 222

Social affordances
, 69

Social bookmarking
, 162

Social constructivism
, 44–46, 227

Socialiser
, 190

Social justice
, 11

Socially mediated metacognition
, 248

Social media
, 162, 222

Social networking
, 14, 46, 152

defined
, 221–222

designing for learning using
, 219–254

in education. See Social networking in education

high school business studies
, 242–244

learning design recommendations. See Social networking learning design recommendations

second language learning
, 244–245

technologies, examples of
, 222–224

Social networking in education

assessment
, 234–235, 240

benefits and potentials of
, 227–235

classroom boundaries, expanding
, 232

collaboration, facilitating
, 228–229

communication, enabling
, 227–228

community engagement
, 232–233

contribution and engagement, motivating
, 231–232

convenient access
, 229–230

cyberbullying and cybersafety
, 239–240

distraction
, 237–238

ease of use
, 229

fostering relationships and community development
, 233–234

inappropriate task design
, 241

institutional issues in
, 241–242

issues and limitations of
, 235–241

learner agency, promoting
, 230

negative student dispositions
, 236–237

negative teacher dispositions
, 241

new literacies, developing
, 230

overlap with other platforms
, 237

peer learning, facilitating
, 231

privacy issues
, 238–239

reflection, enabling
, 232

social support, providing
, 234

student-centered learning
, 230

students and teachers, technical skills of
, 240–241

technical constraints
, 235–236

uses of
, 224–227

Social networking learning design recommendations
, 245–253

active involvement
, 252–253

assessment process, optimizing
, 249

authentic and meaningful tasks, utilizing
, 248

communication potentials, leveraging
, 247

cybersafety of participants, monitoring and managing
, 251

engagement with stakeholders
, 249

group work processes, strategies for managing
, 251

opportunities for professional learning, creating
, 252

plagiarism, monitoring
, 249

positive learning community, creating
, 250

primary/supplement system
, 246

privacy
, 246

professional boundaries between students and teachers, maintaining
, 251–252

reflection into learning process, building
, 248

space for social contributions, creating
, 250

structure and authority level
, 247–248

student input into course design and implementing, inviting
, 250

tool selection and learning tasks
, 247

Social worlds
, 306

Socratic dialog
, 42

SOLO taxonomy
, 108, 109

Space for social contributions, creating
, 250

Spatial affordances
, 69

Spatial knowledge, developing
, 346

SpeakUp 2015 survey
, 10–11

Split-attention effect
, 81–83, 86

Standards for Students (ISTE)
, 4–5

Standards for Teachers (ISTE)
, 7

Storify
, 269

Storybird
, 172

Student’s Globalization Project
, 22

Student-centered learning
, 230

personalized, promoting
, 275–276

technology and
, 372–373

Web 2.0-based
, 178–179

Students

background and interests
, 345

construction and modeling, allowing
, 324–325

as designers, leveraging
, 352–353

designing for learning
, 130–131

digital capabilities, inadequate
, 377

digital learning capabilities, developing
, 200–201, 392–393

digital learning skills
, 3–6, 183

input into course design and implementing
, 250

misuse of Web 2.0 technologies
, 186

mobile learning skills
, 283

negative dispositions
, 184, 236–237, 333–334, 378

personal learning environments for school students, creating
, 189–193

prerequisite learning skills
, 291

prior knowledge, and level of challenge to Web 2.0 learning design
, 197–198

regular feedback to, providing
, 293–294

safety
, 283

social networking skills
, 240–241

and teachers, maintaining professional boundaries between
, 251–252

virtual worlds for learning
, 331–332

Students as Producers
, 152

Student–teacher relationship
, 234

Symbol system theory
, 85

Synthesis
, 40

affordances
, 69

Tablet devices
, 266

Tasks

according to intended learning outcomes, design of
, 131–132

authentic
, 197, 248

goal-oriented
, 247

inappropriate design of
, 187–188, 241

incident-based
, 131

instructions
, 348

integrated
, 197

meaningful
, 248

mobile learning
, 291–292

role-based
, 131

rule-based
, 131

strategy-based
, 131

student-directed
, 197

tool selection
, 247

Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessing
, 93, 94–97, 106, 116

Teacher(s)

critical role of
, 417–418

digital skills
, 187

digital skills, underdeveloped
, 381–382

mobile learning skills
, 283

negative dispositions
, 241

social networking skills
, 240–241

and students, maintaining professional boundaries between
, 251–252

support
, 188–189

virtual worlds for learning
, 335–336

TeacherPal
, 270

Teachers’ Knowledge of Teaching and Technology (TKTT)
, 25

Teaching

as design
, 126–127

scholarship of
, 1, 160

Teaching Teachers for the Future
, 20

Technical constraints

mobile learning
, 280–281

social networking in education
, 235–236

technology-enhanced learning
, 376–377

virtual worlds
, 330–331

Web 2.0 in education
, 182

Technical standards, for Learning Design
, 141–142

Technological competence
, 5

Technological knowledge (TK)
, 18, 21, 25, 26

Technological content knowledge (TCK)
, 19, 21, 25, 94

Technological determinism
, 1, 2, 11–13

Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK)
, 19, 21, 25, 26

Technology

affordances
, 68–69, 72–73

content representation using
, 105–107

and designing for learning
, 131

integration
, 1–14

learning assessment using
, 107–110

Technology-enhanced learning

access to learning
, 368

active and student-centered learning, facilitating
, 372–373

assessment and feedback
, 373, 379

cognitive load issues
, 377

collaboration
, 369, 378

contribution
, 370–371

design principles. See Technology-enhanced learning design principles

digital capabilities and creativity
, 372

flexible environment
, 367–368

futures
, 410–417

identity, presence, and co-presence
, 369–370

inadequate student digital capabilities
, 377

inappropriate design
, 382

institutional issues
, 383–384

issues and limitations of
, 376–385

learning communities, development of
, 373–374

misuse and distraction
, 380

motivation and engagement
, 371

negative educator dispositions
, 382

negative student dispositions
, 378

online technologies and communication
, 368–369

plagiarism
, 379–380

professional learning
, 383

reflections on
, 374–376

representation and sharing of content
, 370

research-driven and collaborative approach to
, 420–422

safety, privacy, and equity
, 389–381

technical issues
, 376–377

time of
, 383

underdeveloped teacher digital skills
, 381–382

vicarious learning and reflection
, 371–372

Technology-enhanced learning design principles
, 385–400, 409, 410

authentic and meaningful learning, designing for
, 390

cognitive load and multimedia learning effects
, 391–392

collaboration
, 394

current state of
, 406–409

engagement
, 395

environment construction based on intended activity and pedagogy
, 391

general pedagogical strategies and principles, utilizing
, 393

high-quality assessment and feedback practices
, 395–396

pedagogical motivations
, 386

plagiarism, monitoring and managing
, 396

positive learning communities, fostering
, 396–397

professional learning opportunities and support, leveraging
, 397–398

rationale for
, 392

reflective and vicarious learning
, 394–395

student safety and privacy
, 387–388

students’ digital learning capabilities, developing
, 392–393

supportive scaffolding, integrating
, 390–391

technological context, scope of
, 388

technology selection
, 388–389

understanding and catering to students
, 387

Technology infiltration
, 415

Technology integration
, 1–14

access to learning
, 9–10

catering to today’s learners
, 10–11

curricula and policy documents
, 6–7

drivers of
, 2–11

intrinsic desire to improve learning outcomes
, 2–3

professional requirements for educators
, 7–9

students’ digital learning skills, development of
, 3–6

as tantalizing challenge
, 1–2

Technology knowledge (TK)
, 18, 21, 25, 26

Technology Pedagogy And Content Knowledge (TPACK) model
, 13–14, 17–29, 66, 88, 94, 133, 136, 145, 406

capacity development
, 22–25

elements of
, 18–19

limitations of
, 27–28

measurement of
, 25–27

practical outlook of
, 20–21

Temporal affordances
, 69

Temporal contiguity
, 82

3-dimensional (3-D) environments, representation of
, 322–323

3-D Virtual Worlds Project 3.0
, 340

Tiki-TokiTM
, 103

TPACK Cases
, 20

TPACK-COPR
, 24

TPACK-DBL
, 24

TPACK-IDDIRR
, 24

Transfer-appropriate processing
, 85, 86

Transforming Australia’s Higher Education System
, 7

Transmission
, 134

Transmission-based model of education
, 37

Twitter
, 161, 172, 175, 179, 181, 186, 222, 270, 274, 373

Ubiquitous learning
, 276

Udacity
, 115

Unistructural representation
, 108

United Kingdom

ICT curricula
, 6–7

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
, 262–263, 265

ICT Competency Framework for Teachers
, 8–9

United States (US)

Department of Education
, 10

SpeakUp 2015 survey
, 10–11

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
, 132–133

Universal Instructional Design (UID)
, 292

University of Colorado

PhET Interactive Simulation
, 99, 100

University of Kentucky

College of Medicine
, 338

University of Lincoln

Students as Producers
, 152

University of Michigan EDT514
, 20

University of Nottingham

Periodic Table of Videos
, 100

US Common Core State Standards
, 6

Utah State University

National Library of Virtual Manipulables
, 101

Vicarious learning
, 177, 371–372, 394–395

Videoconferencing
, 10

Video sharing
, 161–162

Virtual Learning Environment
, 139

Virtual world learning design recommendations

ability to transcend physicality
, 346

applications within scope of curriculum
, 344–345

cognitive load implications
, 346–347

fidelity
, 346

general pedagogical principles, applying
, 352

human anatomy, teaching of
, 338–340

integrating other tools
, 353

intended activity and pedagogy
, 347

modes of communication
, 349

navigational aids to support wayfinding
, 347–348

ongoing technical support, managing
, 353–354

pedagogical strategies to support collaboration, applying
, 350–351

professional learning opportunities
, 354

promoting and leveraging presence
, 352

rationale for using virtual worlds
, 348–349

reason to use virtual world
, 342–343

scaffolding and task instructions
, 348

spatial features of environment, learning and teaching enhanced by
, 351–352

spatial knowledge, developing
, 346

student background and interests
, 345

student, task, and institutional requirements
, 344

students as designers, leveraging
, 352–353

tactics to support effective interaction, applying
, 350

technological landscape and support, assessment of
, 343

training
, 349

Virtual worlds
, 10, 14, 305–355

defined
, 306–310

in education. See Virtual worlds in education

examples of
, 310–314

learning design recommendations. See Virtual world learning design recommendations

Virtual worlds in education

access to learning, providing
, 321–322

assessment
, 328–329, 335

benefits and potentials of
, 319–329

cognitive overload
, 332

collaboration constraints
, 332–333

collaborative learning, facilitating
, 321

communication
, 320–321, 332–333

community building
, 329

community engagement
, 329

cost of
, 337

distraction
, 334

embodiment and identity construction
, 322

fidelity
, 331

higher education
, 316–319

institutional support
, 337

motivating and engaging learners
, 327–328

negative educator dispositions
, 336

negative student dispositions
, 333–334

Open Sim, as architectural design environment for school students
, 340–342

presence, co-presence, and immersion
, 326–327

role-play, enabling
, 325–326

safety
, 334–335

in schools
, 314–316

simulation, enabling
, 323

situated and experiential learning, facilitating
, 326, 345

student construction and modeling, allowing
, 324–325

student technical skills
, 331–332

teacher technical skills
, 335–336

technical constraints of
, 330–331

3-D environments, representation of
, 322–323

time issues
, 336

Visual information
, 75–76

Visualization

approaches
, 143–145

tools
, 145, 149, 151

Visual realism
, 57

VisuwordsTM
, 99

Web 1.0
, 161

Web 2.0
, 14, 47, 88, 220, 262, 269–270, 306, 365, 409

attributes of
, 161

blogs
, 169–172

defined
, 161–162

enhanced learning, design of
, 159–208

examples of
, 162–163

learning design recommendation. See Web 2.0 learning design recommendation

microblogging
, 172

personal learning environments for school students, creating
, 189–193

small groups learning multiple Web 2.0 tools in higher education, supporting
, 193–194

types of
, 164–166

wikis
, 167–169

Web 2.0 in education
, 173–182

access extending bounds of classroom
, 175

assessment
, 181–182, 185

collaborative knowledge building
, 175–176

communication, enabling
, 174–175

community development
, 180–181

ease of use
, 180

feedback, facilitating
, 176–177

group work and collaboration issues
, 183–184

inappropriate task design
, 187–188

institutional and educational culture
, 188

motivation and engagement, enhancing
, 179–180

multimedia skills, developing
, 177–178

negative staff perceptions
, 187

negative student dispositions
, 184

peer feedback challenges
, 185

plagiarism
, 185–186

reflection, encouraging
, 178

safety and privacy
, 186–187

student digital skills
, 183

student misuse
, 186

student-centered learning, enabling
, 178–179

teacher digital skills
, 187

teacher support
, 188–189

technical constraints
, 182–183

vicarious learning, enabling
, 177

Web 2.0 learning design recommendations

assessment
, 205

authentic, integrated, and student-directed tasks
, 197

community building
, 199

contribution, encouraging
, 201–202

design for effective collaboration
, 198

engagement in learning process
, 201

high-quality peer feedback, encouraging
, 203–204

institutional support, understanding and leveraging
, 195

interface with other tools and course components
, 196–197

level of openness
, 195

motivation
, 200

plagiarism and student safety, management of
, 205–206

professional learning opportunities, utilizing
, 206

reflective thinking, encouraging
, 199

scaffolding
, 199–200

strategies to support group work process, applying
, 202–203

student’s prior knowledge and level of challenge
, 197–198

students digital learning capabilities, developing
, 200–201

tool selection based on representational and interactional requirements
, 195–196

Web 3.0
, 207

Web-conferencing
, 10

WeblogMatrix
, 170

Web logs. See Blogs

Weebly
, 22

WHEN2050
, 340–341

WikiMatrix
, 168

Wikipedia
, 45, 46

Wikis
, 161, 167–169, 188

Wikispaces
, 161, 167, 194

WordleTM
, 98

Wordpress
, 161, 170, 270

Working memory
, 39, 42, 76

Workspaces
, 306

World of Warcraft
, 306

YouTube
, 162, 172, 173, 270

Zone of Proximal Development
, 44

ZumoDrive
, 270